• Title, Summary, Keyword: Soybean protection

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Occurrence of Soybean Sleeping Blight Caused by Septogloeum sojae in Korea

  • Hong, Sung Kee;Choi, Hyo Won;Lee, Young Kee;Lee, Sang Yeob;Shim, Hong Sik
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.265-267
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    • 2012
  • Sleeping blight was observed on soybean plants grown in Yanggu, Suwon and Geumsan from 2005 to 2011. Symptoms developed on stems and pods of affected soybean plants. Five fungal isolates were obtained from the diseased plants and identified as Septogloeum sojae based on their morphological, cultural and molecular characteristics. Pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed on soybean plants by artificial inoculation. This is the first report of S. sojae causing sleeping blight in soybean plants in Korea.

Usage of Enzyme Substrate to Protect the Activities of Cellulase, Protease and α-Amylase in Simulations of Monogastric Animal and Avian Sequential Total Tract Digestion

  • Wang, H.T.;Hsu, J.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.8
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    • pp.1164-1173
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    • 2006
  • Cellulase from Aspergillus niger, (${\alpha}$-amylase from Bacillus sp. and protease from Bacillus globigii were used as enzyme sources in this study to examine how their respective substrates protect them in two kinds of simulated gastrointestinal tract digesting processes. Avian total digest tract simulation test showed that filter paper, Avicel and cellulose resulted in 7.7, 6.4 and 7.4 times more activity than of unprotected cellulose, respectively. Protease with addition of casein, gelatin or soybean protein showed no significant protection response. Starch protected amylase to be 2.5 times activity of the unprotected one. Monogastric animal total tract digestion simulation test showed that filter paper, Avicel and cellulose resulted in 5.9, 9.0 and 8.8 times activity of unprotected cellulase, respectively. Casein, gelatin and soybean protein resulted in 1.2, 1.3 and 2.0 times activity of unprotected protease, respectively. Starch did not protect amylase activity in monogastric animal total tract simulation. Protection of mixed enzymes by substrates in two animal total tract simulation tests showed that filter paper in combination with soybean protein resulted in 1.5 times activity of unprotected cellulose, but all substrates tested showed no significant protection effect to protease. Soybean protein and starch added at the same time protected the amylase activity to be two times of the unprotected one. Test of non-purified substrate protection in two animal total digest tract simulation showed that cellulase activity increased as BSA (bovine serum albumin) concentration increased, with the highest activity to be 1.3 times of unprotected enzyme. However, BSA showed no significant protection effect to protease. Amylase activity increased to 1.5 times as BSA added more than 1.5% (w/v). Cellulase activity increased to 1.5 times as soybean hull was added higher than 1.5%. Amylase had a significant protection response only when soybean hull added up to 2%. Protease activity was not protected by soybean hull to any significant extent.

Effects of Soybean Embryo on Liver Protection and Lipid Metabolism of Alcohol-Fed Rats

  • Lee, Jae-Seok;Kim, Hye-Yun;Park, Kap-Joo;Lee, Hyung-Hoan
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 2005
  • In this study, the ameliorating effect of soybean embryos on the impact of alcohol consumption was investigated on rat hepatocytes and in reducing total serum cholesterol levels and total serum lipid levels. Liver histology and two clinically important enzyme markers, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), of rats administered with both alcohol and soybean embryo were compared with a control group. The treatment regimen of soybean embryo significantly reduced the serum ALT and AST levels of the subjects, demonstrating the hepato-protective effects of soybean embryo. Electron microscopy indicated that the administration of soybean embryo preserved the important hepatocyte structures and prevented the presence of lipid droplets and secondary lysosomes. Furthermore, total cholesterol and total lipid levels were significantly reduced. These results indicate that treatment with soybean embryo can positively mediate the effects of alcohol on hepatocytes and general liver functions.

The Change of Peroxidase Activity in Soybean Seed Followed by Infection with Cercospora kikuchii (대두종자의 자반병 감염과 Peroxidase 활성도변화)

  • Park W.M.;Ko Y.H.;Yoo Y.J.;Lee J.Y.
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.23-26
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    • 1982
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the change of peroxidase activity of soybean seed infected with Cerrospora kikurhii. The protein content, polyphenol oxidase activity and peroxidase isozyme pattern in health and infected soybean seed were also compared. 1. The peroxidase activity was substantially higher in the infected soybean seeds than that in the healthy seeds either cracked or not. No significant differences in protein content were recognized among the seeds tested. 2. No significant differences in peroxidase activities and protein contents were notified between healthy and infected seeds from the measurements on each parts of dissected seeds, cotyledon and seedcoat, however the peroxidase activity in the seed coat of the stained seed was 2.5 times to healthy seed. 3. The activities of polyphenel oxidase were undectable in both healthy and diseased seeds. 4. The electrophoretic Patterns of the Peroridase isozyme were the same between healthy and in footed seed. 5. Therefore, the increase of peroxidase activity in infected soybean seedcoat was mainly due to the biochemical reaction against the pathogen.

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Studies on the Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) in China

  • Liu, Wei-Zhi;Liu, Ye;Duan, Yu-Xi;Hong, Quan-Chun;Wang, Ke-Ning
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 1995
  • Soybean has been cultivated in China for 5,000 years. The soybean cyst neamtode (SCN), Heterodra glycines, was recongnized in Northeastern China in 1899. Currently, it is known to occur in 12 provinces. The biology of SCN was investigated in several provinces. Six races of SCN were identified (race 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7). About f10,000 soybean germplasm lines were evaluated for their resistance to race 1, 3, 4 and 5 of SCN. At least two black-seeded cultivars are resistant to all four races. Several tolerant soybean cultivars with yellow seed coat were released and are in production. Additional resistant cultivars are being developed. Nematicides were not applied in production Potential biocontrol agents and related aspects are being investigated.

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Establishment of Economic Threshold by Evaluation of Yield Component and Yield Damages Caused by Leaf Spot Disease of Soybean (콩 점무늬병(Cercospora sojina Hara) 피해해석에 의한 경제적 방제수준 설정)

  • Shim, Hongsik;Lee, Jong-Hyeong;Lee, Yong-Hwan;Myung, Inn-Shik;Choi, Hyo-Won
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.196-200
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to investigate yield loss due to soybean leaf spot disease caused by Cercospora sojina Hara and to determine the economic threshold level. The investigations revealed highly significant correlations between disease severity (diseased leaf area) and yield components (pod number per plant, total grain number per plant, total grain weight per plant, percent of ripened grain, weight of hundred seed, and yield). The correlation coefficients between leaf spot severity and each component were -0.90, -0.90, -0.92, -0.99, -0.90 and -0.94, respectively. The yield was inversely proportional to the diseased leaf area increased. The regression equation, yield prediction model, between disease severity (x) and yield (y) was obtained as y = -3.7213x + 354.99 ($R^2$ = 0.9047). Based on the yield prediction model, economic injury level and economic threshold level could be set as 3.3% and 2.6% of diseased leaf area of soybean.

Seed Transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in White Soybean (Glycine max)

  • Kil, Eui-Joon;Park, Jungho;Choi, Hong-Soo;Kim, Chang-Seok;Lee, Sukchan
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.424-428
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    • 2017
  • Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infection of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been reported, but soybean (Glycine max) has not previously been identified as a TYLCV host. Five cultivars of white soybean were agro-inoculated using an infectious TYLCV clone. At 30 days post-inoculation, they showed infection rates of 25% to 100%. Typical TYLCV symptoms were not observed in any inoculated plants. To examine whether TYLCV was transmitted in soybean seeds, DNA was isolated from bundles of five randomly selected seeds from TYLCV-inoculated soybean plants and amplified with a TYLCV-specific primer set. With the exception of one bundle, all bundles of seeds were verified to be TYLCV-infected. Virus dissemination was also confirmed in three of the 14 bunches. Viral replication was also identified in seeds and seedlings. This is the first report demonstrating that soybean is a TYLCV host, and that TYLCV is a seed-transmissible virus in white soybean.

Effects of soybean supplementation on blood glucose, plasma lipid levels, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

  • Chang, Ji-Ho;Kim, Min-Sun;Kim, Tae-Wha;Lee, Sang-Sun
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.152-157
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean on blood glucose and lipid concentrations, and antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM) patients. We divided patients into two groups and fed them, respectively, a basal diet(control group) and a basal diet with 69 g/d of soybean(soybean group) for 4 weeks. Pills with roasted soybean powder were provided to the soybean supplementation group three times a day. Macronutrients intake except dietary fiber was similar between the two groups. No significant differences were observed in dietary intakes or body weight before and after the supplementation. Energy composition ratio of C:F:P was 65:19:16 in the control group, 64:20:16 in the soybean group. The blood parameters of subjects before supplementation, such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial glucose level, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and $HbA_1C$ were not different between the two groups. After supplementation, fasting blood glucose(p<0.001), postprandial glucose level(p<0.001) and serum triglyceride level(p<0.05) were significantly reduced in the soybean group in comparison with the control group. The total cholesterol level was not significantly different between the control and the supplemented group after 4 weeks of treatment. TBARS levels of the soybean group were not significantly different from those of the control group. The activities of catalase(p<0.01) and glutathione peroxidase(p<0.05) were significantly higher in the soybean group compared to the control group. The results of this study suggest that soybean supplementation would be helpful to control blood glucose and serum lipid in diabetic patients. Also, soybean showed an antioxidant activity that may contribute to enhance the effect of antioxidant defense. This activity contributes to protection against oxidative damage in type 2 DM patients. Soybean may have potential use in the disease management of patients with DM.