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A Study on the Development of Super Low-loss Type Pole Transformer Using the Hybrid Insulation (혼합절연을 이용한 초저손실급 주상변압기 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Min, Yun-Hong;Shin, Dae-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
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    • v.21 no.7
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    • pp.84-93
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    • 2007
  • The pole transformer is one of the most important facility to insure the stability of electric power supply. which distributes electricity to customers directly. However there are a lot of defects which are caused by manufacturing fails(in 3 years) or deterioration (in 13 years), so we need a more improved transformer which insures quality. This thesis talks about the development of the new-type transformer using the hybrid insulation that is durable thermally, mechanically, and electrically. It would show how to lay out and produce the transformer using the hybrid insulation. And finally we are sure that we could increase the utilization rate of a transformer by 160% as compared with its own capacity through the overload test. Also, we carried out the examination about the short-circuit and insulation with a 100[kVA] model transformer, so that we expound the analysis of magnetic-mechanical forces intensity and the measure for improving short-circuit efficiency.

Extraction of An Improvement Plan of Day Care Center's Interior Environment Design Reflecting Persona Characteristics -The case of Jounno Ward Silver Center- (페르소나 특성을 반영한 데이케어센터 실내환경디자인 개선방안 도출 - 종로 구립 실버센터의 사례를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Jin-Woo;Nam, Kyung-Sook
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.43-53
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    • 2015
  • As part of alternative of elderly problems in the future super-aging society, this study aims to extract an improvement plan of interior environment design of Seoul-type day care centers to expand in future by observing day care centers as medical and healing environments, from the perspective of user experience. For this study, after selecting major activity areas of representative cases of Seoul-type day care centers, user behaviors in the space were observed and 4 seniors of baby-boom generation who are potential uses were chosen as personas by reflecting characteristics of healthy elderly, physical aging, mental aging and infirm elderly, from the perspective of user experience. Based on previous studies on healing environments, these characteristics and demands of personas were classified into environmental aspects, physical aspects and mental aspects to extract an improvement plan. The study results are as follows. First, interior environment design reflecting persona characteristics helps the elderly adapt to the environment and provides a comfortable environment like home for stability, treatment and recovery of memory. Second, interior environment design reflecting persona characteristics helps psychological healing through light entering the large windows and natural environment elements. Third, for interior environment design reflecting persona characteristics, finish materials with bright and soft colors should be used to change the images of facilities positively. Fourth, spatial composition should be remedied through division of space and built-in furniture depending on the needs of users for loitering of extra time and programs.

Anti-Fogging, Photocatalytic and Self-Cleaning Properties of TiO2-Transparent Coating

  • Mavengere, Shielah;Kim, Jung-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 2021
  • Transparent, photocatalytic, and self-cleaning TiO2 thin film is developed by TiO2 sol-gel coating on glass and polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Acetyl acetone (AcAc) suppresses the precipitation of TiO2 by forming a yellowish (complex) transparent sol-gel. XPS analysis confirms the presence of Ti2p and O1s in the thin films on glass and PC substrates. The TiO2-sol is prepared by stabilizing titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) with diethylamine and methyl alcohol. The addition of AcAcsilane coupling solution to the TiO2-sol instantaneously turns to yellowish color owing to the complexing of titanium with AcAc. The AcAc solution substantially improves the photocatalytic property of the TiO2 coating layer in MB solutions. The coated TiO2 film exhibits super hydrophilicity without and with light irradiation. The TiO2 thin film stabilized by adding 8.7 wt% AcAc shows the highest photo-degradation for methylene blue (MB) solution under UV light irradiation. Also, the optimum photocatalytic activity is obtained for the 8.7 wt% AcAc-stabilized TiO2 coating layer calcined at 450 ℃. The thin-films on glass exhibit fast self-cleaning from oleic acid contamination within 45 min of UV-light irradiation. The appropriate curing time at 140 ℃ improves the anti-fogging and thermal stability of the TiO2 film coated on PC substrate. The watermark-free PC substrate is particularly beneficial to combat fogging problems of transparent substrates.

Superhydrophilicity of Titania Hybrid Coating Film Imposed by UV Irradiation without Heat-treatment (저온 경화형 초친수성 티타니아 하이브리드 졸의 제조와 친수성 특성 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Won-Soo;Park, Won-Kyu
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.121-131
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    • 2007
  • A preparation process's conditions of aqueous sol which contains anatase-type nano titania particles with photocatalyic properties was established by using Yoldas process, so called, DCS(Destabilization of Colloidal Solution) process in this study. And crystal size change and phase transformation of titania particles in aqueous titania sol depending on reaction conditions was investigated by a light scattering method and XRD analysis of frozen dried powders, respectively. This sol with photo catalytic nano titania particles was used to the following hydrophilic hybrid coating film's fabrication and its properties was evaluated. Subsequently, for coating film using the above mentioned aqueous titania sol, non-aqueous titania sol was prepared without any chemical additives and its time stability according to aging time was investigate. By using the above mentioned aqueous titania sol and non-aqueous sol, a complex oxide coating sol for metal and ceramic substrate and a organic-inorganic hybrid coating sol for polymer substrate was prepared and it's hydrophilicity depending on UV irradiation conditions was evaluated. As a conclusions, the following results were obtained. (1)Aqueous titania sol The average particle size of titania in formed aqueous titania sol was distributed between 20$\sim$90nm range depending on reaction conditions. And the crystal phase of titania powders obtained by frozen drying method was changed from amorphous state to anatase and subsequently transformed to rutile crystal phase and it is attributed to concentration gradient in aqueous sol. (2)Non-aqueous titania sol Non-aqueous titania sol was prepared using methanol as a solvent and a little distilled water for hydrolysis and nitric acid as a catalyst were used. The obtained non-aqueous titania sol was stable at room temperature for 20 days. Additionally, non-aqueous titania sol with addition of chealating reagent such as acethylaceton and ethylene glycol prolonged the stability of sol by six months. (3)Complex sol and hybrid sol with super hydrophilicity The above mentioned aqueous titania sol as a main photocataylic component and non-aqueous titania sol as a binder for coating process was used to prepare a complex sol used for metal, ceramic and wood material substrate and also to prepare the organic-inorganic hybrid sol for polymer substrate such as polycarbonate and polyethylene, in which process APMS(3-Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane), GPTS(3-Glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxysilane) as a hydrophilic silane compound and HEMA(2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate) as a forming network in hybrid coating film were used. The hybrid coating film such as prepared through this process showed a superhydrophilicity below 1$10^{\circ}$ depending on processing conditions and a pencil's hardness over 6 H.

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The State of the Technology: Application of Cementitious Materials to Deep Repository Tunnels for Radioactive Waste Disposal (방사성폐기물의 심지층 처분터널에서의 시멘트 물질 적용에 관한 기술현황)

  • Kim, Jin-Seop;Kwon, Sang-Ki;Cho, Won-Jin;Cho, Gye-Chun
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.373-387
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    • 2009
  • Considering the current construction technology and research status of deep repository tunnels for radioactive waste disposal, it is inevitable to use cementitious materials in spite of serious concern about their long-term environmental stability. Thus, it is an emerging task to develop low pH cementitious materials. This study reviews the state of the technology on low pH cements developed in Sweden, Switzerland, France, and Japan as well as in Finland which is constructing a real deep repository site for high-level radioactive waste disposal. Considering the physical and chemical stability of bentonite which acts as a buffer material, a low pH cement limits to $pH{\leq}11$ and pozzolan-type admixtures are used to lower the pH of cement. To attain this pH requirement, silica fume, which is one of the most promising admixtures, should occupy at least 40 wt% of total dry materials in cement and the Ca/Si ratio should be maintained below 0.8 in cement. Additionally, selective super-plasticizer needs to be used because a high amount of water is demanded from the use of a large amount of silica fume.

The 'Consequence Analysis' of Variables Affecting the Extent of Damage Caused by Butane Vapor Cloud Explosions (부탄가스 증기운폭발의 피해범위에 영향을 미치는 변수에 관한 고찰)

  • Char Soon-Chul;Choo Kwang-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2001
  • This paper presents a 'consequence analysis' for vapor cloud explosions caused by heavy gas leakages from commercially used storage tanks at petrochemical plants. Particularly, this paper emphasizes on evaluating the results of various vapor cloud explosion accidents from Butane storage tanks. Also this paper analyses the impact of variables on the accidents in order to acquire the optimum conditions for variables. $SuperChems^{TM}$ Professional Edition was applied to analyse the impact (If atmospheric and other variables in the situation where vapor cloud continuously disperses from the ground level. Under the assumption that practical operating conditions are selected as a standard condition, and Butane leaks from the storage tank for 15 minutes, the results show that the maximum distance of LFL (Lower Flammable Limit) was 52 meters and overpressure by the vapor cloud explosion was 1 psi at 128.2 meters. It is observed that the impact of the variables on accidental Butane storage tank leakage mainly varied upon atmospheric stability, wind velocity, pipe line size, visible length, etc., and changes in the simulation result occurred as the variables varied. The maximum distance of the LFL (Lower Flammable Limit) increased as the visible length became shorter, the size of the leak became larger, the wind velocity was decreased, and the climatic conditions became more stable. Thus, by analysing the variables that influence the simulation results of explosions of Butane storage tanks containing heavy gases, I am presenting the most appropriate method for 'consequence analysis' and the selection of standards for suitable values of variables, to obtain the most optimal conditions for the best results.

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Policy Study on Korean Retail Micro Business (국제 비교를 통한 소매업 소상공인 현황과 정책적 시사점)

  • Suh, Yong Gu;Kim, Suk Kyung
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.39-57
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    • 2012
  • The unabated influx of micro businesses has turned the Korean retailing market to a rat race, which causes severe financial distress for micro business owners due to heavy competition. The woes of these micro business owner's are exacerbated by the presence of large scale distributors such as Super Supermarket(SSM) and large discount stores. In summary, the Korean retail market is overburdened an uneconomically viable. Retailing has low barriers to entry which attracts unskilled labor or those with little capital. These start-ups have low opportunity costs since they would make low wages elsewhere in the economy. Thus, these owners are content with relatively low returns on their investment. These 'subsistence ventures' are maintained for economical viability rather than economic growth. These 'subsistence ventures' intensifies competition among small-scale businesses. The presence of large retail corporations also aggravates the situation. The recent stagnation of the economy has worsened the retail market in Korea. The overwhelming competition solidifies the coarse structural system and the prolonged economic sluggishness has increased the risk of insolvency for micro business owners. As the economy continues to stagnate, the imminent risk in retailing market will rise up to surface threatening economic stability. More systematic inflows and outflows of retailers are required in order to redress this structural problem. It has been empirically shown that the self-employment rate is high in Korea compared to other OECD countries. To draw the comparison of self-employment rate by industry, Korea shows high rates among transportation, whole sale, retail, education, lodging, and restaurants. In the case of the transportation and education service sectors, this high rate can be explained by the idiosyncratic nature of Korean culture. In the transportation sector, political policies favor private cap service and private freight carriers. In the education service sector, Koreans put particular emphasis on education that leads to many private institutions that outnumber other OECD countries. For these singular reasons, Korea maintains high micro business, self-employed rates particularly in retailing. A comparable nation is Japan, with its similar social, economic, cultural environment among OECD countries. Unlike Korea, Japan has much lower rates of micro business which continues to decrease. Also Korean retailers are much more destitute than Japanese. The fundamental problem of Korean retailing is the involuntary exit of these 'subsistence ventures,' micro businesses with low margins, in which a small drop in demand can lead to financial difficulties for the owner. This problem will be exacerbated when Korean babyboomers retire and join the micro business ventures. The first priority in order to cope with the severity of oversupply in retailing is to provide better opportunities for the potential self-employers. There should be viable alternatives to subsistent ventures. Strengthening the retirement program, scrutiny of exit process, reconfiguration of policy funds are the recommendations.

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The Impact of Changes in Market Shares among Retailing Types on the Price Index (소매업태간 시장점유율 변화가 물가에 미친 영향)

  • Moon, Youn-Hee;Choi, Sung-Ho;Choi, Ji-Ho
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.93-115
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    • 2012
  • This study empirically examines the impact of changes in market shares among retailing types on the price index. The retailing type is classified into 6 groups: department store, big mart, super market, convenient store, specialty merchant, and on-line store. The market shares of retailing types are calculated by the ratio of each retailing type monthly sales to total monthly retailing sales in which total retailing sales is the sum of each retailing type sales. We employed several price indices: consumer price index (CPI), CPI for living necessaries, and fresh food price index. In addition, this study used fundamental price indices based on 25 product families as well as 42 representative products. The empirical model also included several variables in order to control for the macroeconomic effects and those variables are the exchange rate, M1, an oil price, and the industrial production index. The data is monthly time-series data spanning over the period from January 2000 to December 2010. In order to test for the stability of data series, we conducted ADF test and PP test in which the model and length of lag were determined by the relevant previous literature and based on the AIC. The empirical results indicate that changes in market shares among retailing types have impacts on the price index. Table A shows that impacts differ as to which price index to use and which product families and products to use. For department store, it lowers the price of food and non-alcoholic beverages, home appliances, fresh food, fresh and vegetables, but it keeps the price high for fresh fruit. The big mart retailing type has a positive impact on the price of food, nut has a negative effect on clothing and foot wear, non-food, and fresh fruit. For super market, it has a positive impact on food and non-alcoholic beverages, fresh food, fresh shellfishes, but increases the price of CPI for living necessaries and non-food. The specialty merchant retailing type increases the price level of CPI for living necessaries and fresh fruit. For on-line store type, it keeps the price high for CPI for living necessaries and non-food as well as fresh fruit. For the analysis based on 25 product families shows that changes in market shares among retailing types also have different effects on the price index. Table B summarizes the different results. The 42 representative product level analysis is summerized in Table C and it indicates that changes in market shares among retailing types have different effects on the price index. The study offers the theoretical and practical implication to these findings and also suggests the direction for the further analysis.

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Pulsed Laser System of Ultra-scan Way for Uterus Rehabilitation Treatment (자궁 재활치료를 위한 울트라-스캔 방식의 펄스형 레이저시스템)

  • Kim, Whi-Young
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.256-265
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    • 2009
  • Laser output becomes output adjustment from 20 w to 100 w consecutively and time of exposure is available adjustment through water plant in 0.01 seconds. Pulse action can intercept laser beam periodically and supermarket pulse 0.1 $\sim$ between 1ms discharge consist and momentary laser output is increased to 5 $\sim$ 10. Specially, that must remove malignancy cell in womb nine escarps in the case of uterine cancer first of all stability of tube output about pulse by weight very, stable soft switching action area is defined without high frequency transformer leakage inductance ($L_1$) increase and additional series inductor insertion to converter the first main circuit securing zero voltage and marks of switching action in this research specially, because circulation current path of inductor ($L_f$) current is intercepted, converter the first main circuit switching component and spiritual enlightenment damage of high frequency transformer take decreasing greatly and high frequency the second stoppage department ($D_5,\;D_6$) becomes soft switching, and also, switching damage absorption quantity characteristic that can come to life again as subordinate have, and to become tube stabilization design and result that manufacture and experiment, brought result that improve of 10% than existing equipment, and if supplement as systematic late, it becomes thought to get into superior result.

Fabrication of Supercapacitors using Silver Nano Paste and Gel Electrolyte (은 나노 페이스트와 젤 전해질을 이용한 슈퍼캐패시터 제작)

  • Yoon, Seong Man;Jang, Hyunjung;Kim, Dae Won;Jang, Yunseok;Jo, Jeongdai;Go, Jeung Sang
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.410-415
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    • 2013
  • The supercapacitors were fabricated using silver (Ag) nano paste and activated carbon paste on the polyimide (PI) film and 5% potassium polyacrylate (PAAK) was used for gel electrolyte. In this paper, the current collector film and the electrode film were fabricated using screen printing. The thickness of printed silver paste was $7.3{\mu}m$ and the sheet resistance has the range of $5-7m{\Omega}/square$. An activated carbon with a surface area of $1,968m^2/g$, an electronic conducting agent (SUPER P, TIMCAL) and poly (4-vinylphenol) were mixed in 2-(2-buthoxyethoxy) ethyl acetate (BCA) with a ratio of 7:1:3 to fabricate the electrode paste. To analyze electrochemical characteristics, cyclic voltammetry was performed to evaluate the stability of the devices under the voltage range of -0.5-0.5 V. The calculated specific capacitances were 44.04 and 8.62 F/g for 10 and 500 mV/s scan rates, respectively.