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Policy Study on Korean Retail Micro Business (국제 비교를 통한 소매업 소상공인 현황과 정책적 시사점)

  • Suh, Yong Gu;Kim, Suk Kyung
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.39-57
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    • 2012
  • The unabated influx of micro businesses has turned the Korean retailing market to a rat race, which causes severe financial distress for micro business owners due to heavy competition. The woes of these micro business owner's are exacerbated by the presence of large scale distributors such as Super Supermarket(SSM) and large discount stores. In summary, the Korean retail market is overburdened an uneconomically viable. Retailing has low barriers to entry which attracts unskilled labor or those with little capital. These start-ups have low opportunity costs since they would make low wages elsewhere in the economy. Thus, these owners are content with relatively low returns on their investment. These 'subsistence ventures' are maintained for economical viability rather than economic growth. These 'subsistence ventures' intensifies competition among small-scale businesses. The presence of large retail corporations also aggravates the situation. The recent stagnation of the economy has worsened the retail market in Korea. The overwhelming competition solidifies the coarse structural system and the prolonged economic sluggishness has increased the risk of insolvency for micro business owners. As the economy continues to stagnate, the imminent risk in retailing market will rise up to surface threatening economic stability. More systematic inflows and outflows of retailers are required in order to redress this structural problem. It has been empirically shown that the self-employment rate is high in Korea compared to other OECD countries. To draw the comparison of self-employment rate by industry, Korea shows high rates among transportation, whole sale, retail, education, lodging, and restaurants. In the case of the transportation and education service sectors, this high rate can be explained by the idiosyncratic nature of Korean culture. In the transportation sector, political policies favor private cap service and private freight carriers. In the education service sector, Koreans put particular emphasis on education that leads to many private institutions that outnumber other OECD countries. For these singular reasons, Korea maintains high micro business, self-employed rates particularly in retailing. A comparable nation is Japan, with its similar social, economic, cultural environment among OECD countries. Unlike Korea, Japan has much lower rates of micro business which continues to decrease. Also Korean retailers are much more destitute than Japanese. The fundamental problem of Korean retailing is the involuntary exit of these 'subsistence ventures,' micro businesses with low margins, in which a small drop in demand can lead to financial difficulties for the owner. This problem will be exacerbated when Korean babyboomers retire and join the micro business ventures. The first priority in order to cope with the severity of oversupply in retailing is to provide better opportunities for the potential self-employers. There should be viable alternatives to subsistent ventures. Strengthening the retirement program, scrutiny of exit process, reconfiguration of policy funds are the recommendations.

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The Impact of Changes in Market Shares among Retailing Types on the Price Index (소매업태간 시장점유율 변화가 물가에 미친 영향)

  • Moon, Youn-Hee;Choi, Sung-Ho;Choi, Ji-Ho
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.93-115
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    • 2012
  • This study empirically examines the impact of changes in market shares among retailing types on the price index. The retailing type is classified into 6 groups: department store, big mart, super market, convenient store, specialty merchant, and on-line store. The market shares of retailing types are calculated by the ratio of each retailing type monthly sales to total monthly retailing sales in which total retailing sales is the sum of each retailing type sales. We employed several price indices: consumer price index (CPI), CPI for living necessaries, and fresh food price index. In addition, this study used fundamental price indices based on 25 product families as well as 42 representative products. The empirical model also included several variables in order to control for the macroeconomic effects and those variables are the exchange rate, M1, an oil price, and the industrial production index. The data is monthly time-series data spanning over the period from January 2000 to December 2010. In order to test for the stability of data series, we conducted ADF test and PP test in which the model and length of lag were determined by the relevant previous literature and based on the AIC. The empirical results indicate that changes in market shares among retailing types have impacts on the price index. Table A shows that impacts differ as to which price index to use and which product families and products to use. For department store, it lowers the price of food and non-alcoholic beverages, home appliances, fresh food, fresh and vegetables, but it keeps the price high for fresh fruit. The big mart retailing type has a positive impact on the price of food, nut has a negative effect on clothing and foot wear, non-food, and fresh fruit. For super market, it has a positive impact on food and non-alcoholic beverages, fresh food, fresh shellfishes, but increases the price of CPI for living necessaries and non-food. The specialty merchant retailing type increases the price level of CPI for living necessaries and fresh fruit. For on-line store type, it keeps the price high for CPI for living necessaries and non-food as well as fresh fruit. For the analysis based on 25 product families shows that changes in market shares among retailing types also have different effects on the price index. Table B summarizes the different results. The 42 representative product level analysis is summerized in Table C and it indicates that changes in market shares among retailing types have different effects on the price index. The study offers the theoretical and practical implication to these findings and also suggests the direction for the further analysis.

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Pulsed Laser System of Ultra-scan Way for Uterus Rehabilitation Treatment (자궁 재활치료를 위한 울트라-스캔 방식의 펄스형 레이저시스템)

  • Kim, Whi-Young
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.256-265
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    • 2009
  • Laser output becomes output adjustment from 20 w to 100 w consecutively and time of exposure is available adjustment through water plant in 0.01 seconds. Pulse action can intercept laser beam periodically and supermarket pulse 0.1 $\sim$ between 1ms discharge consist and momentary laser output is increased to 5 $\sim$ 10. Specially, that must remove malignancy cell in womb nine escarps in the case of uterine cancer first of all stability of tube output about pulse by weight very, stable soft switching action area is defined without high frequency transformer leakage inductance ($L_1$) increase and additional series inductor insertion to converter the first main circuit securing zero voltage and marks of switching action in this research specially, because circulation current path of inductor ($L_f$) current is intercepted, converter the first main circuit switching component and spiritual enlightenment damage of high frequency transformer take decreasing greatly and high frequency the second stoppage department ($D_5,\;D_6$) becomes soft switching, and also, switching damage absorption quantity characteristic that can come to life again as subordinate have, and to become tube stabilization design and result that manufacture and experiment, brought result that improve of 10% than existing equipment, and if supplement as systematic late, it becomes thought to get into superior result.

Molecular Structure of PCP Pincer Complexes: Poisoning Catalyst on the Dehydrogenation of Alkanes (알칸의 탈수소화반응에서의 촉매독 화합물의 분자구조)

  • Lee Ji Hyun;Chun Sang Jin;Kwon Ki Hyeok;Lee Do Weon
    • Korean Journal of Crystallography
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.43-53
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    • 2005
  • The dihydrido P-C-P pincer complex, $IrH_2{C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}$ (1), was successfully prepared from the reaction of the hydrochloride complex, $IrClH (C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}$, and super acid $(LiBEt_3H)$ under 1 atm of hydrogen in pentane solution at room temperature and followed by Heating at $130^{\circ}C$ in vacuo. Jensen recently found that the dihydrido P-C-P pincer complex 1 is a highly active homogeneous catalyst for the transfer dehydrogenation of alkanes with unusual longterm stability at temperatures as high as $200^{\circ}C$. The treatment of dihydrido complex 1 with nitrogen, water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide in presence of tert-butylethylene (the) at room temperature in an appropriate solution gave the dinitrogen complex, $[Ir{C-6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}]_2({\mu}-N_2)$ (2), the hydrido hydroxyl complex, $IrH(OH){C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}$ (3), the carbon dioxide complex, $Ir({\eta}^2-CO_2) {C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}$ (including the bicarbonate complex, $IrH({\kappa}^2-O_2COH){C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}\;(4))$, and the carbonyl complex, $Ir(CO) {C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}\;(5)$ (including the carboxyl complex, $IrH(C(O)OH) {C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}\;(6))$, in good yield, respectively. These P-C-P iridium complexes were isolated and characterized by $^1H,\;^{13}C,\;^{31}P\; NMR$, and IR spectroscopy. In addition, the complexes (1-6) were characterized by a single crystal X-ray crystallography. These complexes account for these small molecules' inhibition of dehydrogenation of alkanes catalyzed by the dihydrido complex 1.

Fabrication of Supercapacitors using Silver Nano Paste and Gel Electrolyte (은 나노 페이스트와 젤 전해질을 이용한 슈퍼캐패시터 제작)

  • Yoon, Seong Man;Jang, Hyunjung;Kim, Dae Won;Jang, Yunseok;Jo, Jeongdai;Go, Jeung Sang
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.410-415
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    • 2013
  • The supercapacitors were fabricated using silver (Ag) nano paste and activated carbon paste on the polyimide (PI) film and 5% potassium polyacrylate (PAAK) was used for gel electrolyte. In this paper, the current collector film and the electrode film were fabricated using screen printing. The thickness of printed silver paste was $7.3{\mu}m$ and the sheet resistance has the range of $5-7m{\Omega}/square$. An activated carbon with a surface area of $1,968m^2/g$, an electronic conducting agent (SUPER P, TIMCAL) and poly (4-vinylphenol) were mixed in 2-(2-buthoxyethoxy) ethyl acetate (BCA) with a ratio of 7:1:3 to fabricate the electrode paste. To analyze electrochemical characteristics, cyclic voltammetry was performed to evaluate the stability of the devices under the voltage range of -0.5-0.5 V. The calculated specific capacitances were 44.04 and 8.62 F/g for 10 and 500 mV/s scan rates, respectively.

Research Trend of Biomass-Derived Engineering Plastics (바이오매스 기반 엔지니어링 플라스틱 연구 동향)

  • Jeon, Hyeonyeol;Koo, Jun Mo;Park, Seul-A;Kim, Seon-Mi;Jegal, Jonggeon;Cha, Hyun Gil;Oh, Dongyeop X.;Hwang, Sung Yeon;Park, Jeyoung
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 2020
  • Sustainable plastics can be mainly categorized into (1) biodegradable plastics decomposed into water and carbon dioxide after use, and (2) biomass-derived plastics possessing the carbon neutrality by utilizing raw materials converted from atmospheric carbon dioxide to biomass. Recently, biomass-derived engineering plastics (EP) and natural nanofiber-reinforced nanocomposites are emerging as a new direction of the industry. In addition to the eco-friendliness of natural resources, these materials are competitive over petroleum-based plastics in the high value-added plastics market. Polyesters and polycarbonates synthesized from isosorbide and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, which are representative biomass-derived monomers, are at the forefront of industrialization due to their higher transparency, mechanical properties, thermal stability, and gas barrier properties. Moreover, isosorbide has potential to be applied to super EP material with continuous service temperature over 150 ℃. In situ polymerization utilizing surface hydrophilicity and multi-functionality of natural nanofibers such as nanocellulose and nanochitin achieves remarkable improvements of mechanical properties with the minimal dose of nanofillers. Biomass-derived tough-plastics covered in this review are expected to replace petroleum-based plastics by satisfying the carbon neutrality required by the environment, the high functionality by the consumer, and the accessibility by the industry.

Love and Justice are Compatible ? - In Theory of Paul Ricœur (사랑과 정의, 양립 가능한가 - 폴 리쾨르 이론을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Kyung-lae
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.52
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    • pp.53-78
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    • 2018
  • In the moral culture of the West, love and justice are two commands with roots in ancient times. One is the heritage of Hebraism, and the other belongs to the tradition of Hebraism and Hellenism. The two concepts are the most important virtues required for preserving stability in society. These two commands are compatible, in an exclusive relationship to each other. To ultimately seek their reconciliation, the precise concept analysis and understanding of each of them should be premised on, due to the multi-layered meaning of implications of the two concepts. To this end, we first have started with a lexical meaning and have done a conceptual analysis of what these two concepts are expressing. We have looked at Paul $Ric{\oe}ur$ in his interpretation of the discourse of love and justice. Finally, we looked at how these two concepts are narrated in literature. Through the literary works of Stendal, Albert Camus, and Dostoevsky, we have seen examples of literary configurations that have been embodied in life. In this way, through conceptual analysis, discourse analysis, and narrative analysis of the two concepts, the following conclusions were drawn. Love and justice were not a matter of choice. We could see coldness and unrealism of a society lacking love or with a problem of unclean love, through Stendhal's and Albert Camus' novels and their actual debate. In addition, in unclean paternalism, risk of the power of love blocking certain a certain touch of justice was also confirmed. So, it was necessary for a healthy future society to explore the possibility of the coexistence of love and justice. We confirmed the possibility of compatibility in a 'considerate balance' wherein the 'moral judgment in situation' is required, as Paul $Ric{\oe}ur$ expressed. This ideal situation may be realized when forms of love involving solidarity, mutual care, and compassion with pain like Dostoevsky are combined with the principle of distributional justice. When Albert Camus pursued justice and eventually faced reality and mentioned the need for mercy, he could have made a moral judgment based on this situation. In the end, love protects justice, and justice contributes to the realization of love. Justice reduces super-ethical love to moral categories, and love plays a role in enabling justice to exert its full force.

Characteristics of Lactate Dehydrogenase Produced from Lactobacillus sp. FFy111-1 as a Ruminant Probiotic (반추동물용 활성제로서 Lactobacillus sp. FFy111-1이 생산한 Lactate Dehydrogenase의 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Sung, H.G.;Kim, D.K.;Bae, H.D.;Shin, H.T
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.625-634
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this experiment is to study the possibility of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) enzyme to prevent lactate accumulation in the rumen, For understanding capacity of bacterial LDH in rumen environments, this study was conducted to explore the effects of temperature, pH, VFAs and metal ions on Lactobacillus sp. FFy111-1's LDH activity, and the LDH activation in rumen fluid accumulated lactate. The optimum pH and temperature of LDH were pH 7.5 and 40$^{\circ}C$, respectively. The LDH activity had a good thennostability at range from 30 to 50$^{\circ}C$. The highest pH stability of the enzyme was at ranges from pH 7.0 to 8.0 and the enzyme activities showed above 64% level of non-treated one at pH 6.0 and 6.5. The LDH was inactivated by VFAs treatments but was enhanced by metal ion treatments without NaCl and $CuSO_4$ Especially, the LDH activity was increased to 127% and 124% of its original activity by 2 mM of $BaCl_2$ and $MnSO_4$, addition, respectively. When the acidic rumen fluid was treated by LDH enzyme of Lactobacillus sp. FFy111-1, the lactate concentration in the rumen fluid was lower compared with non-treated rumen fluid(P<0.05). This lactate reduction was resulted from an action of LDH. It was proved by result of purified D,L-LDH addition that showed the lowest lactate concentration among the treatments(P<0.05). Although further investigation of microbial LDH and ruminal lactate is needed, these findings suggest that the bacterial LDH has the potential capability to decrease the lactate accumulated in an acidic rumen fluid. Also, screening of super LDH producing bacteria and technical development for improving enzyme activity in rumen environment are essential keys for practical application.

A Kinematical Analysis of Belle Motion on Parallel Bars (평행봉 Belle 기술동작의 운동학적 분석)

  • Kong, Tae-Ung
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.43-53
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    • 2005
  • This study is to define how the difference of athletic change influence on the last regrasp after somersault in Belle movement of parallel bars. For his study, the following conclusion was produced by analysis of athletic change by means of three dimensional visual image in three athlete of nation. 1. As the picture of S1, there are total used time(2.01 sec), S3(2.17 sec) and S2(2.19 sec). In case of a short needed time, it is difficult for them to perform the remaining movement of the vertical elevating flight easily and comfortably, it is judged as performing the small movement with restrict swing. 2 In the change of body center sped by each event, it is calculated as $-89.1^{\circ}$ the narrowest in S1, $-81.96^{\circ}$ the widest and then $86.34^{\circ}$ in S3. In E3 event, average compound speed is 4.07m/s, S2 showed the fastest speed of 4.14m/s whereas S1 the narrowest angle of 3.95m/s. 3. A shoulder joint and coxa are the period of mention in E3. In E4 which was pointed out the longest vertical distance, S2 that is indicated the highest vertical height as the period of detach in parallel bars. showed -3.91m. This is regarded as a preparatory movement for dynamic performance after using effectively elastic movement of shoulder joint and coxa while easily going up with turning back movement. In the 5th phrase, long airborne time and vertical change position is showed as the start while regrasping securely air flight movement from high position. 4. In E5, a long flight time and a long vertical displacement were shown as the regrasp after somersault efficiently in high position with stability from the point of the highest peak of the center of the body. Especially, S2 is marked as a little bit long position, while S1 is reversely indicated as performing somersault and unstable motion in a low position. 5. In E3, at the point of the largest extension of the shoulder joint and hip joint the shoulder joint is largely marked in $182^{\circ}$ and the hip point $182^{\circ}$ in S2. The shoulder joint is marked at the smallest angle in $177^{\circ}$ and the hip point $176^{\circ}$ in S1. And S1 is being judged by its performance of the less self - confident motion with lessening a breath of swing. S2 makes the most use of flexion and extension of the shoulder joint and the hip joint effectively. It was performed greatly with swinging and dropping the rotary movement and the rotary inertia naturally. 6. In E6, as the point of regrasp of the upper arm in parallel bars it is recognized by the that of components of vertical and horizontal velocity stably. During this study, the insufficient thing and the study on the parallel bars at a real game later are more activated than now. If it is really used as the basic materials by means of Belle Picked Study of Super E level after Bell movement, you may perceive the technique movement previously and perform without difficulty. Especially, such technique as crucifix is quite advantageous for oriental people thanks to small body shape condition. In conclusion we will nicely prepare for our suitable environment to gradually lessen trials and errors by analyzing and studying kinematically this movement.

Morphological and Nutritional Characteristics and Crossability with Brassica Species of Baemoochae, xBrassicoraphanus (배무채의 형태와 영양적 특성 및 교잡 친화성)

  • Lee, Soo-Seong;Kim, Tae Yoon;Yang, Jungmin;Kim, Jongkee;Lim, Sooyeon;Yoon, Moo Kyoung
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.543-548
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    • 2012
  • Morphological characters of Baemoochae, xBrassicoraphanus are mostly intermedium of the both parents, Chinese cabbage, Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis and radish, Raphanus sativus. The upper and lower parts of the leaf resemble the shape of Chinese cabbage and radish, respectively. The midrib of the leaf is round like to that of radish, but very big more than 3 cm in diameter and white in color like that of Chinese cabbage. The root was changed from the swollen type like that of radish to the enlarged taproot like that of the land race of Chinese cabbage after attaining genetical stability. The flower is white. The seed pod is divided into 2 different parts; the upper part is radish and about 4 cm in length and holds 3-4 seeds and the lower part is Chinese cabbage and about 3 cm in length and holds 7-8 seeds. The color of seed is brown, weight per 1.000 seeds is 5.5 g and the number of seeds per mL is 120. The matured plant in the fall season is around 5 kg in weight and outer leaves are very vigorous and stiffly and inner leaves are erect and form a loose head. The leaf and the root contain a high level of sulforaphene which is well known as a functional substance for anti-cancer and anti-super-bacteria. Baemoochae is an amphidiploid and does not have the self incompatibility function. It has a high level of cross compatibility with Chinese cabbage as the female parent, but not the male parent. It is cross incompatible to cabbage, B. oleracea, black mustard, B. nigra and radish. However it is highly compatible to oil seed rape, B. napus, yellow mustard, B. carinata and partial compatible to muatard, B. juncea in the reciprocal cross.