• Title, Summary, Keyword: Survival maintenance ability

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An Eclogical Study on the Aquatic Animals in Jungrang Stream of Seoul (중랑천의 수서동물에 관한 생태학적 연구)

  • 배경석;박종태;조기찬;길혜경;신재영
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.89-97
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    • 1997
  • Most of urban streams in Korea have been changed channel forms and suffered from direct inflow of domestic sewage, etc. Therefore, maintenance of structure and function of those ecosystem are hard. The present study was carried out to examine the life survival maintenance ability of the stream by community analysis of aquatic animals in typical urban stream (Jungrang stream) in Seoul. The aquatic animals were composed of 31 species, 18 families, 8 orders, 5 classes in 4 phyla. Seasonal species number showed big fluctuation between 8 species in Winter and 24 species in Autumn. Major dominant species in Jungrang stream were Tubificidae sp.1, Chironomidae sp.1, Chironomidae sp.2 and Physa acuta, and above endurance species for water pollution occupied very high dominance indices. But, Cercion hieroglyphicum, Ischnura asiatica, Rantra chinensis, Herochares striatus, Agabus japonicus in benthic macroinvertebrates of a few individuals are appeared. Also, fry of Carassius auratus and Silurus asotus in fish are occurred. Therefore, we can be inferred on posibility of growth and spawning of above species in the stream. Jungrang stream has a small quantity of natural riffle areas, ponds and watergrass areas by channel form of water course. Aquatic animals in Jungrang stream has been suffered by reduction of self-purification reaction ability and have mass production of attached algae on the stream bed. For analysis of fluctuation of life survival maintenance ability in Jungrang stream, long-term survey is needed.

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Cryopreservation of Suspension Cultures of Camptotheca acuminata

  • Kim, Sung-Hye;Byun, Sang-Yo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.327-332
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    • 2000
  • Supended cells of Camptotheca acuminata were observed to lose their ability to synthesize camptothecin and its derivatives as a result of repeated cultures. Accordingly, the maintenance of high-yield cells by cryopreservation was sudied to overcome this stability problem, and various factors involved were optimized. Pregrowing the cells in 8% myoinositol for 4 days was found to be the most effective in improving survival. The highest survival was obtained when the pregrown cells were cryoprotected with a mixture of 10% DMSO, 0.6M mannitol, and 10% glycerol. When the cryopreserved cells were maintained in a freezer at $-70^{\circ}C$, 94% survival was obtained after 4 months. The survivals after 5 and 8 months of storage decreased to 52% and 45%, respectively. No loss of biosynthetic capacility of camptothecin was observed after short to medium term cryopreservation of C. acuminata.

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The Possible Role of SCO3388, a tmrB-like Gene of Streptomyces coelicolor, in Germination and Stress Survival of Spores

  • Kwon, So-Yeon;Kwon, Hyung-Jin
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.165-170
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    • 2013
  • The SCO3388 gene from Streptomyces coelicolor is homologous to tmrB, the tunicamycin resistance gene of Bacillus subtilis. The SCO3388-inactivation strain (SY-tbl-1) was generated by replacing SCO3388 with thiostrepton resistance gene. Spores of S. coelicolor derivatives were prepared on mannitol-soy flour (MS) agar on which SY-tbl-1 displayed no significant defect in growth and development. When plated on R4 agar, spores of SYtbl-1 displayed retardation in growth and sporulation, whereas its mycelium gave rise to normal growth. Thus, SCO3388 is suggested to be involved in the dormant spore germination. Expression of SCO3388 under the ermE1 promoter restored but only partially the ability to sporulate in SY-tbl-1. Neither SY-tbl-1 nor SY-tbl-1/ermE1p-SCO3388 showed a difference in tunicamycin resistance to the wild type whereas, interestingly, the introduction of ermE1p-SCO3388 dramatically enhanced spore survival to heat and detergent treatments, suggesting that SCO3388 might play a role in the maintenance of spore cell wall integrity.

Bacterial Stringent Signal Directs Virulence and Survival in Vibrio cholerae.

  • Oh, Young Taek;Kim, Hwa Young;Yoon, Sang Sun
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.8-8
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    • 2019
  • The stringent response (SR) is characterized as a bacterial defense mechanism in response to various growth-inhibiting stresses. It is activated by accumulation of a small nucleotide regulator, (p)ppGpp, and induces global changes in bacterial transcription and translation. Recent work from our group has shown that (p)ppGpp plays a critical role in virulence and survival in Vibrio cholerae. The genes, relA and relV, are involved in the production of (p)ppGpp, while the spoT gene encodes an enzyme that hydrolyzes it in V. cholerae. A mutant strain defective in (p)ppGpp production (i.e. ${\Delta}relA{\Delta}relV{\Delta}spoT$ mutant) lost the ability to produce cholera toxin (CT) and lost their viability due to uncontrolled production of organic acids, when grown with extra glucose. In contrast, the ${\Delta}relA{\Delta}spoT$ mutant, a (p)ppGpp overproducer strain, produced enhanced level of CT and exhibited better growth in glucose supplemented media via glucose metabolic switch from organic fermentation to acetoin, a neutral fermentation end product, fermentation. These findings indicates that (p)ppGpp, in addition to its well-known role as a SR mediator, positively regulates CT production and maintenance of growth fitness in V. cholerae. This implicates SR as a promising drug target, inhibition of which may possibly downregulate V. cholerae virulence and survival fitness. Therefore, we screened a chemical library and identified a compound that induces medium acidification (termed iMAC) and thereby loss of wild type V. cholerae viability under glucose-rich conditions. Further, we present a potential mechanism by which the compound inhibits (p)ppGpp accumulation. Together, these results indicate that iMAC treatment causes V. cholerae cells to produce significantly less (p)ppGpp, an important regulator of the bacterial virulence and survival response, and further suggesting that it has a therapeutic potential to be developed as a novel antibacterial agent against cholera.

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Adequate concentration of B cell leukemia/lymphoma 3 (Bcl3) is required for pluripotency and self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells via downregulation of Nanog transcription

  • Kang, Songhwa;Yun, Jisoo;Kim, Da Yeon;Jung, Seok Yun;Kim, Yeon Ju;Park, Ji Hye;Ji, Seung Taek;Jang, Woong Bi;Ha, Jongseong;Kim, Jae Ho;Baek, Sang Hong;Kwon, Sang-Mo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.92-97
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    • 2018
  • B cell leukemia/lymphoma 3 (Bcl3) plays a pivotal role in immune homeostasis, cellular proliferation, and cell survival, as a co-activator or co-repressor of transcription of the $NF-{\kappa}B$ family. Recently, it was reported that Bcl3 positively regulates pluripotency genes, including Oct4, in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). However, the role of Bcl3 in the maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal activity is not fully established. Here, we report the dynamic regulation of the proliferation, pluripotency, and self-renewal of mESCs by Bcl3 via an influence on Nanog transcriptional activity. Bcl3 expression is predominantly observed in immature mESCs, but significantly decreased during cell differentiation by LIF depletion and in mESC-derived EBs. Importantly, the knockdown of Bcl3 resulted in the loss of self-renewal ability and decreased cell proliferation. Similarly, the ectopic expression of Bcl3 also resulted in a significant reduction of proliferation, and the self-renewal of mESCs was demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase staining and clonogenic single cell-derived colony assay. We further examined that Bcl3-mediated regulation of Nanog transcriptional activity in mESCs, which indicated that Bcl3 acts as a transcriptional repressor of Nanog expression in mESCs. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a sufficient concentration of Bcl3 in mESCs plays a critical role in the maintenance of pluripotency and the self-renewal of mESCs via the regulation of Nanog transcriptional activity.

Model Development of Nursing Care System for Women's Health : Based on Nurse-Midwifery Clinic (여성의 건강을 위한 간호전달체계 모형개발 - 조산원 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Yeong-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.133-145
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    • 1999
  • The purposesof the study are to analyze the community nursing center in U.S.A and to develop the model of nursing care system based on nurse-midwifery clinic in community for women's health in Korea. 1. In America nursing center is defined as nurse-anchored system of primary care delivery or neighborhood health center. Nursing centers are identified the following four types: (1) community outreach centers, which are similar to traditional public health clinics: (2) institutional-based centers following the mission of a large institution, such as a hospital or university: (3) wellness/health promotion centers, which offer screening, education, counseling, triage, and health maintenance services: and (4) independent practice. Nursing centers are a concept of services provided by nurses in practice arrangements in a community. Nursing centers offer a variety of services, ranging from primary care provided by advanced practice nurses with medical acute management and nursing care to the more traditional education, health promotion, screening wellness and coordination services. Some services, such as the care provided by advanced practice nurses are reimbursed under various insurance plan in some instances and states, where as others, such as preventive and educational services, are not. Thus, lack of reimbursement has threatened the survival of some centers. Licensing of nursing centers varies by state and program and accreditation of nursing centers is also limited. 52% of centers are affiliated with another facility and 48% are freestanding centers. The number of registered nurse at the nursing centers ranges from just one to 115, with a mean of eight RNs peragency and a median of three. Nursing centers avail ability varies: 14% are open 24 hours, 27% have variable short hours, 23% are open 6-7 days per week, and 36% are open Monday- Friday. As the result of my visiting three health centers in Seattle and San Francisco, the women's primary care nurse practitioners focus on a systematic and comprehensive assessment of the health status of women and diagnosis and management of common physical and psychosocial health concerns of women in ambulatory settings. Therapeutic nursing strategies are directed toward self-care, risk reoduction, health surveillance, stress reduction, healthy nutrition, social support, healthy coping, psychological well-being, and pharmacological therapy. They function as primary care providers for the well ness and illness care of women from adolescence through the older adult years and pregnant families. 2. In Korea a nurse-midwife practices independently for pregnant women's health including childbearing family at her own clinic in community. Her services are reimbursed under national health insurance but they are not paid on a fee-for-service schedule covering items. Analyzing the nursing centers in America, I suggest that nurse-midwifery clinics offer primary care for women and home care for chronic ill patients. The health law and health insurance policy should be reovised in order to expand nurse-midwife's and home care nurse's roles at nurse-midwifery clinic.

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Cryopreservation of CHO Cell using Serum-Free Media (무혈청 배지를 이용한 CHO 세포의 동결보존)

  • Kim, Yoo-Kang;Park, Hong-Woo;Choe, Tae-Boo
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.110-117
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    • 2006
  • During routine maintenance, animal cell lines are commonly cryopreserved in growth medium containing serum with 10% DMSO. But, in case of bioprocess under the serum-free conditions, including cultivation of cell lines and producing of pharmaceuticals, the cryopreservation should be executed without serum to prevent a cross-contamination. This experiments were performed to investigate the effects of the serum-free cryopreservation on the CHO cells. To improve the survival rates of the cryopreserved CHO cells in serum-free condition, first, the effects of permeable and non-permeable additives for substitute serum on cell viability were investigated. The combination of 10% DMSO and 0.03 M raffinose in MEM-${\alpha}$ without serum indicated 76% of cell viability. However, it did not reach the survival rates(more than 95%) of the conventional cryopreservation. In the second, to evaluate the cryopreservative ability of the serum-free medium(SFM) we compared viability of the CHO cells cryopreserved in the SFMs(Sigma C5467, C4726, and C1707, JBI SF486 and PF486), the cryoprotectant(Genenmed CAN-1000) and the MEM-${\alpha}$ with serum. All solution contained 10% DMSO. As a result of the comparison, cryopreserved cells in the SFMs showed over 95% of viability and appeared predominant viability better than cryoprotectant CAN-1000. Finally, we assessed the stability of the CHO cells in the long-term cryopreservation(LTC) using SFM. Every three months, the cryopreserved CHO cells were thawed to estimate the cell viability and the recovery rates. Then, real-time RT-PCR analyzed the inserted CHO DHFR gene. All results for the LTC appeared the same stability as the serum containing cryopreservation. In the conclusion, it could be seen that the LTC in the SFM can substitute for serum using methods in the bioprocess proceeded by CHO cells for more than 18 months.