• Title/Summary/Keyword: Streamflow

Search Result 530, Processing Time 0.089 seconds

Evaluation of conceptual rainfall-runoff models for different flow regimes and development of ensemble model (개념적 강우유출 모형의 유량구간별 적합성 평가 및 앙상블 모델 구축)

  • Yu, Jae-Ung;Park, Moon-Hyung;Kim, Jin-Guk;Kwon, Hyun-Han
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
    • /
    • v.54 no.2
    • /
    • pp.105-119
    • /
    • 2021
  • An increase in the frequency and intensity of both floods and droughts has been recently observed due to an increase in climate variability. Especially, land-use change associated with industrial structure and urbanization has led to an imbalance between water supply and demand, acting as a constraint in water resource management. Accurate rainfall-runoff analysis plays a critical role in evaluating water availability in the water budget analysis. This study aimed to explore various continuous rainfall-runoff models over the Soyanggang dam watershed. Moreover, the ensemble modeling framework combining multiple models was introduced to present scenarios on streamflow considering uncertainties. In the ensemble modeling framework, rainfall-runoff models with fewer parameters are generally preferred for effective regionalization. In this study, more than 40 continuous rainfall-runoff models were applied to the Soyanggang dam watershed, and nine rainfall-runoff models were primarily selected using different goodness-of-fit measures. This study confirmed that the ensemble model showed better performance than the individual model over different flow regimes.

A study on estimation of lowflow indices in ungauged basin using multiple regression (다중회귀분석을 이용한 미계측 유역의 갈수지수 산정에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Ga Kyun;Jeung, Se Jin;Kim, Byung Sik;Chae, Soo Kwon
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
    • /
    • v.53 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1193-1201
    • /
    • 2020
  • This study aims to develop a regression model that estimates a low-flow index that can be applied to ungauged basins. A total of 30 midsized basins in South Korea use long-term runoff data provided by the National Integrated Water Management System (NIWMS) to calculate average low-flow, average minimum streamflow, and low-flow index duration and frequency. This information is used in the correlation analysis with 18 basin factors and 3 climate change factors to identify the basin area, average basin altitude, average basin slope, water system density, runoff curve number, annual evapotranspiration, and annual precipitation in the low-flow index regression model. This study evaluates the model's accuracy by using the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) for 10 ungauged, verified basins and compares them with the previous model's low-flow calculations to determine the effectiveness of the newly developed model. Comparative analysis indicates that the new regression model produces average low-flow, attributed to the consideration of varied basin and hydrologic factors during the new model's development.

Dam Effects on Spatial Extension of Flood Discharge Data and Flood Reduction Scale I (홍수 유출자료의 공간확장과 홍수저감효과에 대한 댐 영향 분석 I)

  • Kim, Nam Won;Jung, Yong;Lee, Jeong Eun
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
    • /
    • v.48 no.3
    • /
    • pp.209-220
    • /
    • 2015
  • In this study, the effects of changed environment on spatial extension of flood discharge data which is generating discharge data at ungauged watersheds. Especially, effects of dams on spatial extensions of flood discharge data and on natural flow generation were studied. This is somehow an intial trial of flood discharge data generation for heterogeneous watersheds because of dam installation. Data extensions have been performed based on the flood discharge data from YeoJoo water gauge station located on the Nam-Han River. For the evaluation of flood discharge data spatial extension under dam effects and producing natural flow, 41 flood events associated with YeoJoo water gauge station were selected from 1986 to 2010. When flood discharge data were extended based on YeoJoo water gauge station, 77% of selected flood events were over the satisfaction ranges (NSE>0.5) of Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency for model validation. Extended flood discharge data at Yangpyung has 0.84 NSE obtained from spatial data extension based on YeoJoo water gauge station. Generated natural flow at YeoJoo was influenced strongly by Chungju Dam which has larger effects on streamflow at YeoJoo than Hoangsung Dam. Observed peak discharges after the 1986 of Chungju Dam installation were smaller than those of the obtained natural flow. Through these results, spatial extension of flood discharge data with installed dams works efficiently for ungauged watersheds and natural flow can be generated using extended flood discharge data.

One-month lead dam inflow forecast using climate indices based on tele-connection (원격상관 기후지수를 활용한 1개월 선행 댐유입량 예측)

  • Cho, Jaepil;Jung, Il Won;Kim, Chul Gyium;Kim, Tae Guk
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
    • /
    • v.49 no.5
    • /
    • pp.361-372
    • /
    • 2016
  • Reliable long-term dam inflow prediction is necessary for efficient multi-purpose dam operation in changing climate. Since 2000s the teleconnection between global climate indices (e.g., ENSO) and local hydroclimate regimes have been widely recognized throughout the world. To date many hydrologists focus on predicting future hydrologic conditions using lag teleconnection between streamflow and climate indices. This study investigated the utility of teleconneciton for predicting dam inflow with 1-month lead time at Andong dam basin. To this end 40 global climate indices from NOAA were employed to identify potential predictors of dam inflow, areal averaged precipitation, temperature of Andong dam basin. This study compared three different approaches; 1) dam inflow prediction using SWAT model based on teleconneciton-based precipitation and temperature forecast (SWAT-Forecasted), 2) dam inflow prediction using teleconneciton between dam inflow and climate indices (CIR-Forecasted), and 3) dam inflow prediction based on the rank of current observation in the historical dam inflow (Rank-Observed). Our results demonstrated that CIR-Forecasted showed better predictability than the other approaches, except in December. This is because uncertainties attributed to temporal downscaling from monthly to daily for precipitation and temperature forecasts and hydrologic modeling using SWAT can be ignored from dam inflow forecast through CIR-Forecasted approach. This study indicates that 1-month lead dam inflow forecast based on teleconneciton could provide useful information on Andong dam operation.

The Uncertainty Analysis of SWAT Simulated Streamflow Applied to Chungju Dam Watershed (충주댐 유역의 유출량에 대한 SWAT모형의 예측불확실성 분석)

  • Joh, Hyung-Kyung;Park, Jong-Yoon;Shin, Hyung-Jin;Lee, Ji-Wan;Kim, Seong-Joon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.29-29
    • /
    • 2011
  • SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) 모형은 물리적 기반의 준분포형 강우-유출 모형으로서, 대규모의 복잡한 유역에서 장기간에 걸친 다양한 종류의 토양과 토지이용 및 토지관리 상태에 따른 유출과 유사 및 오염물질의 거동에 대한 토지관리 방법의 영향을 예측이 가능하여, 수자원 관리 계획 및 유역관리를 위한 의사결정 지원 등 그 적용 범위가 매우 광범위하다. 이러한 모형의 적용성 검증을 위해서는 매개변수 민감도 분석 및 검 보정, 예측 불확실성 분석을 필요로 한다. 최근 수문 모델의 불확실성을 분석하기 위한 다양한 기법들이 개발 되었는데, 본 연구는 충주댐 유역(6,581.1 m)을 대상으로 유역출구점의 실측 일 유출량 자료(1998~2003)를 바탕으로 SWAT 모형의 유출관련 매개변수(총 18개)에 대한 불확실성 분석을 실시하였다. 이때 사용된 분석 기법으로는 SUFI2 (Sequential Uncertainty FItting algorithm 2), GLUE (Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation), ParaSol (Parameter Solution)등을 적용 하였다. 이러한 기법은 모두 SWAT-CUP (SWAT-Calibration Uncertainty Program, Abbaspour, 2007) 모형에 탑재되어있으며, 모형의 결과로써 검 보정, 매개변수의 민감도 분석, 각종 목적 함수 및 불확실성의 범위 등이 자동으로 산출 되므로 모형의 사용자가 불확실성 평가 기법의 분석 및 비교를 손쉽게 할 수 있다. 그 결과 대표적인 목적 함수인 결정 계수( $^2$)와 NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe Model Efficiency)는 모두 0.65에서 0.92사이의 값을 나타내어 대체적으로 모의가 잘 이루어졌음을 알 수 있었다. 그러나 불확실성의 범위를 나타내는 지표인 p-factor 및 r-factor에서는 평가 기법 별로 그 차이가 확연하게 드러났다. 여기서 p-factor는 불확실성 범위에 실측치가 포함되는 비율이며, r-factor는 불확실성의 상대적인 범위로 각각 1과 0에 가까울수록 모의 기법의 성능이 우수함을 의미한다. 세 가지 알고리듬 중에서 SUFI2의 p-factor가 약 0.51로 가장 높게 나타났으며, ParaSol의 r-factor가 0.00으로 가장 작게 나타났다. 여기서 p-factor는 불확실성 범위에 실측치가 포함되는 비율이며, r-factor는 불확실성의 상대적인 범위를 의미한다. 본 연구의 결과는 SWAT 모형을 이용한 수문모델링에서 수문분석에 따른 예측결과의 불확실성을 정량적으로 평가함으로서, 모형의 적용성 평가 및 모의결과의 신뢰성 확보에 근거자료로 활용이 가능할 것으로 판단된다.

  • PDF

Input, Output and Budget of Nitrogen and Sulphur in Forested Watershed Ecosystems (산림 소유역 생태계에서 질소와 황의 유입량, 유출량과 물질수지)

  • 유영한;김준호;문형태;이창석
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
    • /
    • v.25 no.2
    • /
    • pp.119-125
    • /
    • 2002
  • In order to elucidate the budget and cycling of Nitrogen and Sulfur, esential elements and principal constituents of acid rain, their input through precipitation, and their output by streamflow were quantified in coniferous and deciduous forested watersheds, using combination of nutrient concentration and hydrological analysis, in Kwangnung Experimental Forest from July 1991 to Decmeber 1993. Amount of annual mean precipitation was 12.916 ton·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/, annual mean runoff 5,094 ton·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/(39%), 7,647 ton·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/(59%) in coniferous and deciduous forest watersheds, respectively. Amounts of annual input of N(NO₃/sup -/+NH₄/sup +/) and SO/sup 2-/₄ through preciptation were 12.5, 81.7 kg·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/, respectively. Annual output via runoff of N(NO₃/sup -/+NH₄/sup +/) and SO/sup 2-/₄were 0.06, 39.23 ton·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/ in the coniferous forest watershed ecosystem, and 0.15, 55.46 ton·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/ in the deciduous one, respectively. On the basis of annual nutrient input and output, the annual budget of N(NO₃/sup -/+NH₄/sup +/) and SO/sup 2-/₄were +12.46, +42.49 ton·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/ in the coniferous forest watershed, and +11.35, +26.26 ton·ha/sup -1/·yr/sup -1/ in the deciduous one. Thus N(NO₃/sup -/+NH₄/sup +/) and SO/sup 2-/₄were accumulated in both forested watershed ecosystems.

Hydrological Drought Analysis and Monitoring Using Multiple Drought Indices: The Case of Mulrocheon Watershed (수문학적 가뭄감시 및 해석을 위한 다양한 가뭄지수 평가 -물로천 유역을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Joo-Heon;Park, Seo-Yeon;Kim, Min Gyu;Chung, Il-Moon
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.41 no.5
    • /
    • pp.477-484
    • /
    • 2021
  • Due to climate change, parts of Korea are experiencing large and small droughts every 2-3 years and extreme droughts every 7 years. Since most droughts occur mainly in areas where small water supply facilities in the tributaries or upstream are located, more research on technology for securing water in these areas is required. In this study, a drought evaluation using SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index), SDI (Streamflow Drought Index), and WBDI (Water Budget-based Drought Index) was performed to investigate hydrological drought in the Mulrocheon watershed of Chuncheon, a vulnerable area in terms of water supply. As a result of calculating hydrological drought indices SPEI and SDI, examining each duration, it was confirmed that the common drought in 2014 did not recover and continued until 2015. In the hydrological drought index evaluation result by WBDI, a very severe drought condition was observed in the spring of 2015 following 2014, and that drought was the most severe at -1.94 in November 2017. As a result of deriving a SDF (Severity-Duration-Frequency) curve through frequency analysis by duration using the drought index calculated on a monthly basis from 2003 to 2019 (17 years), most droughts in the Mulrocheon watershed were found to have a return period of less than 10 years, but droughts that occurred in 2014, 2015, and 2019 were found to cover more than 20 years, respectively.

Evaluation of Water Quality Impacts of Forest Fragmentation at Doam-Dam Watershed using GIS-based Modeling System (GIS 기반의 모형을 이용한 도암댐 유역의 산림 파편화에 따른 수(水)환경 영향 평가)

  • Heo, Sung-Gu;Kim, Ki-Sung;Ahn, Jae-Hun;Yoon, Jong-Suk;Lim, Kyoungjae;Choi, Joongdae;Shin, Yong-Chul;Lyou, Chang-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
    • /
    • v.9 no.4
    • /
    • pp.81-94
    • /
    • 2006
  • The water quality impacts of forest fragmentation at the Doam-dam watershed were evaluated in this study. For this ends, the watershed scale model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was utilized. To exclude the effects of different magnitude and patterns in weather, the same weather data of 1985 was used because of significant differences in precipitation in year 1985 and 2000. The water quality impacts of forest fragmentation were analyzed temporarily and spatially because of its nature. The flow rates for Winter and Spring has increased with forest fragmentations by $8,366m^3/month$ and $72,763m^3/month$ in the S1 subwatershed, experiencing the most forest fragmentation within the Doam-dam watershed. For Summer and Fall, the flow rate has increased by $149,901m^3/month$ and $107,109m^3/month$, respectively. It is believed that increased flow rates contributed significant amounts of soil erosion and diffused nonpoint source pollutants into the receiving water bodies. With the forest fragmentation in the S1 watershed, the average sediment concentration values for Winter and Spring increased by 5.448mg/L and 13.354mg/L, respectively. It is believed that the agricultural area, which were forest before the forest fragmentation, are responsible for increased soil erosion and sediment yield during the spring thaw and snow melts. For Spring and Fall, the sediment concentration values increased by 20.680mg/L and 24.680mg/L, respectively. Compared with Winter and Spring, the increased precipitation during Summer and Fall contributed more soil erosion and increased sediment concentration value in the stream. Based on the results obtained from the analysis performed in this study, the stream flow and sediment concentration values has increased with forest fragmentation within the S1 subwatershed. These increased flow and soil erosion could contribute the eutrophication in the receiving water bodies. This results show that natural functionalities of the forest, such as flood control, soil erosion protection, and water quality improvement, can be easily lost with on-going forest fragmentation within the watershed. Thus, the minimize the negative impacts of forest fragmentation, comprehensive land use planning at watershed scale needs to be developed and implemented based on the results obtained in this research.

  • PDF

Problems of Water Use and Estimation of Water Right in North Han River Shared by North and South Korea (II) - Estimation of Water Right in Downstream Area (남북공유하천 북한강의 물이용 문제점 및 수리권 추정 (II) -하류유역 수리권 추정)

  • Ahn, Jong-Seo;Lee, Gwang-Man;Jung, Kwan-Sue
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
    • /
    • v.44 no.4
    • /
    • pp.315-325
    • /
    • 2011
  • There are not many practical measures to solve a water conflict, when a hydromorphologically asymmetric situation in international rivers exists whereby downstream users may not affect upstream users but upstream users do cause downstream impacts. In taking advantage of this merit, North Korea has built Imnam Dam in upstream of North Han River and uses water for trans-basin hydropower generation. As an impact of this dam South Korean' area as a downstream user has been suffered from water deficit and dry river. It is very critical for South Korea to solve a key problem such as water allocation for water supply and river maintenance. Therefore, this study is aim to suggest alternatives for equitable water allocation in consideration of special circumstances between the South and the North. For this, reviewing the allocation methods of water rights is carried using lessons obtained from international river cases. The results show that the minimum desired streamflow is calculated at 7.3 $m^3/sec$; water budget analysis by the equitable distribution of streamflows at the border line of the North Han River, the difference in water supply deficiency is at 3.7 $m^3/sec$ before and after Imnam Dam; in the determined distribution method, the difference in water deficiency is at 11.38 $m^3/sec$. These results show that South Korea should be secured 11.38 $m^3/sec$ from North Korean's Imnam Dam in respective of water use right and sound river maintenance.

Development of an anisotropic spatial interpolation method for velocity in meandering river channel (비등방성을 고려한 사행하천의 유속 공간보간기법 개발)

  • You, Hojun;Kim, Dongsu
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
    • /
    • v.50 no.7
    • /
    • pp.455-465
    • /
    • 2017
  • Understanding of the two-dimensional velocity field is crucial in terms of analyzing various hydrodynamic and fluvial processes in the riverine environments. Until recently, many numerical models have played major roles of providing such velocity field instead of in-situ flow measurements, because there were limitations in instruments and methodologies suitable for efficiently measuring in the broad range of river reaches. In the last decades, however, the advent of modernized instrumentations started to revolutionize the flow measurements. Among others, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) became very promising especially for accurately assessing streamflow discharge, and they are also able to provide the detailed velocity field very efficiently. Thus it became possible to capture the velocity field only with field observations. Since most of ADCPs measurements have been mostly conducted in the cross-sectional lines despite their capabilities, it is still required to apply appropriate interpolation methods to obtain dense velocity field as likely as results from numerical simulations. However, anisotropic nature of the meandering river channel could have brought in the difficulties for applying simple spatial interpolation methods for handling dynamic flow velocity vector, since the flow direction continuously changes over the curvature of the channel shape. Without considering anisotropic characteristics in terms of the meandering, therefore, conventional interpolation methods such as IDW and Kriging possibly lead to erroneous results, when they dealt with velocity vectors in the meandering channel. Based on the consecutive ADCP cross-sectional measurements in the meandering river channel. For this purpose, the geographic coordinate with the measured ADCP velocity was converted from the conventional Cartesian coordinate (x, y) to a curvilinear coordinate (s, n). The results from application of A-VIM showed significant improvement in accuracy as much as 41.5% in RMSE.