• Title, Summary, Keyword: Super stability

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A Fundamental Test of Temperature Crack Reduction Method Application by Setting Time Control of Large-Scaled Mat Foundation Mass Concrete (초대형 매트기초 매스 콘크리트의 응결시간조정에 의한 온도균열저감 공법적용의 기초적 실험)

  • Han, Cheon-Goo;Lee, Jae-Sam;Noh, Sang-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2009
  • Constructing large-scale mat foundation mass concrete is increasing for the stability of building structure, because a lot of high rise building are being built in order to make full use of limited space. However, It is of increasing concerns that because limited placing equipments, available job-site and systems for mass concete placement in construction field do not allow to place great quantity of concrete at the same time in large scale mat foundation, consistency between placement lift can not be secured. And also, it is likely to crack due to stress caused by the difference of hydration heat generation time. To find out the solution against above problems, this study is to reconfirm the performance of normal concrete designed by mix proportion and super retarding concrete. The Fundamental test shows what happens if low heat proportioning and control method of setting time are applied at the job-site of newly constructed high rise building. The test result show that slump flow of concrete has been somewhat increased as the target retarding time gets longer, while the air content has been slightly decreased but this is no great difference from normal concrete. The setting time shows to be retarded as target retarding time gets longer, the range of retarding time increases. It is necessary to increase the amount of mix of super retarding agent in the proportion ration by setting curing temperature high since outdoor curing is about 6 hours faster than standard curing, which means the temperature of the concrete will be higher than the temperature of the surrounding environment, due to its high hydration heat when applying in a construction site. The compressive strength of super retarding concrete appears to be lower than normal concrete due to the retarding action in the early stage. However, as the time goes by, the compressive strength gets higher, and by the 28th day the strength becomes the same or higher than normal concrete.

Design of the Covered Address Generation using the Super Increasing Sequence in Wireless Networks (무선 네트워크에서의 초증가 수열을 통한 주소 은닉 기법 설계)

  • Choun, Jun-Ho;Kim, Sung-Chan;Jang, Kun-Won;Do, Kyung-Hwa;Jun, Moon-Seog
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartC
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    • v.14C no.5
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    • pp.411-416
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    • 2007
  • The General security method of wireless network provides a confidentiality of communication contents based on the cryptographic stability against a malicious host. However, this method exposes the logical and physical addresses of both sender and receiver, so transmission volume and identification of both may be exposed although concealing that content. Covered address scheme that this paper proposes generates an address to which knapsack problem using super increasing sequence is applied, and replaces the addresses of sender and receiver with addresses from super increasing sequence. Also, proposed method changes frequently secret addresses, so a malicious user cannot watch a target system or try to attack the specific host. Proposed method also changes continuously a host address that attacker takes aim at. Accordingly, an attacker who tries to use DDoS attack cannot decide the specific target system.

The Bond Characteristics of Ultra Rapid Hardening Mortar for Repair using Magnesia-Phosphate Cement (마그네시아 인산염 시멘트를 이용한 초속경 보수 모르타르의 접착특성)

  • Lee, Sun-Ho;Kwon, Hee-Sung;Paik, Min-Su;Ahn, Moo-Young;Lee, Young-Do;Jung, Sang-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.609-612
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    • 2008
  • Ultra Super Early Strength Cement is a material that satisfies these requirements. early hydration heat however, is significant over regular concrete, thus discretion is advised for thermal cracks in accordance with heat generation when constructing a large-scale structures. In addition, the negative point that it is difficult to achieve required strength in a short period of time following rubbing process while retaining workability, the cement is being used conditionally for engineering material and Ultra Super Early Strength Cement for maintenance material for construction doesn't exist. Magnesia Phosphate Cement, which is currently under studies in overseas uses no extra admixture and has strong points of Ultra Super Early Strength as well as favorable construction-ability and adhesive stability to the prototype concrete. These factors stem recognition that it could be used as maintenance material for construction of diverse applicability. In order to provide necessary data to increase practicality of the magnesia phosphate cement for Ultra Super Early Strength Mortar, the study carried out simulate experiment on member of framework to review field applicability.

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Stability and antioxidant effect of rapeseed extract in oil-in-water emulsion

  • Zhang, Hua;Shin, Jung-Ah;Hong, Soon Taek;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.249-257
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    • 2016
  • In this study, rapeseed extracts were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of defatted rapeseed to evaluate the stability and antioxidant activity of an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion system. The oil-in-water emulsions were prepared from stripped soybean oil with different concentrations (0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%) of rapeseed extract as an emulsifier. Their emulsion stability was compared to that of emulsions prepared with the commercial emulsifier, Tween 20 (Polysorbate 20, 0.2%). After stripping the soybean oil, the total tocopherol content was reduced from 51.4 g/100 g to 1.1 g/100 g. Emulsion stability and oxidative stability of emulsions prepared with Tween 20 and rapeseed extract as emulsifiers were evaluated. For 30 days droplet sizes of emulsions containing rapeseed extract (0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Similar results were obtained for emulsion stability (ES) and Turbiscan analysis, suggesting that the addition of rapeseed extract increased emulsion stability. The addition of rapeseed extract at more than 0.4% resulted in an emulsion stability comparable to the addition of 0.2% Tween 20. The antioxidative ability of rapeseed extract increased with the amount added in the emulsion. Moreover, the addition of 0.6% rapeseed extract resulted in the lowest emulsion peroxide values (10.3 mEq/L) among all treatments. Therefore, according to the stability of its antioxidative and physical stability properties, rapeseed extract from super critical extraction could be successfully applied to the food and cosmetic industries.

Effects of types of bridge decks on competitive relationships between aerostatic and flutter stability for a super long cable-stayed bridge

  • Hu, Chuanxin;Zhou, Zhiyong;Jiang, Baosong
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.255-270
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    • 2019
  • Aerodynamic configurations of bridge decks have significant effects on the aerostatic torsional divergence and flutter forsuper long-span bridges, which are onset for selection of suitable bridge decksfor those bridges. Based on a cable-stayed bridge with double main spans of 1500 m, considering typical twin-box, stiffening truss and closed-box section, which are the most commonly used form of bridge decks and assumed that the rigidity of those section is completely equivalent, are utilized to investigate the effects of aerodynamic configurations of bridge decks on aerodynamic instability performance comprised of the aerostatic torsional divergence and flutter, by means of wind tunnel tests and numerical calculations, including three-dimensional (3D) multimode flutter analysis and nonlinear aerostatic analysis. Regarding the aerostatic torsional divergence, the results obtained in this study show twin-box section is the best, closed-box section the second-best, and the stiffening truss section the worst. Regarding the flutter, the flutter stability of the twin-box section is far better than that of the stiffening truss and closed-box section. Furthermore, wind-resistance design depends on the torsional divergence for the twin-box and stiffening truss section. However, there are obvious competitive relationships between the aerostatic torsional divergence and flutter for the closed-box section. Flutter occur before aerostatic instability at initial attack angle of $+3^{\circ}$ and $0^{\circ}$, while the aerostatic torsional divergence occur before flutter at initial attack angle of $-3^{\circ}$. The twin-box section is the best in terms of both aerostatic and flutter stability among those bridge decks. Then mechanisms of aerostatic torsional divergence are revealed by tracking the cable forces synchronous with deformation of the bridge decksin the instability process. It was also found that the onset wind velocities of these bridge decks are very similar at attack angle of $-3^{\circ}$. This indicatesthat a stable triangular structure made up of the cable planes, the tower, and the bridge deck greatly improves the aerostatic stability of the structure, while the aerodynamic effects associated with the aerodynamic configurations of the bridge decks have little effects on the aerostatic stability at initial attack angle of $-3^{\circ}$. In addition, instability patterns of the bridge depend on both the initial attack angles and aerodynamic configurations of the bridge decks. This study is helpful in determining bridge decksfor super long-span bridges in future.

A Study on the Stability of Uncontinuous Plate Structures with Cracks (결함을 갖는 불연속평판 구조물의 안정성 연구)

  • Lee, Seon-U;Kim, Si-Yeong;Hong, Bong-Gi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 1984
  • This paper deals with the characterics of the stability of uncontinuous plate structures with cracks. The relation between the J-intergal of the cracks existing in the stress-concentrated regions and local strain are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The BEM(boundary element method)analysis and test results lead to the follow conclusions: 1. A non-dimensional J was computed in a plate stress and strain condition for several kind of loads and crack types. The J design curves are defined as follows: J sub(E)/$\sigma$ sub(y) super(2) a=3.345(e/e sub(y) ) super(2) at e/e sub(y)$\leq$1 J sub(E)/$\sigma$ sub(y) super(2) a=3.345(e/e sub(y) ) at e/e sub(y)$\geq$1 2. Use of this curve provides a good estimation for the uncontinuous plate structures with cracks existing in the stress and strain concentrated region. 3. The stability of the characteristics is mainly depenent upon not the length of cracks but the type of the cracks.

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Stability Analysis of FCHEV Energy System Using Frequency Decoupling Control Method

  • Dai, Peng;Sun, Weinan;Xie, Houqing;Lv, Yan;Han, Zhonghui
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.490-500
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    • 2017
  • Fuel cell (FC) is a promising power supply in electric vehicles (EV); however, it has poor dynamic performance and short service life. To address these shortcomings, a super capacitor (SC) is adopted as an auxiliary power supply. In this study, the frequency decoupling control method is used in electric vehicle energy system. High-frequency and low-frequency demand power is provided by SC and FC, respectively, which makes full use of two power supplies. Simultaneously, the energy system still has rapidity and reliability. The distributed power system (DPS) of EV requires DC-DC converters to achieve the desired voltage. The stability of cascaded converters must be assessed. Impedance-based methods are effective in the stability analysis of DPS. In this study, closed-loop impedances of interleaved half-bridge DC-DC converter and phase-shifted full-bridge DC-DC converter based on the frequency decoupling control method are derived. The closed-loop impedance of an inverter for permanent magnet synchronous motor based on space vector modulation control method is also derived. An improved Middlebrook criterion is used to assess and adjust the stability of the energy system. A theoretical analysis and simulation test are provided to demonstrate the feasibility of the energy management system and the control method.

Study of seismic performance of super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges

  • Zhang, Xin-Jun;Yu, Cong;Zhao, Jun-Jie
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.72 no.1
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    • pp.99-111
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    • 2019
  • To investigate the seismic performance of long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge, a super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge scheme with main span of 1400m is taken as example, structural response of the bridge under E1 seismic action is investigated numerically by the multimode seismic response spectrum and time-history analysis, seismic behavior and also the effect of structural geometric nonlinearity on the seismic responses of super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges are revealed. The seismic responses are also compared to those of a fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge with the same main span. The effects of structural parameters including the earth-anchored girder length, the girder width, the girder depth, the tower height to span ratio, the inclination of earth-anchored cables, the installation of auxiliary piers in the side spans and the connection between tower and girder on the seismic responses of partially ground-anchored cable-stayed bridges are investigated, and their reasonable values are also discussed in combination with static performance and structural stability. The results show that the horizontal seismic excitation produces significant seismic responses of the girder and tower, the seismic responses of the towers are greater than those of the girder, and thus the tower becomes the key structural member of seismic design, and more attentions should be paid to seismic design of these sections including the tower bottom, the tower and girder at the junction of tower and girder, the girder at the auxiliary piers in side spans; structural geometric nonlinearity has significant influence on the seismic responses of the bridge, and thus the nonlinear time history analysis is proposed to predict the seismic responses of super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges; as compared to the fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge with the same main span, several stay cables in the side spans are changed to be earth-anchored, structural stiffness and natural frequency are both increased, the seismic responses of the towers and the longitudinal displacement of the girder are significantly reduced, structural seismic performance is improved, and therefore the partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge provides an ideal structural solution for super long-span cable-stayed bridges with kilometer-scale main span; under the case that the ratio of earth-anchored girder length to span is about 0.3, the wider and higher girder is employed, the tower height-to-span ratio is about 0.2, the larger inclination is set for the earth-anchored cables, 1 to 2 auxiliary piers are installed in each of the side spans and the fully floating system is employed, better overall structural performance is achieved for long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges.

A New Substituent Constant $σ^{c+}4_s$;a Fit for π-Participation in Modified Hammett-Brown Equation

  • 조정호;신정휴
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.347-348
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    • 1996
  • A set of substituent constants, σc+, has been widely used comparing the stability of carbocation in super acid condition. Plotting of 13C chemical shifts of cationic carbon (Δδc+) against σc+ constants yields an excellent correlation with a good correlation coefficient (r=0.999) for a cyclopentyl cation system. But these σc+ constants show poor linearity in norbornenyl cations that well known to show homoallylic stabilization in a cationic condition. We calculated the new substituent constant, σc+π, and found that the new substituent constants give an excellent correlation in π- and πσ-participating cation systems.

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Brake Lining Can be Applied to Super High Speed Vehicle

  • Nakano, Satoru;Maejima, Takashi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute Conference
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    • pp.1305-1306
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    • 2006
  • A new material was developed to achieve improvement of heat durability, improvement of wear resistance, stability of friction coefficient and reduction in aggression to counterpart, because it is difficult to maintain braking properties by using currently available materials in the train wagons used for high-speed transportation. As a result, the new material showed a stable wear resistance even in the speed range of 350km/h, where improvement was also confirmed in reduction of aggression to counterpart material by more than approximately 10%. This development was adopted for the brake lining in the Taiwan High Speed Rail project.

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