• Title/Summary/Keyword: Surface Treatment

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Histological Observation of Bone Reaction with Relation to Surface Treatment of Titanium (생체합금 Titanium의 표면처리에 따른 골반응의 변화에 대한 조직학적 관찰)

  • Ahn, Myun-Whan;Choi, Yong-Sug;Ahn, Jong-Chul;Seo, Jae-Sung;Lee, Dong-Chul;Jang, Jae-Hyuk
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.116-133
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    • 1996
  • The biocompatibility of the titanium has been estabilished through various experimental studies such as cell culture toxicity test, pyrogen test, mutagen test and others. In order to confirm biocompatibility after fabrication of titanium and to clarify the difference between the bone reaction after insertion of the lathed titanium rods and the bone reaction after insertion of the finished and polished rods, both rods were implanted into the proximal femur of a rabbit. Histologic reactions in the bone were observed according to the ASTM standards at the intervals of 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 26 weeks after implantation. The result were as follows : In 6 weeks after implantation of lathed titanium rods, inflammatory reactions, such as minimal degree infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes were observed in all cases. This was thought to he caused by surgical trauma. However, inflammatory cell infiltration was not seen after implantation of polished and finished rods in all cases. The cellular infiltration and the histologic reaction of the hone after implantation of lathed group were significantly more pronounced than those after implantation of the finished group. In 12 weeks after implantation of lathed rods, two of four cases revealed a minimal degree of cellular infiltration. No inflammatory cell infiltration was demonstrated after implantation of the finished group. The cellular infiltration and histologic reaction seemed to be more pronounced in the lathed group, but they were not significant statistically. At 26 weeks after implantation of the lathed and finished group, there was no cellular infiltration in both groups. New bone formation was observed up 26 weeks, and no difference between lathed titanium rods and finished titanium rods were apparent. Mild bone necrosis was observed in 1 case out of 11 cases in which lathed titanium rods were implanted. Bone necrosis was not observed in the finished titanium rod group. Fibrosis was observed in both groups, but differences were not significant between the experimental groups. In the lathed titanium rods group and the shorter interval group, inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly higher. Finished titanium rods and longer interval groups had markedly decreased tendences in histologic reaction ratings. As a conclusion, although certificated titanium might be safe to use, difference of biocompatibility were observed depending on the method of surface finish. By identifying biocompatibility as a long-term standardized animal study, we can develop progressed internal fixation device that is safe for human beings.

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THE FISSURE PENETRATION AND MICROLEAKAGE OF PIT AND FISSURE SEALANT WITH MECHANICAL PREPARATION (기계적 삭제방법을 이용한 치면열구전색제의 열구 침투도 및 미세누출)

  • Kim, Ji-Yeon;Lee, Jae-Ho;Park, Ki-Tae;Kim, Seong-Oh;Choi, Byung-Jai;Son, Heung-Kyu
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.164-173
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    • 2005
  • Mechanical preparation has been introduced to provide the sealant retention. The objective of this study was to compare the fissure penetration and the microleakage of pit and fissure sealant using mechanical preparation(mechanical preparation + acid etching) and acid etching only. An additional objective of this study was to compare the fissure penetration and the microleakage of unfilled and filled sealant in both methods. Sixty human premolars extracted for orthodontic purpose were selected. Thirty teeth were acid etched alone and remaining thirty teeth were prepared with a $\frac{1}{4}$ round bur and then acid etched. One-half of teeth in each surface treatment method were sealed with unfilled sealant and the other half were sealed with filled sealant. All of the teeth were thermocycled for 1200 cycles at $5^{\circ}C\;and\;55^{\circ}C$ and immersed in 5% methylene blue for 24 hours. Each tooth was sectioned bucco-lingually at mesial pit and distal pit and examined under a Measurescope. In the case of mechanical preparation, fissure penetration of sealant was significantly increased compared with the case of acid etching only(P < 0.05). The filled and unfilled sealant using mechanical preparation showed significantly decreased microleakage when compared with the unfilled sealant using acid etching only(P < 0.05). No differences were found in fissure penetration and microleakage between unfilled and filled sealant in both methods. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that mechanical preparation and filled sealant are recommended when placing pit and fissure sealant. However, further clinical studies should be performed in regard to microleakage.

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In Vitro Evaluation of Shear Bond Strengths of Zirconia Cerami with Various Types of Cement after Thermocycling on Bovine Dentin Surface (지르코니아 표면 처리와 시멘트 종류에 따른 치면과의 전단 결합 강도 비교 연구)

  • Cho, Soo-Hyun;Cho, In-Ho;Lee, Jong-Hyuk;Nam, Ki-Young;Kim, Jong-Bae;Hwang, Sang-Hee
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.249-257
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    • 2007
  • State of problem : The use of zirconium oxide all-ceramic material provides several advantages, including a high flexural strength(>1000MPa) and desirable optical properties, such as shading adaptation to the basic shades and a reduction in the layer thickness. Along with the strength of the materials, the cementation technique is also important to the clinical success of a restoration. Nevertheless, little information is available on the effect of different surface treatments on the bonding of zirconium high-crystalline ceramics and resin luting agents. Purpose : The aim of this study was to test the effects of surface treatments of zirconium on shear bond strengths between bovine teeth and a zirconia ceramic and evaluate differences among cements Material and methods : 54 sound bovine teeth extracted within a 1 months, were used. They were frozen in distilled water. These were rinsed by tap water to confirm that no granulation tissues have left. These were kept refrigerated at $4^{\circ}C$ until tested. Each tooth was placed horizontally at a plastic cylinder (diameter 20mm), and embedded in epoxy resin. Teeth were sectioned with diamond burs to expose dentin and grinded with #600 silicon carbide paper. To make sure there was no enamel left, each was observed under an optical microscope. 54 prefabricated zirconium oxide ceramic copings(Lava, 3M ESPE, USA) were assigned into 3 groups ; control, airborne-abraded with $110{\mu}m$ $Al_2O_3$ and scratched with diamond burs at 4 directions. They were cemented with a seating force of 10 ㎏ per tooth, using resin luting cement(Panavia $F^{(R)}$), resin cement(Superbond $C&B^{(R)}$), and resin modified GI cement(Rely X $Luting^{(R)}$). Those were thermocycled at $5^{\circ}C$ and $55^{\circ}C$ for 5000 cycles with a 30 second dwell time, and then shear bond strength was determined in a universal test machine(Model 4200, Instron Co., Canton, USA). The crosshead speed was 1 mm/min. The result was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance(ANOVA) and the Tukey test at a significance level of P<0.05. Results : Superbond $C&B^{(R)}$ at scratching with diamond burs showed the highest shear bond strength than others (p<.05). For Panavia $F^{(R)}$, groups of scratching and sandblasting showed significantly higher shear bond strength than control group(p<.05). For Rely X $Luting^{(R)}$, only between scratching & control group, significantly different shear bond strength was observed(p<.05). Conclusion : Within the limitation of this study, Superbond $C&B^{(R)}$ showed clinically acceptable shear bond between bovine teeth & zirconia ceramics regardless of surface treatments. For the surface treatment, scratching increased shear bond strength. Increase of shear bond strength by sandblasting with $110{\mu}m$ $Al_2O_3$ was not statistically different.

The effect of silane treatment timing and saliva contamination on shear bond strength of resin cement to porcelain (Silane의 처리시기와 타액오염이 도재-레진 시멘트의 전단 결합강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Ro, Young-Seon;Ryu, Jae-Jun;Suh, Kyu-Won
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2009
  • Statement of problem: Porcelain veneers have become a popular treatment modality for aesthetic anterior prosthesis. Fitting porcelain veneers in the mouth usually involve a try-in appointment, which frequently results in salivary contamination of fitting surfaces. Purpose: An in vitro study was carried out to investigate the effect of silane treatment timing and saliva contamination on the resin bond strength to porcelain veneer surface. Material and methods: Cylindrical test specimens (n=360) and rectangular test specimens (n=5) were prepared for shear bond test and contact angle analysis. Whole cylindrical specimens divided into 20 groups, each of which received a different surface treatment and/or storage condition. The composite resin cement stubs were light-polymerized onto porcelain adherends. The shear bond strengths of cemented stubs were measured after dry storage and thermocycling (3,000 cycles) between 5 and $55^{\circ}C$. The silane and their reactions were chemically monitored by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis (FTIR) and contact angle analysis. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Dunnett's multiple comparison were used to analyze the data. Results: FT-IR analysis showed that salivary contamination and silane treatment timing did not affect the surface interactions of silane. Observed water contact angles were lower on the saliva contaminated porcelain surface and the addition of 37% phosphoric acid for 20 seconds on saliva contaminated porcelain increased the degree of contact angle. Silane applied to the porcelain, a few days before cementation, resulted in increasing the bond strength after thermocycling. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, it can be concluded that it would be better to protect porcelain prosthesis before saliva contamination with silane treatment and to clean the contaminated surface by use of phosphoric acid.

Effect of titanium surface microgrooves and thermal oxidation on in vitro osteoblast responses (마이크로그루브 및 열산화 복합 티타늄 표면의 골아세포분화 증진효과)

  • Seo, Jin-Ho;Lee, Richard sungbok;Ahn, Su-Jin;Park, Su-Jung;Lee, Myung-Hyun;Lee, Suk Won
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.198-206
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: We aimed to investigate the effect of combined various microgrooves and thermal oxidation on the titanium (Ti) and to evaluate various in vitro responses of human periodontal ligament cells (PLCs). Materials and methods: Grade II titanium disks were fabricated. Microgrooves were applied on titanium discs to have $0/0{{\mu}m}$, $15/3.5{{\mu}m}$, $30/10{{\mu}m}$, and $60/10{{\mu}m}$ of respective width/depth by photolithography. Thermal oxidation was performed on the microgrooves of Ti substrata for 3 h at $700^{\circ}C$ in air. The experiments were divided into 3 groups: control group (ST), thermal oxidation group (ST/TO), and combined microgrooves and thermal oxidation group (Gr15-TO, Gr30-TO, Gr60-TO). Surface characterization was performed by field-emission scanning microscopy. Cell adhesion, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralization were analyzed using the bromodeoxyurdine (BrdU), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and extracellular calcium deposition assays, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the oneway analysis of variance and Pearson's bivariate correlation analysis (SPSS Version 17.0). Results: In general, the combined microgrooves and thermal oxidation group (Gr15-TO, Gr30-TO, Gr60-TO) showed significantly higher levels compared with the control (ST) or thermal oxidation (ST-TO) groups in the BrdU expression, ALP activity, and extracellular calcium deposition. Gr60-TO group induced highest levels of cell adhesion and osteoblastic differentiation. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, we conclude that the Ti surface treatment using combined microgrooves and thermal oxidation is highly effective in inducing the cell adhesion andosteoblastic differentiation. The propose surface is also expected to be effective in inducing rapid and strong osseointegration of Ti oral implants.

A study on the shear bond strength between Co-Cr denture base and relining materials (금속의치상과 의치이장재료 간의 결합력에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Na-Young;Kim, Doo-Yong;Lee, Young-Soo;Park, Won-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study evaluated the bonding strength of direct relining resin to Co-Cr denture base material according to surface treatment and immersion time. Materials and methods: In this study, Co-Cr alloy was used in hexagon shape. Each specimen was cut in flat surface, and sandblasted with $110\;{\mu}m$ $Al_2O_3$ for 1 minute. 54 specimens were divided into 3 groups; group A-control group, group B-applied with surface primer A, group C-applied with surface primer B. Self curing direct resin was used for this study. Each group was subdivided into another 3 groups according to the immersion time. After the wetting storage, shear bond strength of the specimens were measured with universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc method. Results: In experiment of sandblasting specimens, surface roughness of the alloy was the highest after 1 minute sandblasting. In experiment of testing shear bond strength, bonding strength was lowered on group B, C, A. There were significant differences between 3 groups. According to period, Bonding strength was the highest on 0 week storage group, and the weakest on 2 week storage group. But there were no significant differences between 3 periods. According to group and period, bonding strength of all group were lowered according to immersion time but there were no significant differences on group B and group C, but there was significant difference according to immersion time on group A. Conclusion: It is useful to sandblast and adopt metal primers when relining Co-Cr metal base dentures in chair-side.

3-Dimensional Micro-Computed Tomography Study on Bone Regeneration with Silk Fibroin, rh-Bone Morphogenetic Protein Loaded-Silk Fibroin and Tricalcium Phosphate Coated-Silk Fibroin in Rat Calvaria Defect

  • Pang, Eun-O;Park, Young-Ju;Park, Su-Hyun;Kang, Eung-Sun;Kweon, Hae-Yong;Kim, Soeng-Gon;Ko, Chang-Yong;Kim, Han-Sung;Nam, Jeong-Hun;Ahn, Jang-Hun;Chun, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Byeong-Min
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration capacity of silk fibroin (SF) when combined with beta tricalcium phosphate (${\beta}$-tricalcium phosphate [TCP]) and rh-bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in vivo by micro-computed tomography (CT), soft x-ray, and histological analysis. Methods: A total of 56 critical size defects formed by a trephine bur made on 28 adult female Spague-Dawley rats were used for this study and the defect size was 5.0 mm in diameter. The defects were transplanted with (1) no graft material (raw defect), (2) autogenous bone, (3) SF ($10{\mu}g$), (4) SF-BMP ($10{\mu}g$, $0.8{\mu}g$ each), and (5) SF+${\beta}$-TCP ($10{\mu}g$). At 4 and 8 weeks after operation, the experimental animals were sacrificed. Samples were evaluated with soft x-ray, histological examinations and 3-dimensional micro-CT analysis. Results: In the 3-dimensional micro-CT evaluation, bone volume and bone surface data were higher in the SF-BMP ($12.8{\pm}1.5$, $138.6{\pm}45.0$ each) (P<0.05) and SF-TCP ($12.3{\pm}1.5$, $144.9{\pm}30.9$ each) group than in the SF group ($6.1{\pm}3.3$, $77.2{\pm}37.3$ each) (P<0.05), except for the autogenous group ($15.0{\pm}3.0$, $190.7{\pm}41.4$ each) at 4 weeks. At 8 weeks, SF-BMP ($16.8{\pm}3.5$, $173.9{\pm}34.2$ each) still revealed higher (P<0.05) bone volum and surface, but SF-TCP ($11.3{\pm}1.5$, $1132.9{\pm}52.1$ each) (P=0.5, P=0.2) revealed the same or lower amount compared with the SF group ($13.8{\pm}2.7$, $127.5{\pm}44.8$ each). The % of bone area determined by radiodensity was higher in the SF-TCP ($31.4{\pm}9.1%$) and SF-BMP ($36.2{\pm}16.2%$) groups than in the SF ($19.0{\pm}10.4$) group at the period of 4 weeks. Also, in the histological evaluation, the SF-BMP group revealed lower inflammation reaction, lower foreign body reaction and higher bone healing than the SF group at postoperative 4 weeks and 8 weeks. The SF-TCP group revealed lower inflammation at 4 weeks, but accordingly, as the TCP membrane was absorbed, inflammatory and foreign body reaction are increased at 8 weeks. Conclusion: The current study provides evidence that the silk fibrin can be used as an effective grafted material for tissue engineering bone generation through a combination of growth factor or surface treatment.

SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOACTIVITY OF ANODICALLY OXIDIZED TITANIUM SURFACES (양극산화에 의한 티타늄 산화막의 표면 특성 및 생체 활성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Han;Cho, In-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.85-97
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    • 2007
  • Statement of problem: Recently, anodic oxidation of cp-titanium is a popular method for treatment of titanium implant surfaces. It is a relatively easy process, and the thickness, structure, composition, and the microstructure of the oxide layer can be variably modified. Moreover the biological properties of the oxide layer can be controlled. Purpose: In this study, the roughness, microstructure, crystal structure of the variously treated groups (current, voltage, frequency, electrolyte, thermal treatment) were evaluated. And the specimens were soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) to evaluate the effects of the surface characteristics and the oxide layers on the bioactivity of the specimens which were directly related to bone formation and integration. Materials and methods: Surface treatments consisted of either anodization or anodization followed thermal treatment. Specimens were divided into seven groups, depending on their anodizing treatment conditions: constant current mode (350V for group 2), constant voltage mode (155V for group 3), 60 Hz pulse series (230V for group 4, 300V for group 5), and 1000 Hz pulse series (400V for group 6, 460V for group 7). Non-treated native surfaces were used as controls (group 1). In addition, for the purpose of evaluating the effects of thermal treatment, each group was heat treated by elevating the temperature by $5^{\circ}C$ per minute until $600^{\circ}C$ for 1 hour, and then bench cured. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM), porous oxide layers were observed on treated surfaces. The crystal structures and phases of titania were identified by thin-film x-ray diffractmeter (TF-XRD). Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used for roughness measurement (Sa, Sq). To evaluate bioactivity of modified titanium surfaces, each group was soaked in SBF for 168 hours (1 week), and then changed surface characteristics were analyzed by SEM and TF-XRD. Results: On basis of our findings, we concluded the following results. 1. Most groups showed morphologically porous structures. Except group 2, all groups showed fine to coarse convex structures, and the groups with superior quantity of oxide products showed superior morphology. 2. As a result of combined anodization and thermal treatment, there were no effects on composition of crystalline structure. But, heat treatment influenced the quantity of formation of the oxide products (rutile / anatase). 3. Roughness decreased in the order of groups 7,5,2,3,6,4,1 and there was statistical difference between group 7 and the others (p<0.05), but group 7 did not show any bioactivity within a week. 4. In groups that implanted ions (Ca/P) on the oxide layer through current and voltage control, showed superior morphology, and oxide products, but did not express any bioactivity within a week. 5. In group 3, the oxide layer was uniformly organized with rutile, with almost no titanium peak. And there were abnormally more [101] orientations of rutile crystalline structure, and bonelike apatite formation could be seen around these crystalline structures. Conclusion: As a result of control of various factors in anodization (current, voltage, frequency, electrolytes, thermal treatment), the surface morphology, micro-porosity, the 2nd phase formation, crystalline structure, thickness of the oxide layer could be modified. And even more, the bioactivity of the specimens in vitro could be induced. Thus anodic oxidation can be considered as an excellent surface treatment method that will able to not only control the physical properties but enhance the biological characteristics of the oxide layer. Furthermore, it is recommended in near future animal research to prove these results.

The effects of blocking the oxygen in the air during the polymerization of sealant (광중합 시 공기 중 산소의 차단이 치면열구전색제의 중합에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, You-Hyang;Lee, Nan-Young;Lee, Sang-Ho
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.365-376
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of blocking the oxygen in the air during the polymerization of sealant. All curing were performed with various light curing units under the application of oxygen gel barrier, stream of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas for inhibition of oxygen diffusion into sealant surface. The results of present study can be summarized as follows : 1. The amount of eluted TEGDMA form the specimens cured with all the three different light units in the stream of $N_2$ and $CO_2$ gas and application of Oxygen gel barrier($DeOx^{(R)}$) were significantly lower than in the room-air atmosphere (Control) (p<0.05). 2. In the $DeOx^{(R)}$ application, the amount of eluted TEGDMA the specimen cured with PAC light for 10seconds was less than that cured in the stream of $N_2$ and $CO_2$ atmospheric conditions (p<0.05) 3. In the LED using 10 or 20sec irradiation times under the stream of $N_2$ and $CO_2$, the eluted TEGDMA showed to be no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). 4. The microhardness from the specimens cured with all the three different light units under each treated conditions were significantly higher than in the room-air atmosphere (p<0.05). 5. The surface treatment by $DeOx^{(R)}$, $N_2$ and $CO_2$ reduces the thickness of oxygen inhibited layer by sp proximately 49% of the untreated control value.

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