• Title, Summary, Keyword: Spatial Distribution

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Assessing the Appropriateness of the Spatial Distribution of Standard Lots Using the L-index

  • Lee, Sang-Kyeong;Lee, Byoungkil
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography
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    • v.31 no.6_2
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    • pp.601-609
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    • 2013
  • Standard lots, which are used to assess values of individual lots in Korea, have been criticized for their improper distribution. However, there has been very little evaluation for the spatial distribution of standard lots, and an evaluation method has never been developed. In order to overcome this situation, we attempt to assess the appropriateness of the spatial distribution of standard lots using the L-index and Monte Carlo simulation. The L-index is a well-known indicator of the complete spatial randomness (CSR) of points in spatial statistics. If the L-index of standard lots is similar to that of individual lots, the former is considered to be randomly distributed according to the latter. By analyzing L-indices of two study areas, Gangnam and Seongdong, we find a statistically significant difference in Gangnam area and a relatively small difference in Seongdong area. We confirm that the spatial distribution of standard lots is not CSR and that the L-index is useful as an evaluation method. These results suggest that the standard lot selection and management guidelines need to be modified to apply the spatial distribution of individual lots to the standard lot selection process.

Pedestrian Distribution in High-Rise Commercial Complexes: An Analysis of Integrating Spatial and Functional Factors

  • Xu, Leiqing;Xia, Zhengwei
    • International Journal of High-Rise Buildings
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 2016
  • One of the key problems in the design of high-rise commercial complex is how to guide reasonable pedestrian distribution in commercial space. In this study, pedestrian distribution in three high-rise commercial complexes in Shanghai and Hong Kong was studied using spatial configuration analysis software Space Syntax and quantification of physical elements in commercial spaces, such as functional attractiveness, entrances, escalators, level variations and passage width. Additionally, in an attempt to integrate functions with spatial integration and spatial depth, two combination variables, the spatial coefficient of function (IF) and spatial depth coefficient of function (F/D), were proposed. The results of the correlation analysis and multiple regression analyses reflected the following: (1) Regarding the influence on pedestrian distribution, there was a synergistic and complementary relationship between function and space; (2) The comprehensive flow distribution analytic model could successfully interpret flow distribution in high-rise commercial complexes and its R Square ranged up to about 70% in the three cases; (3) The spatial coefficient of function (IF) and spatial depth coefficient (F/D) could effectively integrate functions and spatial configuration, which could help close the gap between over-emphasis on function in commercial research and the lack of consideration of function in space-syntax analysis.

Development of Diode Based High Energy X-ray Spatial Dose Distribution Measuring Device

  • Lee, Jeonghee;Kim, Ikhyun;Park, Jong-Won;Lim, Yong-Kon;Moon, Myungkook;Lee, Sangheon;Lim, Chang Hwy
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.97-106
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    • 2018
  • Background: A cargo container scanner using a high-energy X-ray generates a fan beam X-ray to acquire a transmitted image. Because the generated X-rays by LINAC may affect the image quality and radiation protection of the system, it is necessary to acquire accurate information about the generated X-ray beam distribution. In this paper, a diode-based multi-channel spatial dose measuring device for measuring the X-ray dose distribution developed for measuring the high energy X-ray beam distribution of the container scanner is described. Materials and Methods: The developed high-energy X-ray spatial dose distribution measuring device can measure the spatial distribution of X-rays using 128 diode-based X-ray sensors. And precise measurement of the beam distribution is possible through automatic positioning in the vertical and horizontal directions. The response characteristics of the measurement system were evaluated by comparing the signal gain difference of each pixel, response linearity according to X-ray incident dose change, evaluation of resolution, and measurement of two-dimensional spatial beam distribution. Results and Discussion: As a result, it was found that the difference between the maximum value and the minimum value of the response signal according to the incident position showed a difference of about 10%, and the response signal was linearly increased. And it has been confirmed that high-resolution and two-dimensional measurements are possible. Conclusion: The developed X-ray spatial dose measuring device was evaluated as suitable for dose measurement of high energy X-ray through confirmation of linearity of response signal, spatial uniformity, high resolution measuring ability and ability to measure spatial dose. We will perform precise measurement of the X-ray beamline in the container scanning system using the X-ray spatial dose distribution measuring device developed through this research.

A study on evaluating the spatial distribution of satellite image classification error

  • Kim, Yong-Il;Lee, Byoung-Kil;Chae, Myung-Ki
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.213-217
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    • 1998
  • This study overviews existing evaluation methods of classification accuracy using confusion matrix proposed by Cohen in 1960's, and proposes ISDd(Index of Spatial Distribution by distance) and ISDs(Index of Spatial Distribution by scatteredness) for the evaluation of spatial distribution of satellite image classification errors, which has not been tried yet. Index of spatial distribution offers the basis of decision on adoption/rejection of classification results at sub-image level by evaluation of distribution, such as status of local aggregation of misclassified pixels. So, users can understand the spatial distribution of misclassified pixels and, can have the basis of judgement of suitability and reliability of classification results.

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The Influence of Distribution Characteristics of Compression Index on the Spatial Distribution of Consolidation Settlements (압축지수분포 특성이 압밀침하량 분포에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Hee;Kim, Min-Tae;Kim, Kyu-Sun;Lee, Woo-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.76-80
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    • 2010
  • This paper describes that estimation methods for the distribution of consolidation settlements to investigate the influence of distribution characteristics of compression index on the spatial distribution of consolidation settlements. When the variation of compression index is considerable, the spatial distribution of compression index is estimated using ordinary cokriging. The spatial distribution of consolidation settlements estimated by considering both the variation of compression index and void ratio (CASE-1) is different from the conventional mean value of all soil properties (CASE-2). The settlement of CASE-1 shows the larger variation at short distances rather than that of CASE-2. Whereas the spatial settlement distribution of CASE-1 is affected by the spatial distribution of compression index and the thickness of consolidation layer, the distribution of CASE-2 is significantly influenced by the distribution of the thickness of consolidation layer.

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Structural damage distribution induced by Wenchuan Earthquake on 12th May, 2008

  • Jia, Junfeng;Song, Nianhua;Xu, Zigang;He, Zizhao;Bai, Yulei
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.93-109
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    • 2015
  • Based on the reconnaissance of buildings in Dujiangyan City during 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China, structural damage characteristics and the spatial distribution of structural damage are investigated, and the possible reasons for the extraordinary features are discussed with consideration of the influence of urban historical evolution and spatial variation of earthquake motions. Firstly, the urban plan and typical characteristics of structural seismic damage are briefly presented and summarized. Spatial distribution of structural damage is then comparatively analyzed by classifying all surveyed buildings in accordance with different construction age, considering the influence of seismic design code on urban buildings. Finally, the influences of evolution of seismic design code, topographic condition, local site and distance from fault rupture on spatial distribution of structural damage are comprehensively discussed. It is concluded that spatial variation of earthquake motions, resulting from topography, local site effect and fault rupture, are very important factor leading to the extraordinary spatial distribution of building damage except the evolution of seismic design codes. It is necessary that the spatial distribution of earthquake motions should be considered in seismic design of structures located in complicated topography area and near active faults.

The Qualifications for the Application of the Rainfall Spatial Distribution Analysis Technique (강우량 공간분포 분석기법의 적용조건에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang Sye-Woon;Park Seung-Woo;Cho Young-Kyoung
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.943-947
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    • 2005
  • This study was intended to interpose an objection about the analysis of rainfall spatial distribution without a proper standard, and offer the improved approach using 1,he geostatistical analysis method to analyze it. For this, spatially distributed daily rainfall data sets were collected for 41 weather stations in study area, and variogram and correlation analysis were conducted. In the results of correlation analysis, it was found that the longer distance between the stations reduces the correlation of the rainfall data, and maltes the characteristics of the rainfall spatial distribution. The variogram analysis shows that correlation range was less than 50 km for the 17 daily rainfall data sets of total 91 sets. It says that it involves some rike, to determine the application method for rainfall spatial distribution without some qualifications, hence the Application standards of the Rainfall Spatial Distribution Analysis Technique, were essential and that was contingent on characteristics of rainfall and landscape.

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Identifying Spatial Distribution Pattern of Water Quality in Masan Bay Using Spatial Autocorrelation Index and Pearson's r (공간자기상관 지수와 Pearson 상관계수를 이용한 마산만 수질의 공간분포 패턴 규명)

  • Choi, Hyun-Woo;Park, Jae-Moon;Kim, Hyun-Wook;Kim, Young-Ok
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.391-400
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    • 2007
  • To identify the spatial distribution pattern of water quality in Masan Bay, Pearson's correlation as a common statistic method and Moran's I as a spatial autocorrelation statistics were applied to the hydrological data seasonally collected from Masan Bay for two years ($2004{\sim}2005$). Spatial distribution of salinity, DO and silicate among the hydrological parameters clustered strongly while chlorophyll a distribution displayed a weak clustering. When the similarity matrix of Moran's I was compared with correlation matrix of Pearson's r, only the relationships of temperature vs. salinity, temperature vs. silicate and silicate vs. total inorganic nitrogen showed significant correlation and similarity of spatial clustered pattern. Considering Pearson's correlation and the spatial autocorrelation results, water quality distribution patterns of Masan Bay were conceptually simplified into four types. Based on the simplified types, Moran's I and Pearson's r were compared respectively with spatial distribution maps on salinity and silicate with a strong clustered pattern, and with chlorophyll a having no clustered pattern. According to these test results, spatial distribution of the water quality in Masan Bay could be summed up in four patterns. This summation should be developed as spatial index to be linked with pollutant and ecological indicators for coastal health assessment.

The Spatial Distribution of Quercus mongolica and Its Association with Other Tree Species in Two Quercus mongolica Stands in Mt. Jiri, Korea

  • Jang, Woong-Soon;Park, Pil-Sun;Han, Ah-Reum;Kim, Kyung-Youn;Kim, Myung-Pil;Park, Hak-Ki
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.67-77
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    • 2010
  • Stand structure and spatial associations of the dominant tree species in Quercus mongolica stands were investigated to understand interspecific relationships and the persistent dominance of Q. mongolica. We examined the species composition, DBH (diameter at breast height) distribution, and spatial distribution of trees (${\geq}\;2.5\;cm$ DBH) in two permanent $100\;m\;{\times}\;100\;m$ plots in Q. mongolica-dominant stands on the western part of Mt. Jiri. Ripley's K-function was used to characterize the spatial patterns and associations of dominant tree species. Q. mongolica showed a continuous and reverse-J shaped DBH distribution with clumped spatial distribution in both study sites. Q. mongolica and Abies koreana exhibited a negative association implying potential interspecific competition. The positive spatial association between Q. mongolica and Alnus hirsuta var. sibirica and Fraxinus sieboldiana were affected by site characteristics: limited habitat conditions with a large proportion of rock surface. Our results suggest that interactions among species were complex and ranged from positive to negative. Differences in stand and site characteristics and regeneration mechanisms among the species play an important role in regulating their spatial distribution patterns, while competition between individuals also contributes to spatial patterning of these communities. The high density and the early developmental stage of spatial distribution and structural characteristics of Q. mongolica and the relatively low importance values of other species in the stands imply that Q. mongolica will remain dominant in the study sites in the near future.

The Temporal and Spatial Distribution Analysis of Red Tide using GIS (GIS를 이용한 적조의 시-공간적 분포 분석)

  • Jeong Jong-chul
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.253-260
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study is to analyze the temporal and spatial distribution aspects of red tide using GIS techniques. The damage caused by red tide appears various aspects according to the species, concentration and spatial distribution of red tide plankton. Therefore, in order to prevent the damage of red tide it is important to understand the distribution characteristics of red tide by each species according to time and space. In this perspective, we analyzed the beginning outbreak area, spatial occurrence frequency and spatial migration of red tide. The spatial data used by this study was constructed by digitizing the red tide quick report and coupled with various attributes such as species, concentration and water temperature for construction of red tide database. We used various spatial analysis methods such as union, intersect, tracking, buffer and spatial interpolation for analyzing temporal and spatial characteristics of red tide. From the result of these spatial analyses, we could get the spatial information on the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of red tide at the Southern Sea.

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