• Title, Summary, Keyword: Specific cake resistance

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A Study on the Factors Affecting Cake Filtration (케이크 여과에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구)

  • 장재선
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to investigate the change of average specific resistance according to filtration pressure, suspension concentration and filters for study phenomena occurring in cake filtration. As the results of this study, the following conclusions were obtained. It was estimated that the average specific resistance of filtration Was decreased in proportion to decreased of filtration pressure. But in very pressure, average specific resistance was increased. The average specific resistance value on filter medium by various pressure was showed as same trends under constant suspension concentration. This phenomenon was though that a carrain amount of fine particles in the cake was found to migrate throught the cake in the case of very thin at very low pressure. In relation to the change of suspension concentration, average specific resistance value become low according to decreased in supension concentration.

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Effect of sludge concentration on sludge dewaterability and cake clogging analysis (슬러지의 탈수성(脫水性)에 대한 농도(濃度)의 영향(影響)과 케이크 폐색현상(閉塞現象)의 해석(解析))

  • Kwon, Jae Hyun;Park, Chung Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.85-95
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    • 1996
  • Although the specific resistance to filtration is the most frequently employed means for characterizing dewaterability of a sludge, it presently is not possible to design nor to prediet performance of dewatering facilities using traditional linearized parabolic filtration equation, that is, the specific resistance model because of theoretical and practical inadequacies of the concept. Limitations of the specific resistance model reflect the need to examine fundamental sludge properties and filtration behaviors affecting dewaterability. From this study, two major limitations of the specific resistance model were noted. First, specific resistance values are very dependent on the sludge concentration because of the variations of particle size distribution and cake clogging to occur when surface area mean diameter is less than $25{\mu}m$ for activated sludge, $18{\mu}m$ for water treatment plant sludge. Second, nonparabolic filtration behavior can result from cake clogging, caused by the migration of fine particles into the cake pores, accelated by skin effect with highly compressible sludges.

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Changes of Average Specific Resistance on Suspension Concentration (현탁액의 농도에 다른 여과 현균비저항값의 변화)

  • 장재선
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.12-20
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to investigate the change of average .specific resistance according to suspension concentration for study phenomena occurring during filtration period. As the results of this study, the following conclusions were obtained. The average specific resistance in 1% $CaCO_3$ suspension was showed power function(R=0.99), whereas in TOYO 5C and TOYO 5A paper were made little difference under high pressure. It represented from results that filtration theory in concord with cake filtration was no affected the average specific resistance of filter medium in cake filtration. In case of 0.1% $CaCO_3$ suspension filtration, the TOYO 5C was showed power function, whereas in TOYO 5A paper differently. In the present study, the $P_1$ value was calculated from the average specific resistance by filtration method. Therefore, $P_1$ value were $1.68\times 10^4Pa$, $4.05\times 10^3Pa$, and $3.15\times 10^3Pa$ in $5.3\times 10^4Pa$, $1.3\times 10^4Pa$, and $8.2\times 10^3Pa$, respectively. We concluded that propriety of new filtration theory was also proved.

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Filtration with Sedimentation II: New Analysis and Solid Mass Fraction of Suspension Entering Cake (침전이 수반되는 케이크 여과 II: 새로운 분석과 케이크에 도입되는 현탁액의 고체 질량분율)

  • Yim, Sung Sam
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.535-544
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    • 2012
  • Filtration on horizontal filter medium facing upward is accompanied by sedimentation. When sedimentation phenomenon is not considered, the average specific cake resistance by filtration could be in error more than two times. In the previous paper on this subject, it was insisted that the solid mass fraction of suspension changes in filtration period by sedimentation. But we could not find out the degree of change. At the first half of this paper, the average specific cake resistance measured by permeation will be proved to be exact in several means. The average specific cake resistance conventionally measured by filtration does not give correct results because it uses initial solid mass fraction of suspension. Then we calculated the changed solid mass fraction of suspension due to sedimentation during filtration by the experimental values obtained "filtration-permeation" method. We also determined the solid mass fraction at a certain moment of filtration from the suspension height and a new equation derived in this study. The two results were compared and proven that they almost matched.

Experimental Analysis on Filtration-Permeation: Influence of the Type and Sheets of Filter Media, and Filtration Pressure (여과-투과에 대한 실험적 분석: 여과매체의 종류, 여과매체의 매수, 여과압력의 영향)

  • Yim, Sung-Sam;Song, Yun-Min
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.317-327
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    • 2012
  • The average specific cake resistance, the most important indicator for cake filtration and solid-liquid separation, is measured by filtration experiment. But the exact value is difficult to measure because of the other influences such as sedimentation during filtration. This study, a little more stable method named filtration-permeation is proposed for measuring average specific cake resistance. The filtration-permeation is composed of permeation of particle eliminated water through pre-formed cake by filtration. Using 1 wt% calcium carbonate suspension, the filtration-permeation experiments were performed for 8 kinds of filter media at the conditions of 0.5 atm and 0.2 atm, 1 and 3 sheets of filter media. At each specific condition, three to five times filtration-permeation were accomplished. As a result, stable permeation speed is measured. According to this experimental result, the characteristics of permeation and the effect of sedimentation are analyzed with Ruth's equation. The one way analysis of variance (one way ANOVA) is applied to the average specific cake resistances of filtration and permeation obtained with the selected three kinds of filter media. The average specific cake resistances between 0.5 atm and 0.2 atm by filtration do not distinguished, but those by permeation is perfectly distinguished. The experimental results during permeation have a very narrow distribution than that measured during filtration. The analysis of filtration experiments, it was verified that the resistance of filter medium by traditional method is of no significance. Finally, the migration of small particles through the medium composed of fiber glass at low pressure was studied.

Specific Resistance (K2´) of Dust Layer Deposited on Porous Media (다공성 필터에서의 여과 분진층 비저항 연구)

  • 이선희;이경미;조영민
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.371-380
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    • 2004
  • In the dust separation by using porous filter media, the structure of dust layer deposited on the filter surface of filter medium directly affects the effective filtration. The present study has investigated the specific resistance (K$_2$') of the dust layer and its porosity ($\varepsilon$$_{c}$) for three different filters; FA composite filter, metal fiber filter and stainless filter. The specific resistance (K$_2$') increased and at the same time the cake porosity ($\varepsilon$$_{c}$) decreased with the increase of filtration velocity, possibly due to the compressible effect of dust layer. However, under the low dust concentration, subsequent dust particles would block the open channels through the layer resulting in high specific resistance of the layer. The FA composite filter among three filters was shown to be the most effective filter for dust cake filtration at low filtration velocities less than 0.1 m/s for an approximate dust concentration of 5 g/㎥.

ESTIMATION OF CAKE FORMATION ON MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANE SURFACE USING ZETA POTENTIAL

  • Alayemieka, Erewari;Lee, Seock-Heon;Oh, Jeong-Ik
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 2006
  • A simple empirical model with good quantitative prediction of inter-particle and intra-particle distance in a cake layer with respect to ionic strength was developed. The model is an inverse length scale with functions of interaction energy and hydrodynamic factor and it explains that the inter-particle and intra-particle distance in a cake is directly related to the effective size of particles. Particle compressibility with respect to ionic strength was also predicted by the model. The model corroborated very well with experimental results of polystyrene microsphere latex particles microfiltation in a dead end operation. From the results of the model, specific cake resistance could be controlled by the same variables affecting the height of particle energy barrier described by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory.

Membrane Fouling Effect with Organic-Inorganic Materials Using the Membrane Separation in Drinking Water Treatment Process (분리막을 이용한 정수처리공정에서 유, 무기물질이 막오염에 끼치는 영향)

  • 이용택;오중교
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.219-228
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried to investigate the effect of humic acid and kaloin which cause the turbidity and organic substance component for optimization of drinking water treatment process using the membrane separation. Also we were ovserved the optimum operating condition which flux was stabilized, while specific resistance value in membrane was minimized. As the result, the membrane separation was operated at low specific resistance value with the increase of the pressure. And then, cake load decreased by high velocity with the increase of the linear velocity, and the tendency in which specific resistance value and flux increased. Therefore, we confirmed the optimum operating condition as pressure $2.0 kgf/cm^2,$ 0.92 m/sec linear velocity.

Impacts of sludge retention time on membrane fouling in thermophilic MBR

  • Ince, Mahir;Topaloglu, Alikemal
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.245-253
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    • 2018
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the membrane fouling in a thermophilic membrane bioreactor (TMBR) operated different sludge retention times (SRTs). For this purpose, TMBR was operated at four different SRTs (10, 30, 60 and 100 days). Specific cake resistance (${\alpha}$), cake resistance, gel resistance, total resistance, MFI (modified fouling index) and FDR (flux decrease ratio) were calculated for all SRTs. It was observed that flux in the membrane increases with rising SRT although the sludge concentrations in the TMBR increased. The steady state flux was found to be 31.78; 34.70; 39.60 and 43.70 LMH ($Liter/m^2/h$) for the SRTs of 10, 30, 60 and 100 days respectively. The concentrations of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and soluble microbial product (SMP) decreased with increasing SRT. The membrane fouling rate was higher at shorter SRT and the highest fouling rate appeared at an SRT of 10 d. Both the sludge cake layer and gel layer had contribution to the fouling resistance, but the gel layer resistance value was dominant in all SRTs.

Study on the Total Analyses of Cake Filtration with Filtration-Permeation Method (여과-투과 방법에 의한 케이크 여과의 전체적인 해석)

  • Yim, Sung-Sam;Song, Yun-Min
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.74-81
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    • 2007
  • Using the new experimental method named "filtration-permeation", the average specific resistances which plays an important role in designing cake filtration apparatus and the development of cake filtration theory were measured in this study. By this new experimental method, two kinds of average specific resistances are measured. The one from the filtration is named 'filtration average specific resistance $\alpha_{avf}$, and the other from the permeation of particle eliminated water through the pre-formed cake is named 'permeation average specific resistance $\alpha_{avf}$. The "filtration-permeation" method is applied to three different kind of suspensions(i.e. particulate suspension, pre-flocculated suspension and macro-molecule suspension) to obtain filtration and permeation average specific resistances. A theoretical procedure of cake filtration is studied based on the values of permeation average specific resistance. With the study it was concluded that the influence of the sedimentation during particlulate filtration operation could not be ignored as commonly used. And the solid content of suspension, S, which also regarded usually as constant, changes during filtration of particles. It is also verified that the exact value of solid content of cake for floe filtration could not be obtained. These significant problems are all solved by our new "filtration-permeation" experimental method.