• Title, Summary, Keyword: Structural constraint

Search Result 363, Processing Time 0.04 seconds

The Effect of Leisure Constraint on Leisure Attitude of Workers (직장인들의 여가제약이 여가태도에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon So-Young;Moon Sook-Jae;Yoo Soo-Hyun
    • Korean Family Resource Management Association
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.59-73
    • /
    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to understand which factors affect on the leisure constraint and leisure attitude of workers, to observe how the factors of leisure constraints affect on the leisure attitude. The subjects of this study were 267 urban workers who are older than 20 years old and resident in Seoul. The periods of this study was from November 15 to December 5. The modified versions of leisure constraint scale and leisure attitude scale were utilized for this study. The results of this study are as follows : First, as a result to compare the average of leisure constraint factors, intrapersonal constraint, which are individual mental status as interest, self-consciousness, uneasiness et at., was founded generally less than interpersonal constraints as personal relationship for leisure activity, or structural constraints as financial, time, information et at., Secondly, it was found that interpersonal constraint was statistically different in age, and that structural constraint was statistically different in sex, education, health status, marital status, income, and career. Thirdly, there were statistically different in cognitive leisure attitude, feeling leisure attitude, and behavioral leisure attitude according to the average monthly income and career. But, it was found that marital status and the five-day workweek system were not statistically different in 3 leisure attitude factors. Finally, 3 leisure constraint factors(intrapersonal, interpersonal, structural) had statistically significant effect on cognitive leisure attitude. Also, intrapersonal leisure constraint and interpersonal leisure constraint had statistically significant effect on feeling leisure attitude and behavioral leisure attitude

  • PDF

BPN Based Approximate Optimization for Constraint Feasibility (구속조건의 가용성을 보장하는 신경망기반 근사최적설계)

  • Lee, Jong-Soo;Jeong, Hee-Seok;Kwak, No-Sung
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.141-144
    • /
    • 2007
  • Given a number of training data, a traditional BPN is normally trained by minimizing the absolute difference between target outputs and approximate outputs. When BPN is used as a meta-model for inequality constraint function, approximate optimal solutions are sometimes actually infeasible in a case where they are active at the constraint boundary. The paper describes the development of the efficient BPN based meta-model that enhances the constraint feasibility of approximate optimal solution. The modified BPN based meta-model is obtained by including the decision condition between lower/upper bounds of a constraint and an approximate value. The proposed approach is verified through a simple mathematical function and a ten-bar planar truss problem.

  • PDF

Hierarchical Leisure Constraints on Leisure Motivation and Participation among Security Agent

  • Kim, Kyong-Sik;Park, Young-Man
    • International Journal of Contents
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.59-68
    • /
    • 2010
  • This research looks close the effect of security agent's hierarchical leisure constraint on the leisure motivation and participation based on the Jackson's Model of the hierarchical leisure constraints. This research selected 420 people for sampling, designating security agents who work for security companies located in Seoul in 2009 at present as subjects by utilizing purposive sampling method, but the number of sampling used for ultimate analysis is 356. In this research, reliability analysis's and structural equation modeling's Maximum Likelihood method are used to prove the reliability and validity of questionnaire. By using these research method and procedures, the conclusion of this research is as following. First, intra-personal leisure constraint was affected by interpersonal, structural leisure constraint. Second, leisure motivation was affected negatively by leisure constraint. Third, leisure participation was affected positively by leisure motivation. Synthesizing all things referred above, leisure constraint was affected by inter-personal, structural leisure constraint, and in turn, leisure motivation and leisure participation were affected by its effects. It turned out that leisure motivation has a meaningful effect on leisure participation through leisure participation and adjusting process.

A Study on the SNS Advertising's Word-of-Mouth Constraint Factors in the Social Network Service (소셜 네트워크 서비스에서 SNS광고 구전 제약요인에 대한 연구)

  • Yun, Dae-Hong;Kang, Yong-Soo
    • Management & Information Systems Review
    • /
    • v.35 no.1
    • /
    • pp.69-84
    • /
    • 2016
  • This study set the research model to examine the correlation between Word-of-Mouth constraint factors, efforts to negotiate pertaining to these, Flow and Word-of-Mouth intent based on the theory of leisure constrain when it comes to the correlation between consumers' Word-of-Mouth constraint factors and Word-of-Mouth. Correlation among the variables were verified in an empirical manner. Results of this study are summarized as follows. After verifying the hypotheses, all the hypotheses were adopted excluding the hypotheses of two results (Hypothesis 1, hypotheses 5). Detailed results regarding this are as follows. First, the following is the effect of the Intrapersonal Constraint and Word-of-Mouth constraint factors on the Word-of-Mouth constraint negotiation effort. Interpersonal Constraint and Structural Constraint exert positive (-) effect on the Word-of-Mouth constraint negotiation effort. In case of Intrapersonal Constraint, negative (-) effect was demonstrated. Thus, this was statistically significant although dismissed from hypothesis verification. Second, the following is the result of examining the structural correlation between Word-of-Mouth constraint negotiation effort, Flow and Word-of-Mouth. Word-of-Mouth constraint negotiation effort exerts positive (-) effect on the Flow, but it was not statistically effective in case of the Word-of-Mouth. Lastly, it is possible to see that the Flow plays the role of a medium since it exerted positive (-) effect on the Word-of-Mouth. Results of this study are expected to provide key theoretical and working level implications as well as general understanding of the Word-of-Mouth constraint factors, consumers' Flow and Word-of-Mouth.

  • PDF

Structural Optimization using Improved Higher-order Convex Approximation (개선된 고차 Convex 근사화를 이용한 구조최적설계)

  • 조효남;민대홍;김성헌
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.271-278
    • /
    • 2002
  • Structural optimization using improved higer-order convex approximation is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is a generalization of the convex approximation method. The order of the approximation function for each constraint is automatically adjusted in the optimization process. And also the order of each design variable is differently adjusted. This self-adjusted capability makes the approximate constraint values conservative enough to maintain the optimum design point of the approximate problem in feasible region. The efficiency of proposed algorithm, compared with conventional algorithm is successfully demonstrated in the Three-bar Truss example.

  • PDF

Welded plate and T-stub tests and implications on structural behavior of moment frame connections

  • Dong, P.;Kilinski, T.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
    • /
    • v.2 no.1
    • /
    • pp.35-50
    • /
    • 2002
  • A series of tests on simple-welded plate specimens (SWPS) and T-stub tension specimens simulating some of the joint details in moment frame connections were conducted in this investigation. The effects of weld strength mismatch and weld metal toughness on structural behavior of these specimens were considered under both static and dynamic loading conditions. Finite element analyses were performed by taking into account typical weld residual stress distributions and weld metal strength mismatch conditions to facilitate the interpretation of the test results. The major findings are as follows: (a) Sufficient specimen size requirements are essential in simulating both load transfer and constraint conditions that are relevant to moment frame connections, (b) Weld residual stresses can significantly elevate stress triaxiality in addition to structural constraint effects, both of which can significantly reduce the plastic deformation capacity in moment frame connections, (c) Based on the test results, dynamic loading within a loading rate of 0.02 in/in/sec, as used in this study, premature brittle fractures were not seen, although a significant elevation of the yield strength can be clearly observed. However, brittle fracture features can be clearly identified in T-stub specimens in which severe constraint effects (stress triaxiality) are considered as the primary cause, (d) Based on both the test and FEA results, T-stub specimens provide a reasonable representation of the joint conditions in moment frame connections in simulating both complex load transfer mode and constraint conditions.

A study of the impact of constraint factors of festival participation and negotiation efforts of festival participant on festival satisfaction (축제의 참여제약 요인과 관람객의 협상노력을 통한 축제만족에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Han-Joo
    • Management & Information Systems Review
    • /
    • v.33 no.2
    • /
    • pp.205-223
    • /
    • 2014
  • A study of the impact of constraint factors of festival participation and negotiation efforts of festival participant on festival satisfaction. This study reviewed earlier studies about festival and verified an impact of the leisure constraint factors of festival participant and the negotiation efforts on festival satisfaction by considering previous literature. Hypotheses based on literature reviews were analyzed emprically. According to the result of study, in aspect of the relationship between constraint factors of festival participation(intrapersonal constraint, interpersonal constraint, structural constraint) and negotiation efforts of festival participation, both interpersonal constraint and structural constraint have positive influence on constraint negotiation efforts. However, intrapersonal constraint factor influenced negatively. Also, the results revealed that in aspect of the relationship among festival participation, festival experience recognition, and satisfaction, festival participation have positive influence on cognitive and emotional experience and finally satisfaction.

  • PDF

Seismic performance and its favorable structural system of three-tower suspension bridge

  • Zhang, Xin-Jun;Fu, Guo-Ning
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
    • /
    • v.50 no.2
    • /
    • pp.215-229
    • /
    • 2014
  • Due to the lack of effective longitudinal constraint for center tower, structural stiffness of three-tower suspension bridge becomes less than that of two-tower suspension bridge, and therefore it becomes more susceptible to the seismic action. By taking a three-tower suspension bridge-the Taizhou Highway Bridge over the Yangtze River with two main spans of 1080 m as example, structural dynamic characteristics and seismic performance of the bridge is investigated, and the effects of cable's sag to span ratio, structural stiffness of the center tower, and longitudinal constraint of the girder on seismic response of the bridge are also investigated, and the favorable structural system is discussed with respect to seismic performance. The results show that structural response under lateral seismic action is more remarkable, especially for the side towers, and therefore more attentions should be paid to the lateral seismic performance and also the side towers. Large cable's sag, flexible center tower and the longitudinal elastic cable between the center tower and the girder are favorable to improve structural seismic performance of long-span three-tower suspension bridges.

Transformation of Dynamic Loads into Equivalent Static Load based on the Stress Constraint Conditions (응력 구속조건을 고려한 동하중의 등가정하중으로의 변환)

  • Kim, Hyun-Gi;Kim, Euiyoung;Cho, Maenghyo
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
    • /
    • v.26 no.2
    • /
    • pp.165-171
    • /
    • 2013
  • Due to the difficulty in considering dynamic load in the view point of a computer resource and computing time, it is common that external load is assumed as ideal static loads. However, structural analysis under static load cannot guarantee the safety of design of the structures under dynamic loadings. Recently, the systematic method to construct equivalent static load from the given dynamic load has been proposed. Previous study has calculated equivalent static load through the optimization procedure under displacement constraints. However, previously reported works to distribute equivalent static load were based on ad-hoc methods. Improper selection of equivalent static loading positions may results in unreliable prediction of structural design. The present study proposes the selection method of the proper locations of equivalent static loads to dynamically applied loads when we consider transient dynamic structural problems. Moreover, it is appropriate to take into account the stress constraint as well as displacement constraint condition for the safety design. But the previously reported studies of equivalent static load design methods considered only displacement constraint conditions but not stress constraint conditions. In the present study we consider not only displacement constraint but also stress constraint conditions. Through a few numerical examples, the efficiency and reliability of proposed scheme is verified by comparison of the equivalent stress between equivalent static loading and dynamic loading.

Effect of dissimilar metal SENB specimen width and crack length on stress intensity factor

  • Murthy, A. Ramachandra;Muthu Kumaran, M.;Saravanan, M.;Gandhi, P.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
    • /
    • v.52 no.7
    • /
    • pp.1579-1586
    • /
    • 2020
  • Dissimilar metal joints (DMJs) are more common in the application of piping system of many industries. A 2- D and 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) is carried out on dissimilar metal Single Edged Notch Bending (DMSENB) specimens fabricated from ferritic steel, austenitic steel and Inconel - 182 alloy to study the behavior of DMJs with constraints by using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) principles. Studies on DMSENB specimens are conducted with respect to (i) dissimilar metal joint width (DMJW) (geometrical constraints) (5 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm, 30 mm and 50 mm) (ii) strength mismatch (material constraints) and (iii) crack lengths (16 mm, 20 mm and 24 mm) to study the DMJ behavior. From the FEA investigation, it is observed that (i) SIF increases with increase of crack length and DMJWs (ii) significant constraint effect (geometry, crack tip and strength mismatch) is observed for DMJWs of 5 mm and 10 mm (iii) stress distribution at the interfaces of DMSENB specimen exhibits clear indication of strength mismatch (iv) 3-D FEA yields realistic behavior (v) constraint effect is found to be significant if DMJW is less than 20 mm and the ratio of specimen length to the DMJW is greater than 7.4.