• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sputum

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Cytologic examination sputum and bronchial secretion bronchofiberscopic sampling procedures in lung cancer (기관지경검사에서 객담세포검사의 암양성률에 대한 연구)

  • 김송명
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.138-145
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    • 1983
  • The value of exfoliative sputum cytology in diagnosis of lung cancer has been accepted with bronchoscopic technique and results has been much improved by foreign investigators, but there was not presented accurate reports for sputum cytologic evaluation in Korea. We tried to find indicators of cytologic tests result in our hospital. During the period between May, 1980 and August, 1982, 400 patients, tested at Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery of Kosin Medical College, had diagnostic bronchofiberscopic examination, and the cytologic study of sputum and bronchial secretions were performed. The sputum or bronchial secretion during bronchofiberscopic examination were obtained with various methods and the name of specimen were labeled as I, ASPIRATION SPUTUM, which was collected initially endobronchial sputum as introducing of scope, II, WASHING SPUTUM, which was collected washing bronchial secretion, III, BRUSHING SPUTUM, which was washing solution of brushing instrument and endobronchial sputum after brushing of lesions, IV, POST-SCOPIC SPUTUM, which was expectorated sputum as soon as removing of scopic instrument, V, ALL SPUTUM CYTOLOGY & CELL BLOCK, which was collected all specimen of above procedures. The diagnostic results of bronchofiberscopic examination was disclosed 174 cases [43.5%] of proved lung cancer, 47 cases [11.8%] of suspected lung cancer in grossly, and 179 cases [44.8%] of others finding except cancer. Patient with bronchofiberscopically grossly evidence of lung cancer which were not confirmed histologically or cytologically were excluded from this cytologic study. Histologic and cytologic correlation in proven lung cancer, 174 cases was revealed that number of cytologic positive patients were 45 cases [38.7%] among the 117 cases of proved squamous cell carcinoma, 12 cases [38.7%] among hislogically unknown cancer 34 cases and 6 cases [33.3%] among small cell undifferentiated carcinoma 18 Gases. Total cytologic positive result was presented as 67 cases [38.3%]. The other type of lung cancer, histologically, could not comparison because of small cases. The sequence of positive cytologic result in I-V specimen were disclosed as II, WASHING SPUTUM 57.6%, and V, ALL SPUTUM & CELL BLOCK 41.4%. The I, III & IV result were 28.6%, 22.2% and 26.1% respectively.

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Quality of Same-Day Sputum Smears Microscopy and Presumptive Tuberculosis Patients Drop-out at Health Facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Taddese, Boja Dufera;Misganaw, Abay Sisay
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.83 no.1
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 2020
  • Background: Same-day sputum microcopy is recommended in areas where sputum smear microscopy external quality assessment (EQA) is effectively implemented and sturdy. In Addis Ababa, the status of EQA and drop-out of same-day sputum smear microcopy has not yet been assessed. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of same-day sputum smear microscopy and diagnostic drop-out of presumptive tuberculosis (TB) patients in health facilities (HFs) across Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: Amulti-analysis was conducted from September 2016 to July 2017 to determine the status of external quality assessment and diagnostic drop-out of presumptive TB patients registered for same-day sputum smear microscopy. Data was coded and entered in Microsoft Excel, and subsequently transferred and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: The drop-out of same-day sputum smear microscopy was 209 (6.2%). More than 33% of the specimens collected for purposes of same-day sputum smears were of poor quality. Among the selected HFs for the study: 13 (46.4%) used filter reagents prior to sputum smear staining while 75% of the selected HFs for the study used smear microscopy services interruption in a year. The sensitivity and specificity of the HFs participating in regional quality assessment scheme for the diagnosis of TB was 97.4% and 99.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The diagnostic drop-out of same-day sputum smear microscopy was high in Addis Ababa. Strengthening EQA, competency-based laboratory professionals training on sputum smear microscopy might reduce the reading errors in sputum smear. Awareness creation of the community on the benefits gained from completion of specimen provision for the same-day approach decreases diagnostic drop-out and enhances TB control program.

Increased B cell-activating factor (BAFF) level in the sputum of children with asthma

  • Jee, Hye-Mi;Choi, Bong-Seok;Kim, Kyung-Won;Sohn, Myung-Hyun;Han, Man-Yong;Kim, Kyu-Earn
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.8
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    • pp.795-800
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: B cell-activating factor (BAFF) is a tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily member best known for its role in the survival and maturation of B cells. BAFF activity is observed in naive cells as well as in effector/memory T cells. We aimed to explore whether BAFF in sputum is expressed at elevated levels in asthmatic airways and associated with eosinophilic inflammation, pulmonary function, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children. Methods: One hundred and fifty-four asthmatic children and 98 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Sputum supernatants were collected and sputum BAFF and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels were measured. We performed pulmonary function tests and methacholine challenge tests, while measuring total eosinophil count, total serum IgE, and serum ECP in all subjects. Results: Asthmatic children had significantly higher levels of BAFF in induced sputum [26.50 (10.50-100.27) pg/mL] compared to healthy children [18.32 (7.68-44.63) pg/mL; $P$=0.011]. Sputum BAFF positively correlated with sputum eosinophils (${\gamma}$=0.406, $P$<0.001) and sputum ECP (${\gamma}$=0.789, $P$<0.001). Significant negative correlations were found between sputum BAFF and FEV1 (${\gamma}$=-0.291, $P$<0.001) or post-bronchodilator FEV1 (${\gamma}$=-0.334, $P$<0.001), whereas nonsignificant correlations were found between sputum BAFF and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, serum eosinophil count, and serum ECP. Conclusion: These findings suggest that BAFF may play a role in childhood asthma, and BAFF levels in sputum could be a supportive marker that represents airway inflammation, especially eosinophilic inflammation.

Automatic Sputum Color Image Segmentation for Lung Cancer Diagnosis

  • Taher, Fatma;Werghi, Naoufel;Al-Ahmad, Hussain
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.68-80
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    • 2013
  • Lung cancer is considered to be the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. A technique commonly used consists of analyzing sputum images for detecting lung cancer cells. However, the analysis of sputum is time consuming and requires highly trained personnel to avoid errors. The manual screening of sputum samples has to be improved by using image processing techniques. In this paper we present a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for early detection and diagnosis of lung cancer based on the analysis of the sputum color image with the aim to attain a high accuracy rate and to reduce the time consumed to analyze such sputum samples. In order to form general diagnostic rules, we present a framework for segmentation and extraction of sputum cells in sputum images using respectively, a Bayesian classification method followed by region detection and feature extraction techniques to determine the shape of the nuclei inside the sputum cells. The final results will be used for a (CAD) system for early detection of lung cancer. We analyzed the performance of a Bayesian classification with respect to the color space representation and quantification. Our methods were validated via a series of experimentation conducted with a data set of 100 images. Our evaluation criteria were based on sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.

Relation between Capacity Change of Ephedrae Herba and Sputum Secretion In Two Stroke Patients with High Levels of Sputum (객담을 동반한 중풍 환자에 마황량과 객담 배출 변화에 관한 보고 -정천탕, 해표이진탕을 이용하여-)

  • 노기환;강경숙;조기호;김영석
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.96-103
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    • 2001
  • Clinical symptoms of stroke patients vary widely, and include headache, dizziness, vomiting, dysphagia, dysphasia, incontinence, confusion, chest discomfort, dyspnea etc. Stroke patients who had chronic respiratory disease or had tracheostomy cannula usually have high levels of sputum, but there have been rare clinical reports about treatment of oriental medicine. High levels of sputum in stroke patients can cause pneumonia and dyspnea, and so can delay rehabilitation. By use of Haepyoleejin-tang.Jungchun-tang with change of Ephedrae Herba capacity, we could improve sputum secretion and respiratory function of two stroke patients, and so we report on the clinical course of two stroke patients with high levels of sputum.

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The Value of Submitting Multiple Sputum Specimens for Accurate Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

  • Kisa, Ozgul;Albay, Ali;Baylan, Orhan;Doganci, Levent
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.301-304
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    • 2002
  • Is a multiple number of sputum specimens necessary for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis? To answer this question, 6844 respiratory specimens obtained from previously untreated patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis between 1998 and 2001 were evaluated retrospectively. All of the specimens were evaluated by acid fast bacilli smear and BACTEC 460 TB culture system. A total of 785 (11%) specimens from 353 patients were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. For 76% (270/353) of these patients the organism was detected from sputum specimens collected sequentially for daily basis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated in the first, second and third samples of the majority (98%,195/199) of patients who had three or more sputum samples sent to the laboratory. Our results indicate that, we could carry out Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolation in the first, second and third sputum samples of the overwhelming majority of the patients and the diagnostic value of four or more sputum specimens submitted to the laboratory was very low (2%). We recommend that, for definitive and cost-effective diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis at least three sequential sputum specimens be collected for all patients suspected pulmonary tuberculosis.

Efficacy of Induced Sputum for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Adults Unable to Expectorate Sputum

  • Park, Jae Seuk
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.78 no.3
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    • pp.203-209
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    • 2015
  • Background: Induced sputum (IS) has been used to collect airway secretions in subjects who have inadequate sputum production. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of IS for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in adults unable to expectorate sputum. Methods: Medical records of 39 PTB patients who underwent IS due to absence of spontaneous sputum production between January 2011 and March 2014 at a tertiary hospital in South Korea were reviewed. Results of acid fast bacilli smear, Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture and polymerase chain reaction assay for M. tuberculosis (TB-PCR) of IS specimens from these patients were analyzed. Clinical and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) characteristics were also analyzed to find characteristics associated with IS culture positivity. Results: Of the 39 IS specimens from PTB patients, 7 (17.9%) were smear positive and 31 (79.5%) were culture positive. Twenty-four IS specimens were tested for TB-PCR and 13 (54.2%) were positive on TB-PCR. Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (p=0.04) and presence of tree-in-bud appearance on HRCT (p=0.03) were independent predictors of IS culture positivity. Conclusion: IS is useful for the diagnosis of PTB in adults unable to expectorate sputum. Younger age and tree-in-bud appearance on HRCT were associated with IS culture positivity in these patients.

Usefulness of Sputum Induction with Hypertonic Saline in a Real Clinical Practice for Bacteriological Yields of Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis

  • Seong, Gil Myeong;Lee, Jaechun;Lee, Jong Hoo;Kim, Jeong Hong;Kim, Miok
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.76 no.4
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    • pp.163-168
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    • 2014
  • Background: Mycobacterial identification in active pulmonary tuberculosis (APTB) is confirmative, even though successful rates using self-expectorated sputum are limited. Sputum specimens collected by hypertonic saline nebulization showed higher bacteriologic diagnostic sensitivities over those of self-expectoration, mostly studied in smear-negative or sputum-scarce patients. The efficacy of induced sputum was rarely assessed in real clinical settings. Methods: A prospective randomized case-control study was performed in one hospital. The subjects highly suspicious of APTB were asked to provide 3 pairs of sputum specimens in 3 consecutive days. The first pairs of the specimens were obtained either by self-expectoration (ES) from the next day of the visit or sputum induction with 7% saline nebulization in clinic (SI), and the other specimens were collected in the same way. The samples were tested in microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The outcomes of the bacteriological diagnosis were compared. Results: Seventy six patients were assigned to either ES (38 subjects, median age of 51, 65.8% male) or SI (38 subjects, median age of 55, 52.6% male). APTB was clinically confirmed in 51 patients (70.8%), 27 in ES and 24 in SI. Among the APTB, more adequate specimens were collected from SI (41/65, 63.1%) than ES (34/80, 42.5%) (p=0.01). Bacteriological confirmation was achieved in 14 (58.3%) patients in SI, and 13 (48.1%) in ES (p=0.46). In the same-day bacteriological diagnosis with microscopy and PCR, there were positive results for 9 patients (37.5%) in SI and 7 patients (25.9%) in ES (p=0.37). Conclusion: Sputum induction improves sputum specimen adequacy. It may be useful for the same-day bacteriological diagnosis with microscopic examination and PCR.

Clinical Evaluation of Positive Sputum AFB Cases following Pulmonary Resection of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (폐결핵의 폐절제술후 객담균 양성 환자에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • 심성보
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.856-862
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    • 1992
  • The author reviewed 50 cases of positive sputum AFB patients following pulmonary resection of pulmonary tuberculosis [total 617 cases] operated on at the National Kongju Hospital during 6 years period, from January, 1985 to December, 1990. 1. There were 36 male and 14 female patients ranging from 20 to 50 years old[mean age, 33.8 years] 2. An average duration of pulmonary tuberculosis history was 7.5 years. 35 cases[76%] had many drug resistance of tuberculosis [above 5 drugs]. 3. The majority indication for pulmonary resection were persistent positive sputum AFB with cavity or destroyed lung or hemoptysis. 23 cases[46%] underwent pneumonectoy and 13 cases[23%] lobectomy. The postoperative complications occured in 19 cases [38%]. 4. 34 cases[68%] occured sputum AFB positive following operation unitil 6 months, and 6 cases[12%] occured 2 years later 5. 21 cases[42%] got conversion to negative sputum, and then 29 cases[58%] remained persistent positive sputum.

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Factors Associated with Persistent Sputum Positivity at the End of the Second Month of Tuberculosis Treatment in Lithuania

  • Diktanas, Saulius;Vasiliauskiene, Edita;Polubenko, Katazyna;Danila, Edvardas;Celedinaite, Indre;Boreikaite, Evelina;Misiunas, Kipras
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.81 no.3
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 2018
  • Background: Non-conversion of sputum smear and culture prolongs the infectivity of the patient and has been associated with unfavorable outcomes. We aimed to evaluate factors associated with persistent sputum positivity at the end of two months of treatment of new case pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Methods: Data of 87 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with culture-positive drug-susceptible pulmonary TB admitted to local university hospital between September 2015 and September 2016 were reviewed. Factors associated with sputum smear and/or culture positivity at the end of the second month of treatment were analyzed. Results: Twenty-two patients (25.3%) remained smear and/or culture-positive. Male sex, lower body mass index (BMI), unemployment, alcohol abuse, higher number of lobes involved and cavities on chest X-rays, shorter time to detection (TTD) on liquid cultures, higher respiratory sample smear grading and colony count in solid cultures, higher C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, and anemia were all significantly associated with persistent sputum positivity. However, in the logistic regression analysis only male sex, lower BMI, alcohol abuse, higher radiological involvement, cavitation, higher smear grading, higher colony count in solid cultures and shorter TTD were determined as independent factors associated with persistent sputum positivity at the end of 2 months of treatment. Conclusion: In conclusion, higher sputum smear and culture grading at diagnosis, shorter TTD, higher number of lobes involved, cavitation, male sex, alcohol abuse, and lower BMI were independently associated with persistent sputum positivity. These factors should be sought when distinguishing which patients will remain infectious longer and possibly have worse outcomes.