• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Super stability

검색결과 130건 처리시간 0.075초

MICROLEAKAGE AND WATER STABILITY OF RESIN CEMENTS

  • Choi Sun-Young;Lee Sun-Hyung;Yang Jae-Ho;Han Jung-Suk
    • 대한치과보철학회지
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.369-378
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    • 2003
  • Statement of Problem: Recently, resin cements have become more widely used and have been accepted as prominent luting cements. Current resin cements exhibit less microleakage than conventional luting cements. However, the constant contact with water and exposure to occlusal forces increase microleakage even in resin cements inevitably. Most bonding resins have been modified to contain a hydrophilic resin such as 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) to overcome some of the problems associated with the hydrophobic nature of bonding resins. By virtue of these modifications, bonding resins absorb a significant amount of water, and there may also be significant stresses at bonding interfaces, which may adversely affect the longevity of restorations. Therefore the reinforcement of water stability of resin cement is indispensable in future study. Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the influence of water retention on microleakage of two resin cements over the period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: 32 extracted human teeth were used to test the microleakage of a single full veneer crown. Two resin cements with different components and adhesive properties - Panavia F (Kuraray Co., Osaka, Japan) and Super-Bond C&B (Sun Medical Co., Kyoto, Japan)- were investigated. The storage medium was the physiological saline solution changed every week for 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. One group was tested after storage for 1 day. At the end of the each storage period, all specimens were exposed to thermocycling from $5^{\circ}C$ to $55^{\circ}C$ of 500 cycles and chewing simulation of 50,000 cycles, and then stained with 50% silver nitrate solution. The linear penetration of microleakage was measured using a stereoscopic microscope at ${\times}40$ magnification and a digital traveling micrometer with an accuracy of ${\pm}3{\mu}m$. Values were analyzed using two-way ANOVA test, Duncan's multiple range tests (DMRT). Results : Statistically significant difference of microleakage was shown in the 3-month group compared with the1-day or 1-month group in both systems (p<0.05) and there were statistically significant differences in microleakage between the 3-month group and the 6-month group in both systems (p<0.05). The two systems showed different tendency in the course of increased microleakage during 3 months. In Panavia F, microleakage increased slowly throughout the periods. In Super-Bond C&B, there was no significant increase of microleakage for 1 month, but there was statistically significant increase of microleakage for the next 2 months. For the mean microleakage for each period, in the 3-month group, microleakage of Super-Bond C&B was significantly greater than that of Panavia F. On the other hand, in the 6-month group, microleakage of Panavia F was significantly greater than that of Super-Bond C&B (p<0.05). Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, water retention of two different bonding systems influence microleakage of resin cements. Further studies with the longer observation periods in viro are required in order to investigate water stability and the bonding durability of the resin cement. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Microleakage at the Cement-tooth interfaces did not necessarily result in the failure of the crowns. But it is considered to be a major factor influening the longerity of restorations. Further clinical approaches for decreasing the amount of microleakage are required.

Comparison of Convolutional Neural Network Models for Image Super Resolution

  • Jian, Chen;Yu, Songhyun;Jeong, Jechang
    • 한국방송∙미디어공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.63-66
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    • 2018
  • Recently, a convolutional neural network (CNN) models at single image super-resolution have been very successful. Residual learning improves training stability and network performance in CNN. In this paper, we compare four convolutional neural network models for super-resolution (SR) to learn nonlinear mapping from low-resolution (LR) input image to high-resolution (HR) target image. Four models include general CNN model, global residual learning CNN model, local residual learning CNN model, and the CNN model with global and local residual learning. Experiment results show that the results are greatly affected by how skip connections are connected at the basic CNN network, and network trained with only global residual learning generates highest performance among four models at objective and subjective evaluations.

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고 받음각에서의 방향 안정성 향상을 위한 Chine 형상 최적설계 (Chine Shape Optimization for Directional Stability at High Angle of Attack)

  • 박형욱;박미영;이재우;변영환
    • 한국항공우주학회지
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    • v.36 no.9
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    • pp.825-834
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    • 2008
  • 고 받음각에서의 방향 안정성 향상을 위한 chine 형상 최적화를 수행하였다. Super ellipse equation을 통하여 다양한 형태의 chine 형상을 생성하고, 3차원 Navier-Stokes 방정식을 이용하여 방향안정성 및 고받음각에서의 공력 특성을 분석하였으며, 가장 높은 방향 안정성을 갖는 형상을 기본형상으로 선정하였다. 파리미터를 이용한 기본형상의 곡면 변형을 통하여 높은 방향 안정성 및 양항비를 동시에 만족하는 최적형상 도출을 위하여, 반응면을 구성하고 가중치를 도입하고 양항비를 구속조건으로 하는 방향안정성 최적화 문제를 수행하였다. 본 연구를 통하여 고받음각에서 chine형상의 공력특성을 파악하여 강한 와류를 발생시키는 chine 형상이 방향안정성에 도움이 된다는 것을 확인할 수 있었으며 최적화를 통해 기본형상보다 방향안정성이 약 29% 향상되는 결과를 얻었다. 또한 파라미터 기반 형상 생성기법과 근사최적화 기법의 연동을 이용한 형상최적설계 과정을 초음속, 고받음각 유동의 chine 형상설계에 적용하여 그 효율성을 확인하였다.

도전재 종류와 양에 따른 LiMn$_2$O$_4$정극의 충방전 용량 및 Cycle 안정성 (Charge/discharge capacity and cycle salability of LiMn$_2$O$_4$cathode by sorts and volume of conductive agent)

  • 정인성;박계춘;구할본
    • 한국전기전자재료학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.275-278
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    • 1997
  • We investigated effectness of sort and volume of conductive agent to charge/discharge capacity of LiMn$_2$O$_4$. LiMn$_2$O$_4$is prepared by reacting stoichiometric mixture of LiOH . $H_2O$ and MnO$_2$(mole ratio 1 : 2) and heating at 80$0^{\circ}C$ for 24h, 36h, 48h, 60h and 72h. All LiMn$_2$O$_4$cathode active materials show spinel structure. Cathode active materials calcined at 80$0^{\circ}C$ for 36h, charge/discharge characteristics and cycle stability have remarkable advantages. Used that super-s-black and 20wt% as conductive agent in LiMn$_2$O$_4$, it is excellent than property of cathode used Acetylene black or mixture of Super-s-black and acetylene black at charge/discharge capacity and cycle stability. Also, specific efficiency of cathode is excellent as over 98% and that of first cycle is excellent as 92%.

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Study on mechanism of macro failure and micro fracture of local nearly horizontal stratum in super-large section and deep buried tunnel

  • Li, Shu-cai;Wang, Jian-hua;Chen, Wei-zhong;Li, Li-ping;Zhang, Qian-qing;He, Peng
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.253-267
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    • 2016
  • The stability of surrounding rock will be poor when the tunnel is excavated through nearly horizontal stratum. In this paper, the instability mechanism of local nearly horizontal stratum in super-large section and deep buried tunnel is revealed by the analysis of the macro failure and micro fracture. A structural model is proposed to explain the mechanics of surrounding rock collapse under the action of stress redistribution and shed light on the macroscopic analytical approach of the stability of surrounding rock. Then, some highly effective formulas applied in the tunnel engineering are developed according to the theory of mixed-mode micro fracture. And well-documented field case is made to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed analytical methods of mixed-mode fracture. Meanwhile, in order to make the more accurate judgment about yield failure of rock mass, a series of comprehensive failure criteria are formed. In addition, the relationship between the nonlinear failure criterion and $K_I$ and $K_{II}$ of micro fracture is established to make the surrounding rock failure criterion more comprehensive and accurate. Further, the influence of the parameters related to the tension-shear mixed-mode fracture and compression-shear mixed-mode fracture on the propagation of rock crack is analyzed. Results show that ${\sigma}_3$ changes linearly with the change of ${\sigma}_1$. And the change rate is related to ${\beta}$, angle between the cracks and ${\sigma}_1$. The proposed simple analytical approach is economical and efficient, and suitable for the analysis of local nearly horizontal stratum in super-large section and deep buried tunnel.

상압기상연소시험을 통한 동축형 스월 분사기와 충돌형 분사기의 연소 안정성 평가 (An Experimental Assessment of Combustion Stability of Coaxial Swirl Injectors and an Impinging Injector through Simulating Combustion Test)

  • 박준형;김홍집
    • 한국연소학회지
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2017
  • High-frequency combustion instabilities may occur during the development of feasible engine combustors. These instabilities can result in irreparable damages to the wall of combustors or the degradation of engine performance. So, it is essential to identify injectors that have high stability characteristics during the early stages of development. The objective of present study was to assess the stability of coaxial injectors and an impinging injector with different recess lengths in order to develop stable injectors optimally. Stability margin was evaluated based on the distance from operating condition to the unstable regions. A simulating combustion test method was used to analyze the stability of injectors. A small-scale combustion chamber was designed to simulate the first tangential acoustic mode of the actual combustor. Gaseous oxygen and a mixture of methane and propane were used as simulant propellants to satisfy their flow similarity to the actual propellants of a combustor in a liquid rocket combustor. The results indicated that injectors having small recess lengths showed relatively large combustion stability margins. For the injectors of large recess lengths, instability regions with large and super-large amplitude oscillations were observed. Thus, injector with shorter recess lengths had a higher stability than that of longer one due to the different mixing processes.

순수형 보강토교대의 슬래브교에 대한 적용성 및 외적/내적 안정성 검토 (A Study on Applicability and External / Internal Stability of true MSEW abutment with slab)

  • 박민철
    • 한국산학기술학회논문지
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.263-274
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    • 2018
  • 본 연구에서는 순수형 보강토교대의 상부구조로 적용되는 슬래브교에 대한 적용성을 검토하고 보강토 교대의 외적/내적 안정성에 대해 검토하였다. 상부구조인 슬래브교의 연장은 10.0 m ~ 20.0 m, 두께는 0.7 m ~ 0.9 m를 대상으로 하여 구조해석을 수행하여 보강토교대의 교량받침에 작용되는 사하중과 활하중에 의한 반력을 산정하였다. 슬래브교는 연장 20.0m까지 순수형 보강토교대의 허용 접지압 200 kPa을 만족하였다. 순수형 보강토교대의 외적 안정성은 보강토체의 기하형상에 지배되기 때문에 상부구조의 하중에 의한 안전율 변화는 작은 것으로 나타났다. 지지력에 대한 안전율은 기초지반의 강성은 상수이지만 활동력인 상부구조의 하중은 증가되므로 감소되었다. 그리고 상부구조로 인해 보강토옹벽 상단에 작용하는 접지압이 200 kPa을 초과할 경우, 순수형 보강토교대에서는 전면벽체에 작용하는 수평토압이 과도하게 증가되어, 최상단 보강재에서 내적안정성인 인발과 파단에서 허용안전율을 만족하지 못하였다. 순수형 보강토교대의 효율적 설계 및 성능 확보를 위해서는 보강토체 상단에 배치된 보강재의 인발저항력과 장기허용인장력을 증가시키는 것이 필요한 것으로 분석된다.

초초임계압 발전용 소재의 표면처리층의 고온 안정성 평가 (High-Temperature Stability Evaluation of Various Surface Treated Layers of Materials for Ultra-Super Critical Power Plants)

  • 류경환;송태권;이재현;김길수;이선호;엄기원
    • 한국재료학회지
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.329-335
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    • 2006
  • In order to improve thermal efficiency of the fossil fuel power plants, we need to develop advanced materials with superior durability in the ultra-super critical state, which requires surface modifications for superior surface properties. In this study, we coated the Incoloy 901 and 12-17Cr steels for turbine buckets and valves with nitriding, boriding, and $Cr_3C_2-NiCr$ HVOF(high velocity oxygen flow) method. Then the samples were heat treated at $650^{\circ}C$ for 100 hours in vacuum. We analyzed the evolution behaviors of nitrides such as $Fe_3N,\;Fe_4N$, and CrN and borides such as FeB and $Fe_2B$ with XRD and SEM/EDS by comparing hardnesses and compositions of the coated layers before and after the heat treatments.

Wavelet-transform-based damping identification of a super-tall building under strong wind loads

  • Xu, An;Wu, Jiurong;Zhao, Ruohong
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.353-370
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    • 2014
  • A new method is proposed in this study for estimating the damping ratio of a super tall building under strong wind loads with short-time measured acceleration signals. This method incorporates two main steps. Firstly, the power spectral density of wind-induced acceleration response is obtained by the wavelet transform, then the dynamic characteristics including the natural frequency and damping ratio for the first vibration mode are estimated by a nonlinear regression analysis on the power spectral density. A numerical simulation illustrated that the damping ratios identified by the wavelet spectrum are superior in precision and stability to those values obtained from Welch's periodogram spectrum. To verify the efficiency of the proposed method, wind-induced acceleration responses of the Guangzhou West Tower (GZWT) measured in the field during Typhoon Usagi, which affected this building on September 22, 2013, were used. The damping ratios identified varied from 0.38% to 0.61% in direction 1 and from 0.22% to 0.59% in direction 2. This information is expected to be of considerable interest and practical use for engineers and researchers involved in the wind-resistant design of super-tall buildings.