• Title, Summary, Keyword: Substitute

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Effect of Heating on DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Meat Substitute

  • Song, Hyeun Sung;Bae, Jun Kyu;Park, Inshik
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.80-84
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute by heating. The meat substitute showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than those of other foods rich in protein such as beef, pork, chicken, and soybean curd. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute was dependent upon concentration, heating temperature and heating time of meat substitute. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute was enhanced with increasing heating temperature and time. The increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity was only applied to meat substitute without showing any activation in other foods rich in protein such as beef, pork, chicken, and soybean curd.

Grounded Theory Analysis on the Substitute Behavior and Consumption of Mothers in terms on their Children's Academic Achievements and Appearances (근거이론에 기초한 자녀의 학업과 외모에 대한 어머니의 대리만족과 소비 분석)

  • Kim, Sang Ji;Jin, Hyun Jeong
    • Family and Environment Research
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    • v.56 no.6
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    • pp.527-539
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    • 2018
  • This study analyzed the substitute behavior of mothers of infants or elementary-school-aged children in terms of consumption. For this study, in-depth interviews were conducted with women residing in the Seoul metropolitan area who show significant interest in their children. The interviews were analyzed based on the grounded theory. The findings of this study are as follows. First, mothers show substitute behavior for their children's appearance. The younger the children, the more substitute consumption exhibited by mothers. As children grow older and are able to choose what to wear, mothers show less substitute behavior tendencies regarding appearance management. Second, mothers tend to exhibit substitute behavior regarding their children's academic achievements. Mothers hope their children will be more successful than themselves were or will achieve the dreams that they failed to accomplish, which drives substitute behavior. Mothers affectionately provide children with financial support so they can obtain academic achievement and they hope their children will have successful occupations in the future. Third, mothers who are not satisfied with their appearance and have low self-esteem are more likely to exhibit substitute behavior with their children. This study will be helpful in understanding mothers' motivation and psychological factors regarding the support of their children.

A Study on the Oxidative Stability and Cooking Scientific Characteristics of Fat Substitute MCT (MCT 대체지방의 산화안정성 및 조리 적합성에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Myung-Soo;Woo, Na-Ri-Yah
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.181-191
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried on the oxidative stability and the real practice possibilities in cooking of fat replacer MCT. Nowadays, it was known that fats and oils had become causes for cardiac disease, obesity and cancer, so the new materials were needed for fat substitute that has less fat contents and low calories. The food industry concerned about fats and oils had been researched and developed new and various kinds of substitute fats. MCT(medium chain triglycerides) is one of the fat based fat substitutes used as fat replacers. The POV of com germ oil(CO), soybean oil(SO), shortening(ST), butter(BT), their blended oil with MCT 10-50%(w/w), and MCT were determined and oxidative stability by POV was compared MCT with those of them. MCT has shown higher oxidative stability than CO, SO, ST, BT, so oxidative stabilities in all kinds of blended oils become higher and higher by the increased substitution ratios. In case of bread, the volume of bread prepared with MCT(MCT bread) substituted for ST at 10-40% level(w/w) were increased a little comparing to that made of shortening(ST bread). But degree of gelatinization of MCT bread were a little lower than ST bread, at the substitute ratio above 40%, the degree of gelatinization were reduced greatly. These phenomena were sustained in 9 stored days. While baking losses of MCT breads were almost same as ST bread until 30% substitute ratio, and the appearances of MCT breads were similar to ST bread until 40% substitute ratio. Also rheological properties and color(Lab) of MCT breads had shown no different significantly from ST bread until 20% substitute ratio, but by the results of sensory evaluation, overall acceptance including appearance, color, flavor, taste, texture of MCT breads were recognized almost same as ST bread by panel until 40% substitute ratio. Depends on the above results, we can suggest that 30-40% of MCT will substitute for shortening in making bread in order to reduce fat and calories intake amounts.

Estimation on the Durability of High-Performance Concrete Using Metakaolin (Metakaolin 혼합 고강도 콘크리트의 내구특성 평가)

  • Moon Han Young;Yum Jun Hwan;Moon Su Dong;Lee Sang Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.196-199
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    • 2004
  • Metakaolin is a cementitious material for producing high-strength concrete. This material is now used as substitute for silica-fume. In this paper, we tested the compressive strength of concrete according to the substitute ratio of metakaolin, silica-fume. And we did the durability test such as chloride ion diffusion and chemical attack. In the compressive strength test, the result shows that $10\%$ substitute of metakaolin & silica-fume for binder is optimum. In the chloride ion diffusion test, according to the increase of substitute of metakaolin & silica-fume for binder, the diffusion coefficient is more reduced. And in the chemical attack test, according to the increase of substitute, the resistance is more excellent. In the durability test, we recognized that metakaolin is able to used as a substitute for silica-fume.

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A Substitute Habitat Planning for 'Kaloula borealis' Based on Wetlands (습지를 기반으로 하는 맹꽁이 대체서식처 조성 계획)

  • Jung, Young Sun;Park, Mi Ok;Koo, Bon Hak
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to make a plan and design the substitute habitat for Kaloula borealis by pre-proposed planning model for wildlife based on wetlands. The habitat characteristics and distribution status in study area, Shingi village in Gunpo, Gyeonggi Province, were surveyed and restoration strategies of habitats including conservation, enhancement were established by conservation value assessment, and the substitute habitat needed to replace was selected. One of three potential substitute habitats in the same watershed to the original habitat was selected by suitable site assessment. And finally the substitute habitat for Kaloula borealis was planned by the planning indices, and some adults and tadpoles were captured and released into built substitute.

A Study on the Propriety of Substitute Fuel of Gasoline Engine(VI) (가솔린 엔진용 대체연료의 타당성에 관한 연구(VI))

  • 유정인;양옥용
    • Journal of the korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 1985
  • This study consists of instrumenting and running tests on variable compression engines and measuring the following combustion characterics: (a)flame speed, (b) emission and (c)performance parameter such as power and economy. The results were as follows: 1) The phase separation diagram of substitute fuels were obtained from phase separation experiment. 2) The flame propagation speed of substitute fuels were higher than gasoline and increased with increasing methanol weight percent of substitute fuels. 3) BEMP of substitute fuels was slightly less than that of gasoline but in the range of small weight percent, BEMP was compatible to gasoline. 4) Concentration of NOx decreased significantly with delaying spark advancing time. Also, it decreased for rich equivalence ratio but increased with high compression ratio. In general, NOx concentration was much lower than that of gasoline. 5) Concentration of HC and CO increased for rich equivalence ratio. Also it was lower than that of gasoline.

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A Study on the Strength Feature of Metakaolin (메타카올린의 강도특성에 대한 연구)

  • 문수동;이상호;문한영;염준환
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.23-26
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    • 2003
  • Metakaolin is a cementitious material for producing high-strength concrete. This material is now used as substitute for silica-fume. In this paper, we studied the properties of fresh concrete such as slump-flow, air content, and the feature of strength of hardened concrete according to the substitute ratio of metakaolin, silica-fume. In the fresh concrete test, the time depend loss of slump-flow & air content is good to 10-15% substitute ratio of metakaolin. And, in the strength test, 10-15% substitute ratio of metakaolin is good for producing high-strength concrete also. But, allowing for economical efficiency, we concluded that 10% is a adequate substitute ratio for producing high performance concrete.

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Twenty-Four Hour pH Study and Manometry in Gastric Esophageal Substitutes in Children

  • Kekre, Geeta;Dikshit, Vishesh;Kothari, Paras;Laddha, Ashok;Gupta, Abhaya
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.257-263
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Studies on the physiology of the transposed stomach as an esophageal substitute in the form of a gastric pull-up or a gastric tube in children are limited. We conducted a study of motility and the pH of gastric esophageal substitutes using manometry and 24-hour pH measurements in 10 such patients. Methods: Manometry and 24 hour pH studies were performed on 10 children aged 24 to 55 months who had undergone gastric esophageal replacement. Results: Six gastric tubes (4, isoperistaltic; 2, reverse gastric tubes) and 4 gastric pull-ups were studied. Two gastric tubes and 4 gastric pull-ups were transhiatal. Four gastric tubes were retrosternal. The mean of the lowest pH at the midpoint of the substitute was 4.0 (range, 2.8-5.0) and in the stomach remaining below the diaphragm was 3.3 (range, 1.9-4.2). In both types of substitute, the difference between the peak and the nadir pH recorded in the intra-thoracic and the sub-diaphragmatic portion of the stomach was statistically significant (p<0.05), with the pH in the portion below the diaphragm being lower. The lowest pH values in the substitute and in the remnant stomach were noted mainly in the evening hours whereas the highest pH was noted mainly in the morning hours. All the cases showed a simultaneous rise in the intra-cavitatory pressure along the substitute while swallowing. Conclusion: The study suggested a normal gastric circadian rhythm in the gastric esophageal substitute. Mass contractions occurred in response to swallowing. The substitute may be able to effectively clear contents.

Experimental Study on Reinforcement Effects of Soil Shear Strength by Nylon Net(Substitute Materials Simulating a Root System) -Analysis using Simple Shear Tester under Soil Suction Control - (Nylon Net(대체근계)의 토질강도보강효과에 대한 실험적 연구 - 토양수분제어하의 단순전단시험에 의한 해석 -)

  • Lee, Chang-Woo;Youn, Ho-Joong;Jeong, Yongho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.76-81
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    • 2006
  • The reinforcement of soil shear strength by nylon net as substitute materials simulating a fine root system was evaluated by soil strength parameters(apparent cohesion(c) and internal friction angle(tan${\phi}$), using simple shear tester which clearly depicts shear deformation and controls soil suction. And the results of shear test by using bamboo as a substitute materials simulating a main root system and using nylon net as a substitute materials simulating a fine root system were compared. The reinforcement of soil strength by nylon net are expressed by apparent cohesion more than internal friction angle. In addition the increment of apparent cohesion by nylon net reached a peak in suction 60 $cmH_2O$. Different from with bamboo, the possibility of the change on internal friction angle(tan${\phi}$) caused by the soil water condition was shown in shear strain 20% condition. These results show that the mechanism of reinforcement by substitute materials simulating root system may be different in the condition of various soil water content.

Substitute or Complementary among Types of Special Interest Tourism and A Causal Relationship between Total Individual Tourism Demand and Each Types -Application of Correlation Analysis and Econometrics Models- (특수목적관광 유형 간의 대체보완 및 총 관광수요와의 영향관계 -상관관계분석 및 계량경제모형의 활용-)

  • Gwak, Gang-Hee
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.11 no.8
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    • pp.409-418
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    • 2011
  • An aims of this study is to examine substitute or complementary among types of special interest tourism and a causal relationship between total individual tourism demand and each types. Of 500 surveyed respondents in Seoul, 348 was valid to analyse. As statistical analysis method, correlation analysis was utilized for substitute or complementary and Econometrics models were applied for causal relationship. The results of this study demonstrate that agro tourism and ocean tourism lie on substitute which means competitive. Also, ocean tourism has had more impacted on total individual tourism demand than any other types of special interest tourism.