• Title, Summary, Keyword: Spatial Weight

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The Effects of Neighborhood Segmentation on the Adequacy of a Spatial Regression Model (인근지역 범위 설정이 공간회귀모형 적합에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Chang Ro;Park, Key Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.978-993
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    • 2013
  • It can be advantage as well as disadvantage to use the spatial weight matrix in a spatial regression model; it would benefit from explicitly quantifying spatial relationships between geographical units, but necessarily involve subjective judgment while specifying the matrix. We took Incheon City as a study area and investigated how the fitness of a spatial regression model changed by constructing various spatial weight matrices. In addition, we explored neighborhood segmentation in the study area and analyzed any influence of it on the model adequacy of two basic spatial regression models, i.e., spatial lagged and spatial error models. The results showed that it can help to improve the adequacy of models to specify the spatial weight matrix strictly, that is, interpreting the neighborhood as small as possible when estimating land price. It was also found that the spatial error model would be preferred in the area with serious spatial heterogeneity. In such area, we found that its spatial heterogeneity can be alleviated by delineating sub-neighborhoods, and as a result, the spatial lagged model would be preferred over the spatial error model.

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Effect of Weight Loads Applied to the Ankle on Walking Factors of a Stroke Patient (발목에 적용한 무게 부하가 뇌졸중 환자의 보행요소에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Su-Kyoung
    • PNF and Movement
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the visual and spatial elements of the gait of a stroke patient who had diverse ankle weight loads applied, according to weight changes. Methods: The subject was a 57-year-old stroke patient diagnosed and hospitalized with a left intracerebral hemorrhage. A weight equivalent to 0%, 1%, and 2% of his body weight was applied to the area 5cm upward from the ankle using a Velcro strap. He was then trained on a treadmill, receiving a six-minute walk test to evaluate his gait ability. A gait analyzer was used to collect visual and spatial elements, such as gait distance, gait velocity, cadence, step length, stride length, and swing phase, according to a weight load equivalent to 0%, 1%, and 2% of his body weight. Results: According to the results of applying 0%, 1%, and 2% of his body weight on the ankle, except for gait velocity, his gait distance, cadence, step length, stride length, and swing phase were higher when 1% of his body weight was applied compared to 0% or 2% of his body weight. Conclusion: Applying a weight equivalent to 1% of the body weight to the ankle positively affected the visual and spatial element of the gait and heightened the efficiency of exercise during treadmill training, a gait-training tool generally used for stroke patients. However, the result is difficult to generalize because the number of subjects was small with only one subject.

A Study on the Weight Lightening Algorithm of 3-Dimensional Large Object based on Spatial Data LOD (공간데이터 LOD 기반 3차원 대용량 객체의 경량화 알고리즘 연구)

  • Na, Joon Yeop;Hong, Chang Hee
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2013
  • Recently, Construction information is being changed from CAD to BIM, and GIS is extending from outdoor to indoor information. In these circumstances, the needs of continuous use of construction information linked with GIS are growing constantly in stages of maintenance, operation and service as well as planning, design and construction. To this end, it is essential element to represent 3-dimensional large object efficiently in establishing BIM-GIS interoperability platform by combination of construction and spatial information. In this study, we design spatial data LOD for making spatial object and texture by level, and develop weight lightening algorithm of large spatial object.

On a Modified k-spatial Medians Clustering

  • Jhun, Myoungshic;Jin, Seohoon
    • Journal of the Korean Statistical Society
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.247-260
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    • 2000
  • This paper is concerned with a modification of the k-spatial medians clustering. To find a suitable number of clusters, the number k of clusters is incorporated into the k-spatial medians clustering criterion through a weight function. Proposed method for the choice of the weight function offers a reasonable number of clusters. Some theoretical properties of the method are investigated along with some examples.

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Precision Analysis of the STOMP(FW) Algorithm According to the Spatial Conceptual Hierarchy (공간 개념 계층에 따른 STOMP(FW) 알고리즘의 정확도 분석)

  • Lee, Yon-Sik;Kim, Young-Ja;Park, Sung-Sook
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.11 no.12
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    • pp.5015-5022
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    • 2010
  • Most of the existing pattern mining techniques are capable of searching patterns according to the continuous change of the spatial information of an object but there is no constraint on the spatial information that must be included in the extracted pattern. Thus, the existing techniques are not applicable to the optimal path search between specific nodes or path prediction considering the nodes that a moving object is required to round during a unit time. In this paper, the precision of the path search according to the spatial hierarchy is analyzed using the Spatial-Temporal Optimal Moving Pattern(with Frequency & Weight) (STOPM(FW)) algorithm which searches for the optimal moving path by considering the most frequent pattern and other weighted factors such as time and cost. The result of analysis shows that the database retrieval time is minimized through the reduction of retrieval range applying with the spatial constraints. Also, the optimal moving pattern is efficiently obtained by considering whether the moving pattern is included in each hierarchical spatial scope of the spatial hierarchy or not.

Prediction of apartment prices per unit in Daegu-Gyeongbuk areas by spatial regression models (공간회귀모형을 이용한 대구경북 지역 단위면적당 아파트 매매가격 예측)

  • Lee, Woo Jung;Park, Cheolyong
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.561-568
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    • 2015
  • In this study we predict apartment prices per unit in Daegu-Gyeongbuk areas by spatial lag and spatial error models, both of which belong to so-called spatial regression model. A spatial weight matrix is constructed by k-nearest neighbours method and then the models for the apartment prices in March, 2012 are fitted using the weight matrix. The apartment prices in March, 2013 are predicted by the fitted spatial regression models and then performances of two spatial regression models are compared by RMSE (root mean squared error), RRMSE (root relative mean squared error), MAE (mean absolute error).

Effect of spatial factors on subjective responses to heavy-weight floor impact noise (중량충격음의 주관적 반응에 대한 공간음향요소의 영향)

  • Lee, Pyoung-Jik;Kim, Jae-Ho;Yoo, Seung-Yup;Sato, Shin-Ichi;Jeon, Jin-Yong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.960-963
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    • 2007
  • The effect of spatial factors on subjective responses to heavy-weight floor impact noise was investigated. Heavy-weight impact noises were generated and recorded in several apartments and a testing building using impact ball and binaural microphone to measure IACC of the noises. Just noticeable differences (JNDs) of IACC and SPL of heavy-weight impact noise were also investigated. Auditory experiments were conducted using method of limit. It was found that the JNDs of IACC and SPL were 0.12 and 1.5dB, respectively. Contribution of IACC and SPL to annoyance of heavy-weight floor impact noise is being further investigated.

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A Comparative Study on Spatial Lattice Data Analysis - A Case Where Outlier Exists - (공간 격자데이터 분석에 대한 우위성 비교 연구 - 이상치가 존재하는 경우 -)

  • Kim, Su-Jung;Choi, Seung-Bae;Kang, Chang-Wan;Cho, Jang-Sik
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.193-204
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    • 2010
  • Recently, researchers of the various fields where the spatial analysis is needed have more interested in spatial statistics. In case of data with spatial correlation, methodologies accounting for the correlation are required and there have been developments in methods for spatial data analysis. Lattice data among spatial data is analyzed with following three procedures: (1) definition of the spatial neighborhood, (2) definition of spatial weight, and (3) the analysis using spatial models. The present paper shows a spatial statistical analysis method superior to a general statistical method in aspect estimation by using the trimmed mean squared error statistic, when we analysis the spatial lattice data that outliers are included. To show validation and usefulness of contents in this paper, we perform a small simulation study and show an empirical example with a criminal data in BusanJin-Gu, Korea.

A Study on the 3-Dimensional Spatial Visibility Features Reflecting the Path use Behaviour (경로이용행태를 가중한 공간의 3차원 시지각 특성 분석기술)

  • Kim, Suk-Tae
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.108-116
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    • 2015
  • The probability of visual perception occurrence varies in case the expectation of using each unit space of which the whole space consists because the size of space subject to analysis is very large or the organization is complicated in the analysis of spatial visual configuration. Therefore, it is necessary to compensate space analysis and index measurement by applying weight to the point of view for the probability of experiencing space. This study proposed a method of analyzing visibility ratio by applying the integration of space syntax theory as weight, and grasped the effect in comparison with the visibility ratio when weight was not applied.

A Form-finding Technique for Three-dimensional Spatial Structures

  • Lee, Sang Jin
    • Architectural research
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 2013
  • A form-finding technique is proposed for three-dimensional spatial structures. Two-step discrete finite element (FE) mesh generator based on computer aided geometric design (CAGD) is introduced and used to control the shape of three-dimensional spatial structures. Mathematical programming technique is adopted to search new forms (or shapes) of spatial structures. For this purpose, the strain energy is introduced as the objective function to be minimized and the initial volume (or the initial weight) is considered as constraint function. Numerical examples are carried out to test the capability of the proposed form-finding techniques and provided as benchmark tests.