• Title, Summary, Keyword: Super stability

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Molecular Structure of PCP Pincer Complexes: Poisoning Catalyst on the Dehydrogenation of Alkanes (알칸의 탈수소화반응에서의 촉매독 화합물의 분자구조)

  • Lee Ji Hyun;Chun Sang Jin;Kwon Ki Hyeok;Lee Do Weon
    • Korean Journal of Crystallography
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.43-53
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    • 2005
  • The dihydrido P-C-P pincer complex, $IrH_2{C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}$ (1), was successfully prepared from the reaction of the hydrochloride complex, $IrClH (C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}$, and super acid $(LiBEt_3H)$ under 1 atm of hydrogen in pentane solution at room temperature and followed by Heating at $130^{\circ}C$ in vacuo. Jensen recently found that the dihydrido P-C-P pincer complex 1 is a highly active homogeneous catalyst for the transfer dehydrogenation of alkanes with unusual longterm stability at temperatures as high as $200^{\circ}C$. The treatment of dihydrido complex 1 with nitrogen, water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide in presence of tert-butylethylene (the) at room temperature in an appropriate solution gave the dinitrogen complex, $[Ir{C-6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}]_2({\mu}-N_2)$ (2), the hydrido hydroxyl complex, $IrH(OH){C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}$ (3), the carbon dioxide complex, $Ir({\eta}^2-CO_2) {C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}$ (including the bicarbonate complex, $IrH({\kappa}^2-O_2COH){C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}\;(4))$, and the carbonyl complex, $Ir(CO) {C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}\;(5)$ (including the carboxyl complex, $IrH(C(O)OH) {C_6H_3-2,6-(CH_2PBu_2^t)_2}\;(6))$, in good yield, respectively. These P-C-P iridium complexes were isolated and characterized by $^1H,\;^{13}C,\;^{31}P\; NMR$, and IR spectroscopy. In addition, the complexes (1-6) were characterized by a single crystal X-ray crystallography. These complexes account for these small molecules' inhibition of dehydrogenation of alkanes catalyzed by the dihydrido complex 1.

Fabrication of Supercapacitors using Silver Nano Paste and Gel Electrolyte (은 나노 페이스트와 젤 전해질을 이용한 슈퍼캐패시터 제작)

  • Yoon, Seong Man;Jang, Hyunjung;Kim, Dae Won;Jang, Yunseok;Jo, Jeongdai;Go, Jeung Sang
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.410-415
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    • 2013
  • The supercapacitors were fabricated using silver (Ag) nano paste and activated carbon paste on the polyimide (PI) film and 5% potassium polyacrylate (PAAK) was used for gel electrolyte. In this paper, the current collector film and the electrode film were fabricated using screen printing. The thickness of printed silver paste was $7.3{\mu}m$ and the sheet resistance has the range of $5-7m{\Omega}/square$. An activated carbon with a surface area of $1,968m^2/g$, an electronic conducting agent (SUPER P, TIMCAL) and poly (4-vinylphenol) were mixed in 2-(2-buthoxyethoxy) ethyl acetate (BCA) with a ratio of 7:1:3 to fabricate the electrode paste. To analyze electrochemical characteristics, cyclic voltammetry was performed to evaluate the stability of the devices under the voltage range of -0.5-0.5 V. The calculated specific capacitances were 44.04 and 8.62 F/g for 10 and 500 mV/s scan rates, respectively.

Research Trend of Biomass-Derived Engineering Plastics (바이오매스 기반 엔지니어링 플라스틱 연구 동향)

  • Jeon, Hyeonyeol;Koo, Jun Mo;Park, Seul-A;Kim, Seon-Mi;Jegal, Jonggeon;Cha, Hyun Gil;Oh, Dongyeop X.;Hwang, Sung Yeon;Park, Jeyoung
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 2020
  • Sustainable plastics can be mainly categorized into (1) biodegradable plastics decomposed into water and carbon dioxide after use, and (2) biomass-derived plastics possessing the carbon neutrality by utilizing raw materials converted from atmospheric carbon dioxide to biomass. Recently, biomass-derived engineering plastics (EP) and natural nanofiber-reinforced nanocomposites are emerging as a new direction of the industry. In addition to the eco-friendliness of natural resources, these materials are competitive over petroleum-based plastics in the high value-added plastics market. Polyesters and polycarbonates synthesized from isosorbide and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, which are representative biomass-derived monomers, are at the forefront of industrialization due to their higher transparency, mechanical properties, thermal stability, and gas barrier properties. Moreover, isosorbide has potential to be applied to super EP material with continuous service temperature over 150 ℃. In situ polymerization utilizing surface hydrophilicity and multi-functionality of natural nanofibers such as nanocellulose and nanochitin achieves remarkable improvements of mechanical properties with the minimal dose of nanofillers. Biomass-derived tough-plastics covered in this review are expected to replace petroleum-based plastics by satisfying the carbon neutrality required by the environment, the high functionality by the consumer, and the accessibility by the industry.

Love and Justice are Compatible ? - In Theory of Paul Ricœur (사랑과 정의, 양립 가능한가 - 폴 리쾨르 이론을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Kyung-lae
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.52
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    • pp.53-78
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    • 2018
  • In the moral culture of the West, love and justice are two commands with roots in ancient times. One is the heritage of Hebraism, and the other belongs to the tradition of Hebraism and Hellenism. The two concepts are the most important virtues required for preserving stability in society. These two commands are compatible, in an exclusive relationship to each other. To ultimately seek their reconciliation, the precise concept analysis and understanding of each of them should be premised on, due to the multi-layered meaning of implications of the two concepts. To this end, we first have started with a lexical meaning and have done a conceptual analysis of what these two concepts are expressing. We have looked at Paul $Ric{\oe}ur$ in his interpretation of the discourse of love and justice. Finally, we looked at how these two concepts are narrated in literature. Through the literary works of Stendal, Albert Camus, and Dostoevsky, we have seen examples of literary configurations that have been embodied in life. In this way, through conceptual analysis, discourse analysis, and narrative analysis of the two concepts, the following conclusions were drawn. Love and justice were not a matter of choice. We could see coldness and unrealism of a society lacking love or with a problem of unclean love, through Stendhal's and Albert Camus' novels and their actual debate. In addition, in unclean paternalism, risk of the power of love blocking certain a certain touch of justice was also confirmed. So, it was necessary for a healthy future society to explore the possibility of the coexistence of love and justice. We confirmed the possibility of compatibility in a 'considerate balance' wherein the 'moral judgment in situation' is required, as Paul $Ric{\oe}ur$ expressed. This ideal situation may be realized when forms of love involving solidarity, mutual care, and compassion with pain like Dostoevsky are combined with the principle of distributional justice. When Albert Camus pursued justice and eventually faced reality and mentioned the need for mercy, he could have made a moral judgment based on this situation. In the end, love protects justice, and justice contributes to the realization of love. Justice reduces super-ethical love to moral categories, and love plays a role in enabling justice to exert its full force.

Characteristics of Lactate Dehydrogenase Produced from Lactobacillus sp. FFy111-1 as a Ruminant Probiotic (반추동물용 활성제로서 Lactobacillus sp. FFy111-1이 생산한 Lactate Dehydrogenase의 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Sung, H.G.;Kim, D.K.;Bae, H.D.;Shin, H.T
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.625-634
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this experiment is to study the possibility of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) enzyme to prevent lactate accumulation in the rumen, For understanding capacity of bacterial LDH in rumen environments, this study was conducted to explore the effects of temperature, pH, VFAs and metal ions on Lactobacillus sp. FFy111-1's LDH activity, and the LDH activation in rumen fluid accumulated lactate. The optimum pH and temperature of LDH were pH 7.5 and 40$^{\circ}C$, respectively. The LDH activity had a good thennostability at range from 30 to 50$^{\circ}C$. The highest pH stability of the enzyme was at ranges from pH 7.0 to 8.0 and the enzyme activities showed above 64% level of non-treated one at pH 6.0 and 6.5. The LDH was inactivated by VFAs treatments but was enhanced by metal ion treatments without NaCl and $CuSO_4$ Especially, the LDH activity was increased to 127% and 124% of its original activity by 2 mM of $BaCl_2$ and $MnSO_4$, addition, respectively. When the acidic rumen fluid was treated by LDH enzyme of Lactobacillus sp. FFy111-1, the lactate concentration in the rumen fluid was lower compared with non-treated rumen fluid(P<0.05). This lactate reduction was resulted from an action of LDH. It was proved by result of purified D,L-LDH addition that showed the lowest lactate concentration among the treatments(P<0.05). Although further investigation of microbial LDH and ruminal lactate is needed, these findings suggest that the bacterial LDH has the potential capability to decrease the lactate accumulated in an acidic rumen fluid. Also, screening of super LDH producing bacteria and technical development for improving enzyme activity in rumen environment are essential keys for practical application.

A Kinematical Analysis of Belle Motion on Parallel Bars (평행봉 Belle 기술동작의 운동학적 분석)

  • Kong, Tae-Ung
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.43-53
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    • 2005
  • This study is to define how the difference of athletic change influence on the last regrasp after somersault in Belle movement of parallel bars. For his study, the following conclusion was produced by analysis of athletic change by means of three dimensional visual image in three athlete of nation. 1. As the picture of S1, there are total used time(2.01 sec), S3(2.17 sec) and S2(2.19 sec). In case of a short needed time, it is difficult for them to perform the remaining movement of the vertical elevating flight easily and comfortably, it is judged as performing the small movement with restrict swing. 2 In the change of body center sped by each event, it is calculated as $-89.1^{\circ}$ the narrowest in S1, $-81.96^{\circ}$ the widest and then $86.34^{\circ}$ in S3. In E3 event, average compound speed is 4.07m/s, S2 showed the fastest speed of 4.14m/s whereas S1 the narrowest angle of 3.95m/s. 3. A shoulder joint and coxa are the period of mention in E3. In E4 which was pointed out the longest vertical distance, S2 that is indicated the highest vertical height as the period of detach in parallel bars. showed -3.91m. This is regarded as a preparatory movement for dynamic performance after using effectively elastic movement of shoulder joint and coxa while easily going up with turning back movement. In the 5th phrase, long airborne time and vertical change position is showed as the start while regrasping securely air flight movement from high position. 4. In E5, a long flight time and a long vertical displacement were shown as the regrasp after somersault efficiently in high position with stability from the point of the highest peak of the center of the body. Especially, S2 is marked as a little bit long position, while S1 is reversely indicated as performing somersault and unstable motion in a low position. 5. In E3, at the point of the largest extension of the shoulder joint and hip joint the shoulder joint is largely marked in $182^{\circ}$ and the hip point $182^{\circ}$ in S2. The shoulder joint is marked at the smallest angle in $177^{\circ}$ and the hip point $176^{\circ}$ in S1. And S1 is being judged by its performance of the less self - confident motion with lessening a breath of swing. S2 makes the most use of flexion and extension of the shoulder joint and the hip joint effectively. It was performed greatly with swinging and dropping the rotary movement and the rotary inertia naturally. 6. In E6, as the point of regrasp of the upper arm in parallel bars it is recognized by the that of components of vertical and horizontal velocity stably. During this study, the insufficient thing and the study on the parallel bars at a real game later are more activated than now. If it is really used as the basic materials by means of Belle Picked Study of Super E level after Bell movement, you may perceive the technique movement previously and perform without difficulty. Especially, such technique as crucifix is quite advantageous for oriental people thanks to small body shape condition. In conclusion we will nicely prepare for our suitable environment to gradually lessen trials and errors by analyzing and studying kinematically this movement.

Morphological and Nutritional Characteristics and Crossability with Brassica Species of Baemoochae, xBrassicoraphanus (배무채의 형태와 영양적 특성 및 교잡 친화성)

  • Lee, Soo-Seong;Kim, Tae Yoon;Yang, Jungmin;Kim, Jongkee;Lim, Sooyeon;Yoon, Moo Kyoung
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.543-548
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    • 2012
  • Morphological characters of Baemoochae, xBrassicoraphanus are mostly intermedium of the both parents, Chinese cabbage, Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis and radish, Raphanus sativus. The upper and lower parts of the leaf resemble the shape of Chinese cabbage and radish, respectively. The midrib of the leaf is round like to that of radish, but very big more than 3 cm in diameter and white in color like that of Chinese cabbage. The root was changed from the swollen type like that of radish to the enlarged taproot like that of the land race of Chinese cabbage after attaining genetical stability. The flower is white. The seed pod is divided into 2 different parts; the upper part is radish and about 4 cm in length and holds 3-4 seeds and the lower part is Chinese cabbage and about 3 cm in length and holds 7-8 seeds. The color of seed is brown, weight per 1.000 seeds is 5.5 g and the number of seeds per mL is 120. The matured plant in the fall season is around 5 kg in weight and outer leaves are very vigorous and stiffly and inner leaves are erect and form a loose head. The leaf and the root contain a high level of sulforaphene which is well known as a functional substance for anti-cancer and anti-super-bacteria. Baemoochae is an amphidiploid and does not have the self incompatibility function. It has a high level of cross compatibility with Chinese cabbage as the female parent, but not the male parent. It is cross incompatible to cabbage, B. oleracea, black mustard, B. nigra and radish. However it is highly compatible to oil seed rape, B. napus, yellow mustard, B. carinata and partial compatible to muatard, B. juncea in the reciprocal cross.

The lesson From Korean War (한국전쟁의 교훈과 대비 -병력수(兵力數) 및 부대수(部隊數)를 중심으로-)

  • Yoon, Il-Young
    • The Journal of Military Studies
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    • pp.49-168
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    • 2010
  • Just before the Korean War, the total number of the North Korean troops was 198,380, while that of the ROK(Republic of Korea) army troops 105,752. That is, the total number of the ROK army troops at that time was 53.3% of the total number of the North Korean army. As of December 2008, the total number of the North Korean troops is estimated to be 1,190,000, while that of the ROK troops is 655,000, so the ROK army maintains 55.04% of the total number of the North Korean troops. If the ROK army continues to reduce its troops according to [Military Reform Plan 2020], the total number of its troops will be 517,000 m 2020. If North Korea maintains the current status(l,190,000 troops), the number of the ROK troops will be 43.4% of the North Korean army. In terms of units, just before the Korean War, the number of the ROK army divisions and regiments was 80% and 44.8% of North Korean army. As of December 2008, North Korea maintains 86 divisions and 69 regiments. Compared to the North Korean army, the ROK army maintains 46 Divisions (53.4% of North Korean army) and 15 regiments (21.3% of North Korean army). If the ROK army continue to reduce the military units according to [Military Reform Plan 2020], the number of ROK army divisions will be 28(13 Active Division, 4 Mobilization Divisions and 11 Local Reserve Divisions), while that of the North Korean army will be 86 in 2020. In that case, the number of divisions of the ROK army will be 32.5% of North Korean army. During the Korean war, North Korea suddenly invaded the Republic of Korea and occupied its capital 3 days after the war began. At that time, the ROK army maintained 80% of army divisions, compared to the North Korean army. The lesson to be learned from this is that, if the ROK army is forced to disperse its divisions because of the simultaneous invasion of North Korea and attack of guerrillas in home front areas, the Republic of Korea can be in a serious military danger, even though it maintains 80% of military divisions of North Korea. If the ROK army promotes the plans in [Military Reform Plan 2020], the number of military units of the ROK army will be 32.5% of that of the North Korean army. This ratio is 2.4 times lower than that of the time when the Korean war began, and in this case, 90% of total military power should be placed in the DMZ area. If 90% of military power is placed in the DMZ area, few troops will be left for the defense of home front. In addition, if the ROK army continues to reduce the troops, it can allow North Korea to have asymmetrical superiority in military force and it will eventually exert negative influence on the stability and peace of the Korean peninsular. On the other hand, it should be reminded that, during the Korean War, the Republic of Korea was attacked by North Korea, though it kept 53.3% of troops, compared to North Korea. It should also be reminded that, as of 2008, the ROK army is defending its territory with the troops 55.04% of North Korea. Moreover, the national defense is assisted by 25,120 troops of the US Forces in Korea. In case the total number of the ROK troops falls below 43.4% of the North Korean army, it may cause social unrest about the national security and may lead North Korea's misjudgement. Besides, according to Lanchester strategy, the party with weaker military power (60% compared to the party with stronger military power) has the 4.1% of winning possibility. Therefore, if we consider the fact that the total number of the ROK army troops is 55.04% of that of the North Korean army, the winning possibility of the ROK army is not higher than 4.1%. If the total number of ROK troops is reduced to 43.4% of that of North Korea, the winning possibility will be lower and the military operations will be in critically difficult situation. [Military Reform Plan 2020] rums at the reduction of troops and units of the ground forces under the policy of 'select few'. However, the problem is that the financial support to achieve this goal is not secured. Therefore, the promotion of [Military Reform Plan 2020] may cause the weakening of military defence power in 2020. Some advanced countries such as Japan, UK, Germany, and France have promoted the policy of 'select few'. However, what is to be noted is that the national security situation of those countries is much different from that of Korea. With the collapse of the Soviet Unions and European communist countries, the military threat of those European advanced countries has almost disappeared. In addition, the threats those advanced countries are facing are not wars in national level, but terrorism in international level. To cope with the threats like terrorism, large scaled army trops would not be necessary. So those advanced European countries can promote the policy of 'select few'. In line with this, those European countries put their focuses on the development of military sections that deal with non-military operations and protection from unspecified enemies. That is, those countries are promoting the policy of 'select few', because they found that the policy is suitable for their national security environment. Moreover, since they are pursuing common interest under the European Union(EU) and they can form an allied force under NATO, it is natural that they are pursing the 'select few' policy. At present, NATO maintains the larger number of troops(2,446,000) than Russia(l,027,000) to prepare for the potential threat of Russia. The situation of japan is also much different from that of Korea. As a country composed of islands, its prime military focus is put on the maritime defense. Accordingly, the development of ground force is given secondary focus. The japanese government promotes the policy to develop technology-concentrated small size navy and air-forces, instead of maintaining large-scaled ground force. In addition, because of the 'Peace Constitution' that was enacted just after the end of World War II, japan cannot maintain troops more than 240,000. With the limited number of troops (240,000), japan has no choice but to promote the policy of 'select few'. However, the situation of Korea is much different from the situations of those countries. The Republic of Korea is facing the threat of the North Korean Army that aims at keeping a large-scale military force. In addition, the countries surrounding Korea are also super powers containing strong military forces. Therefore, to cope with the actual threat of present and unspecified threat of future, the importance of maintaining a carefully calculated large-scale military force cannot be denied. Furthermore, when considering the fact that Korea is in a peninsular, the Republic of Korea must take it into consideration the tradition of continental countries' to maintain large-scale military powers. Since the Korean War, the ROK army has developed the technology-force combined military system, maintaining proper number of troops and units and pursuing 'select few' policy at the same time. This has been promoted with the consideration of military situation in the Koran peninsular and the cooperation of ROK-US combined forces. This kind of unique military system that cannot be found in other countries can be said to be an insightful one for the preparation for the actual threat of North Korea and the conflicts between continental countries and maritime countries. In addition, this kind of technology-force combined military system has enabled us to keep peace in Korea. Therefore, it would be desirable to maintain this technology-force combined military system until the reunification of the Korean peninsular. Furthermore, it is to be pointed out that blindly following the 'select few' policy of advanced countries is not a good option, because it is ignoring the military strategic situation of the Korean peninsular. If the Republic of Korea pursues the reduction of troops and units radically without consideration of the threat of North Korea and surrounding countries, it could be a significant strategic mistake. In addition, the ROK army should keep an eye on the fact the European advanced countries and Japan that are not facing direct military threats are spending more defense expenditures than Korea. If the ROK army reduces military power without proper alternatives, it would exert a negative effect on the stable economic development of Korea and peaceful reunification of the Korean peninsular. Therefore, the desirable option would be to focus on the development of quality of forces, maintaining proper size and number of troops and units under the technology-force combined military system. The tableau above shows that the advanced countries like the UK, Germany, Italy, and Austria spend more defense expenditure per person than the Republic of Korea, although they do not face actual military threats, and that they keep achieving better economic progress than the countries that spend less defense expenditure. Therefore, it would be necessary to adopt the merits of the defense systems of those advanced countries. As we have examined, it would be desirable to maintain the current size and number of troops and units, to promote 'select few' policy with increased defense expenditure, and to strengthen the technology-force combined military system. On the basis of firm national security, the Republic of Korea can develop efficient policies for reunification and prosperity, and jump into the status of advanced countries. Therefore, the plans to reduce troops and units in [Military Reform Plan 2020] should be reexamined. If it is difficult for the ROK army to maintain its size of 655,000 troops because of low birth rate, the plans to establish the prompt mobilization force or to adopt drafting system should be considered for the maintenance of proper number of troops and units. From now on, the Republic of Korean government should develop plans to keep peace as well as to prepare unexpected changes in the Korean peninsular. For the achievement of these missions, some options can be considered. The first one is to maintain the same size of military troops and units as North Korea. The second one is to maintain the same level of military power as North Korea in terms of military force index. The third one is to maintain the same level of military power as North Korea, with the combination of the prompt mobilization force and the troops in active service under the system of technology-force combined military system. At present, it would be not possible for the ROK army to maintain such a large-size military force as North Korea (1,190,000 troops and 86 units). So it would be rational to maintain almost the same level of military force as North Korea with the combination of the troops on the active list and the prompt mobilization forces. In other words, with the combination of the troops in active service (60%) and the prompt mobilization force (40%), the ROK army should develop the strategies to harmonize technology and forces. The Korean government should also be prepared for the strategic flexibility of USFK, the possibility of American policy change about the location of foreign army, radical unexpected changes in North Korea, the emergence of potential threat, surrounding countries' demand for Korean force for the maintenance of regional stability, and demand for international cooperation against terrorism. For this, it is necessary to develop new approaches toward the proper number and size of troops and units. For instance, to prepare for radical unexpected political or military changes in North Korea, the Republic of Korea should have plans to protect a large number of refugees, to control arms and people, to maintain social security, and to keep orders in North Korea. From the experiences of other countries, it is estimated that 115,000 to 230,000 troops, plus ten thousands of police are required to stabilize the North Korean society, in the case radical unexpected military or political change happens in North Korea. In addition, if the Republic of Korea should perform the release of hostages, control of mass destruction weapons, and suppress the internal wars in North Korea, it should send 460,000 troops to North Korea. Moreover, if the Republic of Korea wants to stop the attack of North Korea and flow of refugees in DMZ area, at least 600,000 troops would be required. In sum, even if the ROK army maintains 600,000 troops, it may need additional 460,000 troops to prepare for unexpected radical changes in North Korea. For this, it is necessary to establish the prompt mobilization force whose size and number are almost the same as the troops in active service. In case the ROK army keeps 650,000 troops, the proper number of the prompt mobilization force would be 460,000 to 500,000.

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