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Extending the Shelf-life of Yukwa Using Secondary Packaging (이차포장을 통한 유과의 저장성 연장)

  • Jung, Jun-Jae;Lee, Keun-Taik
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.452-458
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    • 2010
  • This study aimed at improving the packaging technology of Yukwa to improve the quality and extend the shelflife using secondary packaging. After packaging the Yukwa using an OPP film, P2, P3, and P4 packaging materials were applied secondarily. Various films including (1) P1: OPP (oriented polypropylene), (2) P2: P1+OPP/LLDPE (linear low density polyethylene), (3) P3: P1+PET (polyethylene terephthalate)/NY (nylon)/CPP (cast polypropylene) and (4) P4: P1+PET/AL (aluminum)/NY/CPP (P4) were used for packaging Yukwa. The experiment was conducted at $25^{\circ}C$ for 12 weeks. P1 showed the highest acid value score (1.26 mg KOH/g), and P3 had the highest peroxide value score (32.91 meq/kg) among all packaging groups. Nevertheless, these values did not exceed the guideline values of 2.0 g KOH/g and 40 meq/kg specified in the Korean food code. The overall color difference showed a tendency for decreasing Hunter 'L' values and increasing 'a' and 'b' values; however, no noticeable difference in the outer appearance was observed in any of the packaging treatments except in the P1 for greater than 10 weeks of storage. Some texture defects were observed in the Yukwa when the moisture contents dropped below 5%. The P4 packaging treatment had the lowest moisture permeability and showed the least rheological deterioration change, followed by P3 and P2. In conclusion, the use of a secondary packaging with less gas and moisture permeability was more effective for maintaining the quality and extending the shelf-life of Yukwa than other types of packaging material.

Design and Analysis of Online Advertising Expenditure Model based on Coupon Download (쿠폰 다운로드를 기준으로 하는 온라인 광고비 모델의 설계 및 분석)

  • Jun, Jung-Ho;Lee, Kyoung-Jun
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2010
  • In offline environment, unlike traditional advertising model through TV, newspaper, and radio, online advertising model draws instantaneous responses from potential consumers and it is convenient to assess. This kind of characteristics of Internet advertising model has driven the growth of advertising model among various Internet business models. There are, conventionally classified, CPM (Cost Per Mile), CPC (Cost Per Click), and CPS (Cost Per Sales) models as Internet advertising expenditure model. These can be examined in manners regarding risks that stakeholders should stand and degree of responsibility. CPM model that is based on number of advertisement exposure is mechanically exposed to users but not actually recognized by users resulting in risk of wasted expenditure by advertisers without any advertising effect. While on aspect of media, CPS model that is based on conversion action is the most risky model because of the conversion action such as product purchase is determined by capability of advertisers not that of media. In this regard, while there are issue of CPM and CPS models disadvantageously affecting only one side of Internet advertising business model value network, CPC model has been evaluated as reasonable both to advertisers and media, and occupied the largest segment of Internet advertising market. However, CPC model also can cause fraudulent behavior such as click fraud because of the competition or dishonest amount of advertising expenditure. On the user aspect, unintentionally accessed advertisements can lead to more inappropriate expenditure from advertisers. In this paper, we suggest "CPCD"(Cost Per Coupon Download) model. This goes beyond simple clicking of advertisements and advertising expenditure is exerted when users download a coupon from advertisers, which is a concept in between CPC and CPS models. To achieve the purpose, we describe the scenario of advertiser perspective, processes, participants and their benefits of CPCD model. Especially, we suggest the new value in online coupon; "possibility of storage" and "complement for delivery to the target group". We also analyze the working condition for advertiser by a comparison of CPC and CPCD models through advertising expenditure simulation. The result of simulation implies that the CPCD model suits more properly to advertisers with medium-low price products rather than that of high priced goods. This denotes that since most of advertisers in CPC model are dealing with medium-low priced products, the result is very interesting. At last, we contemplate applicability of CPCD model in ubiquitous environment.

Biological Control of Garlic Blue Mold using Pantoea agglomerans S59-4 (Pantoea agglomerans S59-4를 이용한 마늘 푸른곰팡이병의 생물학적 방제)

  • Kim, Yong-Ki;Hong, Sung-Jun;Jee, Hyung-Jin;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;Park, Kyung-Seok;Lee, Sang-Yeob;Lee, Seong-Don
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.148-156
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    • 2010
  • S59-4 isolate was evaluated as a potential biocontrol agent using in vivo wounded garlic bulb assay. When the spore suspension ($10^5$ spores/$m\ell$) of Penicillium hirsutum was co-inoculated with cell suspension of S59-4 isolate on wounded garlics, the isolate showed high suppressive effect to disease development. The isolate was identified as Pantoea agglomerans S59-4(Pa59-4) through Biolog system. Furthermore, soaking garlic bulbs in the suspension of Pa59-4 significantly reduced garlic decay caused by P. hirsutum. The optimal concentration of Pa59-4 for controlling garlic blue mold was $10^7\sim10^8$ cfu/$m\ell$. And suppressive effect of Pa59-4 on garlic storage decay reduced as inoculation concentration of Penicillium hirsutum increased. In addition in order to investigate population dynamics of Pa59-4 on application site of garlic cloves, two antibiotic markers, pimaricin and vancomycin were selected. Bacterial density of Pa59-4 on the wounded garlic cloves increased continuously both under room temperature condition and low temperature condition until 30days after application of Pa59-4, meanwhile that of Pa59-4 on intact garlic cloves increased until 15days after application of Pa59-4 and thereafter decreased continuously. Two culture media for mass-production of Pa59-4, LB medium and TSB medium, were selected. By-product of bio-fungicide formulated by mixing white carbon and bacterial suspension of Pa59-4 suppressed by 40 to 50% garlic blue mold. Above results suggest that Pa59-4 be a promising control agent against garlic blue mold.

Production of Medium-chain Fatty Acids in Brassica napus by Biotechnology (유채에서의 중쇄지방산 생산)

  • Roh, Kyung-Hee;Lee, Ki-Jong;Park, Jong-Sug;Kim, Hyun-Uk;Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol;Kim, Jong-Bum
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 2010
  • Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are composed of 8-12 carbon atoms, and are found in coconut, cuphea, and palm kernel oil. MCFA were introduced into clinical nutrition in the 1950s for dietary treatment of malabsorption syndromes because of their rapid absorption and solubility. Recently, MCFA have been applied to Gastrointestinal Permeation Enhancement Technology (GIPET), which is one of the most important parts in drug delivery system in therapeutics. Therefore, to accumulate the MCFA in seed oil of rapeseed, much effort has been conducted by classical or molecular breeding. Laurate can be successfully accumulated up to 60 mol% in the seed oil of rapeseed by the expression of bay thioesterase (Uc FatB1) alone or crossed with a line over-expressing the coconut lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) under the control of a napin seed-storage protein promoter. Also, caprylate and caprate were obtained 7 mol% and 29 mol%, respectively, from plants over-expressing of the medium-chain specific thioesterase (Ch FatB2) alone or together with the chain-length-specific condensing enzyme (Ch KASIV). Despite the success of some research in utilizing parallel classical and molecular breeding to produce MCFA, commercially available seed oils have for the most part, not been realized. Recent research in the field of developing MCFA-enriched transgenic plants has established that there is no single rate-limiting step in the production of the target fatty acids. The purpose of this article is to review some of the recent progress in understanding the mechanism and regulation of MCFA production in seed oil of rapeseed.

Study on the Dissolution of Sandstones in Gyeongsang Basin and the Calculation of Their Dissolution Coefficients under CO2 Injection Condition (이산화탄소 지중 주입에 의한 경상분지 사암의 용해반응 규명 및 용해 반응상수값 계산)

  • Kang, Hyunmin;Baek, Kyoungbae;Wang, Sookyun;Park, Jinyoung;Lee, Minhee
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.661-672
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    • 2012
  • Lab scale experiments to investigate the dissolution reaction among supercritical $CO_2$-sandstone-groundwater by using sandstones from Gyeongsang basin were performed. High pressurized cell system (100 bar and $50^{\circ}C$) was designed to create supercritical $CO_2$ in the cell, simulating the sub-surface $CO_2$ storage site. The first-order dissolution coefficient ($k_d$) of the sandstone was calculated by measuring the change of the weight of thin section or the concentration of ions dissolved in groundwater at the reaction time intervals. For 30 days of the supercritical $CO_2$-sandstone-groundwater reaction, physical properties of sandstone cores in Gyeongsang basin were measured to investigate the effect of supercritical $CO_2$ on the sandstone. The weight change of sandstone cores was also measured to calculate the dissolution coefficient and the dissolution time of 1 g per unit area (1 $cm^2$) of each sandstone was quantitatively predicted. For the experiment using thin sections, mass of $Ca^{2+}$ and $Na^+$ dissolved in groundwater increased, suggesting that plagioclase and calcite of the sandstone would be significantly dissolved when it contacts with supercritical $CO_2$ and groundwater at $CO_2$ sequestration sites. 0.66% of the original thin sec-tion mass for the sandstone were dissolved after 30 days reaction. The average porosity for C sandstones was 8.183% and it increased to 8.789% after 30 days of the reaction. The average dry density, seismic velocity, and 1-D compression strength of sandstones decreased and these results were dependent on the porosity increase by the dissolution during the reaction. By using the first-order dissolution coefficient, the average time to dissolve 1 g of B and C sandstones per unit area (1 $cm^2$) was calculated as 1,532 years and 329 years, respectively. From results, it was investigated that the physical property change of sandstones at Gyeongsang basin would rapidly occur when the supercritical $CO_2$ was injected into $CO_2$ sequestration sites.

Changes of Fermentation Characteristics and Sensory Evaluation of Kimchi on Different Storage Temperature (숙성온도를 달리한 김치의 발효 및 관능특성)

  • Choi, Shin-Yang;Lee, Myoung-Ki;Choi, Kwang-Sik;Koo, Young-Jo;Park, Wan-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.644-649
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    • 1998
  • To investigate the fermentation characteristics of Kimchi which was made at $12{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ and stored at $17{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ and $4{\pm}1^{\circ}C$, pH, total acid, total microbes, lactic acid bacteria cell count, dissolved $CO_2$content, reducing sugars and temperature at the center of Kimchi jar were measured and to know how much Japanese like to have Korean traditional Kimchi, Kimchi samples with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0% salt contents were prepared and surved to panelist at $4{\pm}1^{\circ}C$. Sensory evaluation of Kimchi in terms of appearance, texture, carbonated mouthfeel, salty taste, sour taste, peppery taste and overall acceptability was done by scoring system with maximum 7 points and was analyzed statistically by SAS program. The results of fermentation of Kimchi which was made at $12{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ and stored at $17{\pm}1^{\circ}C\;and\;4{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ were as follows: pH and total acid content of Kimchi which was stored at $17{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ for 4 days were almost same as those of Kimchi at $4{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ for 48 days. Cell counts of total microbes and lactic acid bacteria in Kimchi which was stored at $17{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ for 2 days and at $4{\pm}1^{\circ}C\;for\;9\;days\;were\;1.5{\times}10^9\;cells/mL\;and\;6.3{\times}10^8\;cells/mL,\;2.0{\times}10^8\;cells/mL\;and\;8.7{\times}10^7\;cells/mL$, respectively. Time and temperature at the center of Kimchi jar during fermentation was took 25 and 35 hours to get to $17^{\circ}C\;and\;4^{\circ}C$ from initial temperature, respectively. Japanese who had experiences in eating Kimchi liked Korean traditional Kimchi with 2.0% of salt content. Sensory evaluation of Japanese consumer on peppery taste and overall acceptability of Kimchi showed significant difference (P<0.05).

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Polymerization of dual cured composites by different thickness (두께에 따른 이중 중합형 복합레진의 중합)

  • Kim, Yun-Ju;Jin, Myoung-Uk;Kim, Sung-Kyo;Kwon, Tae-Yub;Kim, Young-Kyung
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of thickness, filling methods and curing methods on the polymerization of dual cured core materials by means of microhardness test. Two dual cured core materials, MultiCore Flow (Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and Bis-Core (Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA) were used in this study. 2 mm (bulky filled), 4 mm (bulky filled), 6 mm (bulky and incrementally filled) and 8 mm (bulky and incrementally filled)-thickness specimens were prepared with light cure or self cure mode. After storage at $37{\circ}C$ for 24 hours, the Knoop hardness values (KHN) of top and bottom surfaces were measured and the microhardness ratio of top and bottom surfaces was calculated. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Scheffe multiple comparison test, with ${\alpha}$= 0.05. The effect of thickness on the polymerization of dual cured composites showed material specific results. In 2, 4 and 6 mm groups, the KHN of two materials were not affected by thickness. However, in 8 mm group of MultiCore Flow, the KHN of the bottom surface was lower than those of other groups (p < 0.05). The effect of filling methods on the polymerization of dual cured composites was different by their thickness or materials. In 6 mm thickness, there was no significant difference between bulk and incremental filling groups. In 8 mm thickness, Bis-Core showed no significant difference between groups. However, in MultiCore Flow, the microhardness ratio of bulk filling group was lower than that of incremental filling group (p < 0.05). The effect of curing methods on the polymerization of dual cured composites showed material specific results. In Bis-Core, the KHN of dual cured group were higher than those of self cured group at both surfaces (p < 0.05). However, in MultiCore Flow, the results were not similar at both surfaces. At the top surface, dual cured group showed higher KHN than that of self cured group (p < 0.05). However, in the bottom surface, dual cured group showed lower value than that of self cured group (p < 0.05).

International Conference on Electroceramics 2005 (2005년도 국제 전자세라믹 학술회의)

  • 한국세라믹학회
    • Proceedings of the Korean Ceranic Society Conference
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    • pp.1-112
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    • 2005
  • This report is results of a research on recent R&D trends in electroceramics, mainly focusing on the papers submitted to the organizing committee of the International Conference on Electroceramics 2005 (ICE-2005) which was held at Seoul on 12-15 June 2005. About 380 electroceramics researchers attended at the ICE-2005 from 17 countries including Korea, presenting and discussing their recent results. Therefore, we can easily understand the recent research trends in the field of electroceramics by analyses of the subject and contents of the submitted papers. In addition to the analyses of the papers submitted to the ICE-2005, we also collected some informations about domestic and international research trends to help readers understand this report easily. We analysed the R&D trends on the basis of four main categories, that is, informatics electroceramics, energy and environment ceramics, processing and characterization of electroceramics, and emerging fields of electroceramics. Each main category has several sub-categories again. The informatics ceramics category includes integrated dielectrics and ferroelectrics, oxide and nitride semiconductors, photonic and optoelectronic devices, multilayer electronic ceramics and devices, microwave dielectrics and high frequency devices, and piezoelectric and MEMS applications. The energy and environment ceramics category has four sub-categories, that is, rechargable battery, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and advanced energy conversion concepts. In the processing and characterization category, there exist domain, strain, and epitaxial dynamics and engineering sub-category, innovative processing and synthesis sub-category, nanostructured materials and nanotechnology sub- category, single crystal growth and characterization sub-category, theory and modeling sub-category. Nanocrystalline electroceramics, electroceramics for smart sensors, and bioceramics sub-categories are included to the emerging fields category. We hope that this report give an opportunity to understand the international research trend, not only to Korean ceramics researchers but also to science and technology policy researchers.

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Survey of the Status of Conutry-of-origin Lables and Hygine on the Meat Markets of 4 Regions in Korea (4개 권역 축산물 판매업소의 원산지 표시실태 및 위생상태 표본조사)

  • Nam, Bo-Ra;Nam, Jung-Oak;Park, Jung-Min;Lee, Ra-Mi;Gu, Hyo-Jung;Kim, Myung-Hee;Chang, Un-Jae;Suh, Hyung-Joo;Kim, Jin-Man
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.122-126
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    • 2007
  • Expenditure on meat and meat products has been increased in Korea due to the increase of income and the change of diet. From raising farm animals to eating the meat, various hazardous elements can make their ways into the meat and meat products. Recently the issues on food safety and hygiene are drawing a lot of attention, and the current system for managing the safety of foods is still needed to be improved. This survey was aimed to monitor the current situation of country-of-origin labels and hygiene for the meat markets at 4 regions Korea. The survey was performed by collecting samples from whole- sale and retail stores in the nation, which were selling beef. The markets were divided into groups as to territory and the size of the market (Large size, Medium size, and Small size). In terms of size distribution, small butcher shops occupied the highest percentage. On the itemized suitability test of unpacked and packed beef, all the market of 4 regions showed good agreements. However, such labels indicating the methods of cooking and storage were not properly posted on the products. Especially for Ho-nam region, corrections are needed. The results of monitoring sanitation conditions for the butcher shops at 4 regions in Korea showed relatively low suitability. Especially, there were serious lack of knowledge about wearing the sanitation clothing, caps, and shoes. The problem with food safety is so complicated that producer, consumer, food manufacturer, the press, the government, and scholar should solve altogether. It is necessary to educate farmers, food handlers, consumers, etc. and provide them with an accurate information and knowledge.

Ecosystem Service Assessment of Urban Forest for Water Supply and Climate Mitigation of Seoul Metropolitan Area (환경공간정보를 이용한 수도권의 수자원 공급과 기후완화 기능을 위한 도시림의 생태계서비스 평가)

  • Lee, Soo Jeong;Yoo, Somin;Ham, Boyoung;Lim, Chul-Hee;Song, Cholho;Kim, Moonil;Kim, Sea Jin;Lee, Woo-Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.33 no.6_2
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    • pp.1119-1137
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    • 2017
  • This study assessed the water provisioning and climate mitigation ecosystem services of the urban forest in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do. The ecosystem service assessment is conducted based on natural function, natural function and population, and natural function and the beneficiary of the ecosystem service. Then, the impact of climate change on ecosystem services is analyzed to figure out the sensitivity of the impact on the beneficiary when the natural function of forest destroys under climate change. Gyeonggi-do has higher function-based water provisioning ecosystem service than Seoul. And population-based water provisioning ecosystem service appears to be higher in the densely populated area. On the other hand, beneficiary-based water provisioning ecosystem service by applying both natural water supply function and beneficiary distribution appears different with the result of population-based water provisioning service assessment. In other words, regions with high beneficiary population show higher ecosystem service than those with a low beneficiary population even though they have the same water storage function. In addition, climate change has a negative impact on the water provisioning ecosystem service. Under climate change, water provisioning service is expected to decrease by 26%. For climate mitigation service, regions close to the forest seem to have a low temperature, which indicates their high climate mitigation service. The center of the city with high beneficiary population shows high beneficiary-based ecosystem service. The climate change impacts the forest growth to decrease which affect the beneficiary-based climate mitigation ecosystem service to decrease by 33%. From this study, we conclude that beneficiary-based function and ecosystem service assessment is needed as well as the supply-based classification of forest function suggested by Korea Forest Service. In addition, we suggest that not only supply-based function classification and ecosystem service assessment but also beneficiary-based function classification and ecosystem service assessment is needed for managing the urban forest, which has been destroyed by climate change. This will contribute to revaluing cases where a forest with low natural function but high beneficiary-based ecosystem service, which is not considered under the current forest function-based assessment system. Moreover, this could assist in developing a suitable management plan for the urban forest.