• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Super stability

검색결과 130건 처리시간 0.051초

저분자 유기실리콘 계면활성제의 개발 동향 (제1보) (Trend on Development of Low Molecular Weight Organosilicone Surfactants (Part 1))

  • 랑문정
    • 한국응용과학기술학회지
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.66-82
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    • 2017
  • 유기실리콘 계면활성제는 소수성 유기실리콘 그룹에 친수성 극성 그룹이 결합되어 있다. 유기실리콘의 독특한 특성으로 인하여 유기실리콘 계면활성제는 낮은 계면장력, 윤활성, 퍼짐성, 발수성, 열 안정성, 화학적 안정성 때문에 폴리우레탄 폼, 건설재료, 화장품, 페인트잉크, 농약 등 많은 산업분야에 사용되고 있다. 특히 저분자 유기실리콘을 소수기로 한 트리실록산 계면활성제는 낮은 표면장력과 우수한 습윤/퍼짐성 때문에 super wetter/super spreader로서 활용되고 있으나 가수분해에 취약한 단점도 가지고 있다. 트리실록산 계면활성제의 기능향상과 단점개선 등 응용분야에서의 요구사항을 반영하기 위하여 다양한 화학구조를 가진 트리실록산 계면활성제들이 개발되고 있다. 본 총설에서는 소수성 트리실록산 중추로서의 반응성 트리실록산의 합성방법, 반응성 트리실록산을 친수성 그룹과 결합시키는 규소 수소화반응같은 주요 반응방법, 그리고 폴리에테르, 카보하이드레이트, 제미니, 볼라폼, 더블 트리실록산 타입 등 주요 저분자 트리실록산 계면활성제들의 합성방법을 논의한다.

초대형 매트기초 매스 콘크리트의 응결시간조정에 의한 온도균열저감 공법적용의 기초적 실험 (A Fundamental Test of Temperature Crack Reduction Method Application by Setting Time Control of Large-Scaled Mat Foundation Mass Concrete)

  • 한천구;이재삼;노상균
    • 한국건축시공학회지
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2009
  • Constructing large-scale mat foundation mass concrete is increasing for the stability of building structure, because a lot of high rise building are being built in order to make full use of limited space. However, It is of increasing concerns that because limited placing equipments, available job-site and systems for mass concete placement in construction field do not allow to place great quantity of concrete at the same time in large scale mat foundation, consistency between placement lift can not be secured. And also, it is likely to crack due to stress caused by the difference of hydration heat generation time. To find out the solution against above problems, this study is to reconfirm the performance of normal concrete designed by mix proportion and super retarding concrete. The Fundamental test shows what happens if low heat proportioning and control method of setting time are applied at the job-site of newly constructed high rise building. The test result show that slump flow of concrete has been somewhat increased as the target retarding time gets longer, while the air content has been slightly decreased but this is no great difference from normal concrete. The setting time shows to be retarded as target retarding time gets longer, the range of retarding time increases. It is necessary to increase the amount of mix of super retarding agent in the proportion ration by setting curing temperature high since outdoor curing is about 6 hours faster than standard curing, which means the temperature of the concrete will be higher than the temperature of the surrounding environment, due to its high hydration heat when applying in a construction site. The compressive strength of super retarding concrete appears to be lower than normal concrete due to the retarding action in the early stage. However, as the time goes by, the compressive strength gets higher, and by the 28th day the strength becomes the same or higher than normal concrete.

무선 네트워크에서의 초증가 수열을 통한 주소 은닉 기법 설계 (Design of the Covered Address Generation using the Super Increasing Sequence in Wireless Networks)

  • 천준호;김성찬;장근원;도경화;전문석
    • 정보처리학회논문지C
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    • v.14C no.5
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    • pp.411-416
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    • 2007
  • 대부분의 무선 네트워크 보안 기법은 암호학적인 안정성을 기반으로 통신 내용을 악의적인 호스트로 부터 보호하는 기밀성을 제공하지만 통신의 논리/물리적 주소를 노출시킨다. 이는 악의적인 노드에게 통신 내용은 숨길 수 있지만 대략의 전송량과 송신자와 수신자를 노출시키는 단점을 갖는다. 본 논문에서 제안하는 은닉주소 체계는 송신자와 수신자의 주소를 초증가 수열을 사용한 knapsack problem을 응용하여 생성된 은닉주소로 치환한다. 또한 은닉주소의 잦은 변환을 통해 악의적인 사용자가 공격 대상을 감시하거나 측정 호스트를 공격 대상으로 삼는 것을 원천적으로 차단한다. 이 기법은 공격 목표가 되는 호스트의 주소가 계속 변화하므로 DDoS 공격을 시도하려는 공격자가 공격 목표를 특정 할 수 없다.

마그네시아 인산염 시멘트를 이용한 초속경 보수 모르타르의 접착특성 (The Bond Characteristics of Ultra Rapid Hardening Mortar for Repair using Magnesia-Phosphate Cement)

  • 이선호;권희성;백민수;안무영;이영도;정상진
    • 한국콘크리트학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.609-612
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    • 2008
  • 마그네시아 인산염 시멘트를 사용한 보수용 모르타르의 접착강도 특성을 검토하기 위하여 모의 부재 시험체를 이용한 실험을 실시하였다. 접착강도 실험 결과 칩핑 처리를 한 시험체가 표면 처리를 한 시험체 보다 우수한 강도발현을 하였으며, 건식처리가 습식처리보다 우수한 강도발현을 하는 것으로 나타났다. 칩핑 건식 시험체의 경우 온도에 관계없이 재령 28일의 접착강도는 3.0MPa 이상의 높은 강도를 발현을 하는 것으로 나타나 일반 모르타르의 접착강도와 비교 시 매우 높은 접착성능으로써 우수한 접착성능이 요구되는 보수재료로서의 활용을 기대할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.

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Effects of types of bridge decks on competitive relationships between aerostatic and flutter stability for a super long cable-stayed bridge

  • Hu, Chuanxin;Zhou, Zhiyong;Jiang, Baosong
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.255-270
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    • 2019
  • Aerodynamic configurations of bridge decks have significant effects on the aerostatic torsional divergence and flutter forsuper long-span bridges, which are onset for selection of suitable bridge decksfor those bridges. Based on a cable-stayed bridge with double main spans of 1500 m, considering typical twin-box, stiffening truss and closed-box section, which are the most commonly used form of bridge decks and assumed that the rigidity of those section is completely equivalent, are utilized to investigate the effects of aerodynamic configurations of bridge decks on aerodynamic instability performance comprised of the aerostatic torsional divergence and flutter, by means of wind tunnel tests and numerical calculations, including three-dimensional (3D) multimode flutter analysis and nonlinear aerostatic analysis. Regarding the aerostatic torsional divergence, the results obtained in this study show twin-box section is the best, closed-box section the second-best, and the stiffening truss section the worst. Regarding the flutter, the flutter stability of the twin-box section is far better than that of the stiffening truss and closed-box section. Furthermore, wind-resistance design depends on the torsional divergence for the twin-box and stiffening truss section. However, there are obvious competitive relationships between the aerostatic torsional divergence and flutter for the closed-box section. Flutter occur before aerostatic instability at initial attack angle of $+3^{\circ}$ and $0^{\circ}$, while the aerostatic torsional divergence occur before flutter at initial attack angle of $-3^{\circ}$. The twin-box section is the best in terms of both aerostatic and flutter stability among those bridge decks. Then mechanisms of aerostatic torsional divergence are revealed by tracking the cable forces synchronous with deformation of the bridge decksin the instability process. It was also found that the onset wind velocities of these bridge decks are very similar at attack angle of $-3^{\circ}$. This indicatesthat a stable triangular structure made up of the cable planes, the tower, and the bridge deck greatly improves the aerostatic stability of the structure, while the aerodynamic effects associated with the aerodynamic configurations of the bridge decks have little effects on the aerostatic stability at initial attack angle of $-3^{\circ}$. In addition, instability patterns of the bridge depend on both the initial attack angles and aerodynamic configurations of the bridge decks. This study is helpful in determining bridge decksfor super long-span bridges in future.

Stability and antioxidant effect of rapeseed extract in oil-in-water emulsion

  • Zhang, Hua;Shin, Jung-Ah;Hong, Soon Taek;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • 농업과학연구
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.249-257
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    • 2016
  • In this study, rapeseed extracts were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of defatted rapeseed to evaluate the stability and antioxidant activity of an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion system. The oil-in-water emulsions were prepared from stripped soybean oil with different concentrations (0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%) of rapeseed extract as an emulsifier. Their emulsion stability was compared to that of emulsions prepared with the commercial emulsifier, Tween 20 (Polysorbate 20, 0.2%). After stripping the soybean oil, the total tocopherol content was reduced from 51.4 g/100 g to 1.1 g/100 g. Emulsion stability and oxidative stability of emulsions prepared with Tween 20 and rapeseed extract as emulsifiers were evaluated. For 30 days droplet sizes of emulsions containing rapeseed extract (0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Similar results were obtained for emulsion stability (ES) and Turbiscan analysis, suggesting that the addition of rapeseed extract increased emulsion stability. The addition of rapeseed extract at more than 0.4% resulted in an emulsion stability comparable to the addition of 0.2% Tween 20. The antioxidative ability of rapeseed extract increased with the amount added in the emulsion. Moreover, the addition of 0.6% rapeseed extract resulted in the lowest emulsion peroxide values (10.3 mEq/L) among all treatments. Therefore, according to the stability of its antioxidative and physical stability properties, rapeseed extract from super critical extraction could be successfully applied to the food and cosmetic industries.

결함을 갖는 불연속평판 구조물의 안정성 연구 (A Study on the Stability of Uncontinuous Plate Structures with Cracks)

  • 이선우;김시영;홍봉기
    • 수산해양기술연구
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 1984
  • 응력집중부에 존재하는 균열에 대해서 J 평가식은 그 주위의 응력집중부의 국부변형과의 관계에 대해서 인장 및 압축이 있는 두곳에서 BEM 해석과 광탄성 실험한 결과와 COD 및 J치의 무차원량 J 하(E) /$\sigma$ 하(y) 상(2) a와 그 경우의 평균변형 및 항복변형의 비(e/e 하(y) )와의 관계는 균열의 길이에 의하지 않고 응력집중부의 형태에 거의 지배적으로 결정되는 일의적 대응관계가 있다. 2. 무한연속부 내부의 어떤 결함에 의한 평가식으로 부터 구한 값을 불연속 구조물내의 응력집중부에 존재하는 결함에 비하여 비교 정리하면, J 하(E) /$\sigma$ 하(y) 상(2) a=3.345(e/e 하(y) ) 상(2) 의 구간은 e/e 하(y) $\leq$1이고, J 하(E) /$\sigma$ 하(y) 상(2) a=3.345(e/e 하(y) )의 구간은 e/e 하(y) $\geq$1로서 이식들은 결함부 J평가식으로 사용할 수 있다. 3. 경계요소법에 의한 J식의 값과의 사이에는 가공경화율은 E/100을 사용하므로 이론과 실험결과가 거의 일치함을 보이고 상기 J식은 불연속평판 구조물이 결함을 가질 때 응력설계곡선의 자료가 될 수 있다.

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Stability Analysis of FCHEV Energy System Using Frequency Decoupling Control Method

  • Dai, Peng;Sun, Weinan;Xie, Houqing;Lv, Yan;Han, Zhonghui
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.490-500
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    • 2017
  • Fuel cell (FC) is a promising power supply in electric vehicles (EV); however, it has poor dynamic performance and short service life. To address these shortcomings, a super capacitor (SC) is adopted as an auxiliary power supply. In this study, the frequency decoupling control method is used in electric vehicle energy system. High-frequency and low-frequency demand power is provided by SC and FC, respectively, which makes full use of two power supplies. Simultaneously, the energy system still has rapidity and reliability. The distributed power system (DPS) of EV requires DC-DC converters to achieve the desired voltage. The stability of cascaded converters must be assessed. Impedance-based methods are effective in the stability analysis of DPS. In this study, closed-loop impedances of interleaved half-bridge DC-DC converter and phase-shifted full-bridge DC-DC converter based on the frequency decoupling control method are derived. The closed-loop impedance of an inverter for permanent magnet synchronous motor based on space vector modulation control method is also derived. An improved Middlebrook criterion is used to assess and adjust the stability of the energy system. A theoretical analysis and simulation test are provided to demonstrate the feasibility of the energy management system and the control method.

Study of seismic performance of super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges

  • Zhang, Xin-Jun;Yu, Cong;Zhao, Jun-Jie
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.72 no.1
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    • pp.99-111
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    • 2019
  • To investigate the seismic performance of long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge, a super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge scheme with main span of 1400m is taken as example, structural response of the bridge under E1 seismic action is investigated numerically by the multimode seismic response spectrum and time-history analysis, seismic behavior and also the effect of structural geometric nonlinearity on the seismic responses of super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges are revealed. The seismic responses are also compared to those of a fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge with the same main span. The effects of structural parameters including the earth-anchored girder length, the girder width, the girder depth, the tower height to span ratio, the inclination of earth-anchored cables, the installation of auxiliary piers in the side spans and the connection between tower and girder on the seismic responses of partially ground-anchored cable-stayed bridges are investigated, and their reasonable values are also discussed in combination with static performance and structural stability. The results show that the horizontal seismic excitation produces significant seismic responses of the girder and tower, the seismic responses of the towers are greater than those of the girder, and thus the tower becomes the key structural member of seismic design, and more attentions should be paid to seismic design of these sections including the tower bottom, the tower and girder at the junction of tower and girder, the girder at the auxiliary piers in side spans; structural geometric nonlinearity has significant influence on the seismic responses of the bridge, and thus the nonlinear time history analysis is proposed to predict the seismic responses of super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges; as compared to the fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge with the same main span, several stay cables in the side spans are changed to be earth-anchored, structural stiffness and natural frequency are both increased, the seismic responses of the towers and the longitudinal displacement of the girder are significantly reduced, structural seismic performance is improved, and therefore the partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge provides an ideal structural solution for super long-span cable-stayed bridges with kilometer-scale main span; under the case that the ratio of earth-anchored girder length to span is about 0.3, the wider and higher girder is employed, the tower height-to-span ratio is about 0.2, the larger inclination is set for the earth-anchored cables, 1 to 2 auxiliary piers are installed in each of the side spans and the fully floating system is employed, better overall structural performance is achieved for long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges.

원격 탐사 영상을 활용한 CNN 기반의 초해상화 기법 연구 (A Study of CNN-based Super-Resolution Method for Remote Sensing Image)

  • 최연주;김민식;김용우;한상혁
    • 대한원격탐사학회지
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.449-460
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    • 2020
  • 초해상화 기법은 저해상도 영상을 고해상도 영상으로 변환하는 기법이다. 최근에는 딥러닝 기술을 활용한 초해상화 방법이 주류를 이루고 있으며, 원격 탐사 분야에서도 이를 응용한 연구가 증가하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 위성 영상의 4배 해상도 향상을 위하여 deep back-projection network (DBPN) 네트워크에 기반한 초해상화 기법을 제안하였다. 또한, 복원된 영상의 디테일 및 윤곽선 부분에서의 고품질 영상 획득을 위해 윤곽선 손실 함수를 제안하고, 효과적이고 안정적인 학습을 위하여 Wasserstein distance 손실 함수를 사용한 GAN 기법을 적용하였다. 또한, 자연스러운 저해상도 훈련 영상을 획득하기 위한 detail preserving image downscaling (DPID) 기법을 적용하였다. 마지막으로 전정 영상의 특징을 추출하여 훈련의 마지막 단계에 적용 시킴으로써 출력 영상의 세부적인 특징을 효과적으로 생성하였다. 그 결과 실험에 사용된 WorldView-3 영상 및 KOMPSAT-2 영상에서 해상도 향상 효과를 확인하였고, 다른 초해상화 모델에 대비하여 윤곽선 보존력이나 영상의 선명도가 향상 되었음을 확인하였다