• Title, Summary, Keyword: Spectrum Efficiency

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A Novel Definition of Spectrum Holes for Improved Spectrum Utilization Efficiency

  • Li, Xiaoqiang;Zhou, Qi;Dai, Hui;Zhang, Jie;Li, Ying
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.749-761
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    • 2014
  • Improving spectrum utilization efficiency is a fundamental goal of dynamic spectrum access technology. The definition of spectrum holes determines how to detect and exploit them. Current definitions of spectrum holes are ineffective in exploiting spatial-temporal spectrum holes. In this paper, a novel definition of spectrum holes is proposed, in which throughput loss indicates the impact of secondary users on primary users. The definition specifies spectrum holes, unifies the impact of secondary users on primary users and is effective exploiting spatial-temporal spectrum holes. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the new definition proposed in this paper significantly improves the spectrum utilization efficiency.

Measurement of Spectrum Utilization Efficiency Considering Spectrum Sharing (주파수 공유를 고려한 전파자원 이용효율 측정 방안)

  • Kim, Taehan;Park, Hyun-Min;Sung, Ki Won
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.589-597
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    • 2014
  • The increasing demand for various mobile telecommunication services calls for more spectrum resource. Considering the scarcity of spectrum resource and the difficulties of development of higher frequency band, the unique way to meet the increasing demand is to maximize the utilization efficiency of the current spectrum resource. Under the circumstances, various spectrum sharing plans have been in recent studies to dissolve the excess spectrum demand. In addition, spectrum efficiency measurement methods become more important to verify the effectiveness of spectrum sharing and estimate the performance of various wireless systems. Our research addresses measurement methods to estimate spectrum utilization efficiency in a rational manner. Based on ITU-R recommendations, various measuring methods for spectrum utilization efficiency are reviewed. Then a queueing based approach is newly presented as alternatives to the current models. By using the proposed model, the spectrum efficiency increment with the adoption of spectrum sharing plans can be estimated more properly.

Spectrum Requirements for the Future Development of IMT-2000 and Systems Beyond IMT-2000

  • Yoon Hyun-Goo;Chung Woo-Ghee;Jo Han-Shin;Lim Jae-Woo;Yook Jong-Gwan;Park Han-Kyu
    • Journal of Communications and Networks
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 2006
  • In this paper, the algorithm of a methodology for the calculation of spectrum requirements was implemented. As well, the influence of traffic distribution ratio among radio access technology groups, spectral efficiency, and flexible spectrum usage (FSU) margin was analyzed in terms of the spectrum requirements, with a view toward for future development of international mobile telecommunication (IMT)-2000 and systems beyond IMT-2000. The calculated spectrum requirement in the maximum spectral efficiency case is reduced by approximately 40% compared to a minimum spectral efficiency case. The effect of the distribution ratio on the required spectrum is smaller than the effect of the spectral efficiency. As the flexible spectrum usage margin increases by 1.0 dB, the total spectrum requirement decreases by 0.9 dB. The required spectrum for the market input parameter, ${\rho}$ = 0.5 is 801.63 MHz, while the required spectrum for ${\rho}$ = 1.0 is 6295.4 MHz. This is equivalent to an increase of 785.32 %.

Calculation of Spectral Efficiency for Estimating Spectrum Requirements of IMT-Advanced in Korean Mobile Communication Environments

  • Chung, Woo-Ghee;Lim, Eun-Taek;Yook, Jong-Gwan;Park, Han-Kyu
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.153-161
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    • 2007
  • In this paper, we analyze the algorithm of the methodology developed by ITU for the calculation of spectrum requirements of IMT-Advanced. We propose an approach to estimate user density using traffic statistics, and to estimate spectrum efficiencies using carrier-to-interference ratio distribution and capacity theory as well as experimental data under Korean mobile communication environments. We calculate the IMT-Advanced spectrum requirements based on the user density and spectral efficiencies acquired from the new method. In the case of spectral efficiency using higher modulation and coding schemes, the spectrum requirement of IMT-Advanced is approximately 2700 MHz. When applying a $2{\times}2$ multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system, it is approximately 1500 MHz; when applying a $4{\times}4$ MIMO antenna system, it is approximately 1050 MHz. Considering that the development of new technology will increase spectrum efficiency in the future, the spectrum requirement of IMT-Advanced in the Korean mobile communication environment is expected to be approximately 1 GHz bandwidth.

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Complexity based Sensing Strategy for Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

  • Huang, Kewen;Liu, Yimin;Hong, Yuanquan;Mu, Junsheng
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4372-4389
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    • 2019
  • Spectrum sensing has attracted much attention due to its significant contribution to idle spectrum detection in Cognitive Radio Networks. However, specialized discussion is on complexity-based sensing strategy for spectrum sensing seldom considered. Motivated by this, this paper is devoted to complexity-based sensing strategy for spectrum sensing. Firstly, three efficiency functions are defined to estimate sensing efficiency of a spectrum scheme. Then a novel sensing strategy is proposed given sensing performance and computational complexity. After that, the proposed sensing strategy is extended to energy detector, Cyclostationary feature detector, covariance matrix detector and cooperative spectrum detector. The proposed sensing strategy provides a novel insight into sensing performance estimation for its consideration of both sensing capacity and sensing complexity. Simulations analyze three efficiency functions and optimal sensing strategy of energy detector, Cyclostationary feature detector and covariance matrix detector.

Spectral Efficiency of WRAN Spectrum Overlay in the TV White Space

  • Leem, Cha-Sik;Kim, Sang-Won;Kim, Chang-Joo;Kang, Sung-Chul;Lee, Jai-Yong
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.871-873
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    • 2008
  • In this letter, we investigate the spectral efficiency of IEEE 802.22 wireless regional area network (WRAN) spectrum overlay when it is used in TV white space. Since 2004, when the FCC published the notice of proposed rule making 04-186 to make use of unused TV spectrum, the IEEE 802.22 working group has been standardizing specifications for WRAN operations. There have been a few papers investigating the spectral efficiency of this, but their analyses were limited to the cases for various guard distances between WRAN base stations. Since WRAN base station (BS) power for WRAN service may differ from country to country, it is important to analyze the spectral efficiency for various WRAN BS powers. In this letter, we analyze the spectral efficiency of WRAN spectrum overlay as a function of the power of WRAN BSs. The simulation results show that spectral efficiency decreases as the power of WRAN BSs and guard distances increase.

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Deep Recurrent Neural Network for Multiple Time Slot Frequency Spectrum Predictions of Cognitive Radio

  • Tang, Zhi-ling;Li, Si-min
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.3029-3045
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    • 2017
  • The main processes of a cognitive radio system include spectrum sensing, spectrum decision, spectrum sharing, and spectrum conversion. Experimental results show that these stages introduce a time delay that affects the spectrum sensing accuracy, reducing its efficiency. To reduce the time delay, the frequency spectrum prediction was proposed to alleviate the burden on the spectrum sensing. In this paper, the deep recurrent neural network (DRNN) was proposed to predict the spectrum of multiple time slots, since the existing methods only predict the spectrum of one time slot. The continuous state of a channel is divided into a many time slots, forming a time series of the channel state. Since there are more hidden layers in the DRNN than in the RNN, the DRNN has fading memory in its bottom layer as well as in the past input. In addition, the extended Kalman filter was used to train the DRNN, which overcomes the problem of slow convergence and the vanishing gradient of the gradient descent method. The spectrum prediction based on the DRNN was verified with a WiFi signal, and the error of the prediction was analyzed. The simulation results proved that the multiple slot spectrum prediction improved the spectrum efficiency and reduced the energy consumption of spectrum sensing.

Energy Efficiency Resource Allocation for MIMO Cognitive Radio with Multiple Antenna Spectrum Sensing

  • Ning, Bing;Yang, Shouyi;Mu, Xiaomin;Lu, Yanhui;Hao, Wanming
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.9 no.11
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    • pp.4387-4404
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    • 2015
  • The energy-efficient design of sensing-based spectrum sharing of a multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) cognitive radio (CR) system with imperfect multiple antenna spectrum sensing is investigated in this study. Optimal resource allocation strategies, including sensing time and power allocation schemes, are studied to maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the secondary base station under the transmit power and interference power constraints. EE problem is formulated as a nonlinear stochastic fractional programming of a nonconvex optimal problem. The EE problem is transformed into its equivalent nonlinear parametric programming and solved by one-dimension search algorithm. To reduce searching complexity, the search range was founded by demonstration. Furthermore, simulation results confirms that an optimal sensing time exists to maximize EE, and shows that EE is affected by the spectrum detection factors and corresponding constraints.

Power and Spectrum Efficiencies Considering the HPA Nonlinearity in OFDM Communication System (OFDM 통신 시스템에서 비선형 증폭기 특성을 고려한 전력 효율과 대역 효율)

  • 이재은;윤기후;이준서;유흥균
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.543-549
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    • 2003
  • It is important to consider the nonlinear effects of the HPA(High Power Amplifier) in the OFDM communication systems and other digital communication systems as well. In this paper, we investigate a new performance figure-of$.$merit(D) that reflects both power and spectrum efficiencies. The performance figure-of-merit is expressed to include the spectrum and power efficiencies that depend on the magnitude of IBO(Input Backoff) and the number of subcarriers. So, we analyze the variation characteristics of the power efficiency and spectrum efficiency which has the tradeoff relationship.

Opportunistic Reporting-based Sensing-Reporting-Throughput Optimization Scheme for Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks

  • So, Jaewoo
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.1319-1335
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    • 2017
  • This paper proposes an opportunistic reporting-based sensing-reporting-throughput optimization scheme that maximizes the spectral efficiency of secondary users (SUs) in cooperative cognitive radio networks with a soft combining rule. The performance of cooperative spectrum sensing depends on the sensing time, the reporting time of transmitting sensing results, and the fusion scheme. While longer sensing time and reporting time improve the sensing performance, this shortens the allowable data transmission time, which in turn degrades the spectral efficiency of SUs. The proposed scheme adopts an opportunistic reporting scheme to restrain the reporting overhead and it jointly controls the sensing-reporting overhead in order to increase the spectral efficiency of SUs. We show that there is a trade-off between the spectral efficiency of SUs and the overheads of cooperative spectrum sensing. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms the conventional sensing-throughput optimization schemes when there are many SUs. Moreover, the numerical results show that the sensing-reporting time should be jointly optimized in order to maximize the spectral efficiency of SUs.