The recent global financial crisis has highlighted the importance of international monetary and financial system reform. The current system is deemed to be no longer adequate to meet the needs of a complex, integrated world economy. With regards to the reform of the international monetary system, there have been various proposals both in demand and supply sides. These include proposals to build a stronger global financial safety net, to diversify the supply of international reserve currency and so on. These proposals face trade-offs between desirability and political feasibility. Given this situation, a practical transition would be to strengthen policy coordination among the major economies and to reform the International Monetary Fund. The success on both fronts depends heavily on global economic governance reform and the role of the G20. Increased status and representation of Asian countries in the G20 give both privileges and responsibilities to Asians. To meet these responsibilities, Asians should put forth greater efforts to develop their intellectual leadership in global economic issues through creating new forum and institutions.
There have been many achievements for 40 years since the introduction of compulsory health insurance. Despite many achievements, it has many challenges in health insurance. Aging, non-communicable disease, and low growth economy are threatening the sustainability of health insurance, and it is time to reform the health insurance. A long-term reform plan will be an absolute necessity for reform of health insurance and health care system. Health insurance and health care reform should be an extremely revolutionary content that completely changes the framework. This reform should deal with the philosophy of health, approach of medical education and doctor training, changing supply of medical service, the innovation of primary medical care, reform of public health system, the management of medical utilization, the integration of medical cure and care services, enhancing the benefit coverage, prohibition of covered and non-covered services, etc. Therefore, it is urgent to form a consensus on the necessity of reform, to establish the health insurance plan on this consensus, and to make efforts to make health insurance sustainable.
This paper analyzed four different perspectives on health care reform in Korea in terms of the basic values, formulated problems and reform plans, implementation methods, and supporting groups. The medical security plan was insisted by social security specialists and social activists focusing on the integration of medical insurance coops in order to enhancing equity and right of the people. However, its perspective was limited to promoting security instead of reforming health care system. The government proposed the health care reform plans in 1994 and in 1997, focusing on promoting efficiency by remedying many problems in health care delivery system. However, its implementation was not successful due to the lack of organizational and financial supporters. Recently, two opposite proposals were issued. The market reform plan paid attention to revitalizing the market function to promoting efficiency by allowing hospitals to treat private patients instead of applying the medical insurance regulation. The government reform plan focused on intensifying governmental planning and intervention in the health care sector in order to removing inefficiency and promoting equity with the supports of social activists and labor unions. Finally, this paper proposed an alternative plan to promote harmonious social relationship between actors in the health care system.
This article analyzes Chinese railways transportation management system, uses the experiences of other countries' railway transportation management system for reference, as well as discusses the necessity of reform of railway transportation management system based on separating train operation with rail equipment management. Moreover, the article also puts forward an imagination on the reform scheme of railway transportation management system based on separating train operation with rail equipment management.
Purpose: The purpose is to understand the perception of medical providers at tertiary hospitals in Seoul on the importance-performance of the reform on a doctor-designation system, and to provide the policy suggestion of the perception on such a system. Methodology: To achieve the purpose, this study utilized structured survey tools to conduct a questionnaire survey of nursing, administrative and medical technology professionals at six tertiary hospitals in Seoul. An importance-performance analysis was utilized for an analysis that showed the perception of the reform on a doctor-designation system. Findings: First, it was identified that those medical providers had the highest perception of the importance about the performance of the reform on a doctor-designation system. Second, according to the result of action grid of an importance-performance analysis (IPA), it can be identified that in the 2nd stage of 'Concentrate here' included are the items as to design and effect of medical care quality and subsidies & patient infection and safety and control fees, effect of income security of the method for compensating for loss established by the government and offering sufficient information on general medical services and doctor-designation medical services. In the 1st stage of 'Keep up the Good Work', and the 2nd stage of 'Concentrate here' included is the item as to the performance of patients of the reform on a doctor designation system. Practical Implications: There could be identified the effect of the reform bill on the perception of medical providers. It is expected that a better environment would be provided for patients to use a hospital and for medical providers to offer medical services, if the goverment makes efforts to improve methods for compensating for loss and continuous monitoring of the performance of patients.
The The ROK military announced a reform proposal for the National Defense Reform 2.0 in 2018 in order to substantially guarantee the constitutional rights and human rights of the soldiers and to meet the demands of the military judicial reform. In order to establish a fair and independent military judicial system through such reforms, the Supreme Military Court was abolished to eradicate the controversy in the army and to abolish the system of the judges' And professionalism is systematically ensured so that judges can be judged only by law and conscience. This military reform proposal is so dramatic that it has a vocal voice of opposition, but the military should no longer be an exception to democracy and should try not to get caught in the stigma of human rights blindness.
This study evaluates and suggests a new reform plan that overcomes the limitations of the Government Employees Pension Scheme (GEPS) reforms in 2015. Research results indicate that the reforms were insufficient in terms of financial sustainability, functional transparency, and equity. Debates on the GEPS reforms will continue until an equitable solution is found. The priority of the next reform plans should lie in the unification of public pension schemes. In contrast to previous reform proposals, this study suggests a reforms plan, which should result in not the parametric change but the structural change in GEPS. The distinctive point of the new reform plan lies in translating a single-tire into a multi-tire pension system. Accordingly, the new GEPS should consist of a 'National Pension Scheme (NPS)', occupational pension (additional pension), and retirement allowance. Newly appointed government employee officials should be enrolled in the NPS. This study stresses that inequality between the public pension systems will be alleviated and a pension system of social solidarity will be established when the NPS develops in to a basic old age income security system for all citizens including civil servants.
One of the features of record management during the Gabo Reform is that the documents office controled producing and distribution of records. The records completed the operations were sent the record office and classified and arranged. previous researches understood this record management system during Gabo Reform were introduced from Japan. This article clarifies that new record management system settled through Meiji Restoration were introduced from German(Prussian) registry system at the time. However, German registry system managed current records and this system was based on modern record management system which open the records to the public with archives. Japan accepted only registry system, current record management system of German, and didn't established archives at Meiji regime. It is same with Joseon Dynasty during the Gabo Reform regime. Therefore, the record related regulation at the Gabo Reform regime could not be judged to be a modern system. The regulations on records at Gabo Reform regime had no terms about people's right or open the records to the public which decides modern record regulations. The meaning of record system during Gabo Reform regime is that the value of records and name of organizations coincides with record life cycle. The documents office managed current records and record office classified and filed closed records. Concept of "current record=document=documents office, non-current record=record= record office" didn't succeed to today. The term 'record' is used as current record or non-current record without difference.
This paper examines the contents and meaning of the education reform theory among the social reform theory of Wie Baek-gyu(1727~1798), a representative Confucian scholar of Honam in the 18th century, and suggests the moral educational implications of his educational reform theory. Wie Baek-gyu, who lived through the Yeongjo and Jeongjo eras, diagnosed the contradictions and problems of society at that time as the absence of morality. And emphasized the reform of school education as a center of ways to overcome social disruption. The educational reform theory he envisioned was to systematize the process from child education to higher education centered on the system reorganization of the school, and to formulate school education in conjunction with the selection of talent. He emphasized the cultivation and practice of moral character in the course of admission and curriculum of the school, and suggested a system that reflects the opinions of the local people in the admission process, thereby establishing the school as the center of the local society. His educational reform theory, which embodies the school system based on moral education and further shapes the school system and educational contents as the center of edification and recruitment of talented people, is a big indication of the curriculum of the current moral curriculum that emphasizes the cultivation and practice of inner morality based on personality education. In this paper, I summarized and reviewed the general contents of his perception of the times and social reform theory, the diagnosis of the educational reality that is the basis of his educational reform theory, and the specific contents of the education reform theory. Based on this, I presented the meaning to the current moral and curriculum.
Historical interest in China in 1930s has been mostly focused on political characteristic of the National Government(國民政府) which was established by the KMT(中國國民黨) as a result of national unification. It is certain that China had a chance to construct a modern country by the establishment of the very unified revolutionary government. But, it was the time of expanding national crises that threatened the existence of the country such as the Manchurian Incident and the Chinese-Japanese War as well as the chaos of the domestic situation, too. So it has a good reason to examine the characteristic and pattern of the response of the political powers of those days. But, as shown in the recent studies, the manifestation method of political power by the revolutionary regime catches our attention through the understanding of internal operating system. Though this writing started from the fact that the Nationalist Government executed the administrative reform which aimed at "administrative efficiency" in the middle of 1930s, but it put stress on the seriousness of the problem and its solution rather than political background or results. "Committee on Administrative Efficiency(行政效率委員會)", the center of administrative reform movement which was established in 1934, examined the plan to execute the reform through legislation by the Executive Council(行政院) on the basis of the results of relevant studies. They claimed that the construction of a modern country should be performed by not political revolution anymore but by gradual improvement and daily reform, and that the operation of the government should become modern, scientific and efficient. There were many fields of administrative reform subjects, but especially, the field of records and archives adminstration(文書檔案行政) was studied intensively from the initial stage because that subject had already been discussed intensively. They recognized that records and archives were the basic tool of work performance and general activity but an inefficient field in spite of many input staff members, and most of all, archival reform bring about less conflicts than the fields of finance, organization and personnel. When it comes to the field of records adminstration, the key subjects that records should be written simply, the process of record treatment should be clear and the delay of that should be prevented were already presented in a records administrative meeting in 1922. That is, the unified law about record management was not established, so each government organization followed a conventional custom or performed independent improvement. It was through the other records administrative workshop of the Nationalist Government in 1933 when the new trend was appeared as the unified system improvement. They decided to unify the format of official records, to use marker and section, to unify the registration of receipt records and dispatch records and to strengthen the examination of records treatment. But, the method of records treatment was not unified yet, so the key point of records administrative reform was to establish a unified and standard record management system for preventing repetition by simplifying the treatment procedure and for intensive treatment by exclusive organizations. From the foundation of the Republic of China to 1930s, there was not big change in the field of archives administration, and archives management methods were prescribed differently even in the same section as well as same department. Therefore, the point at issue was to centralize scattered management systems that were performed in each section, to establish unified standard about filing and retention period allowance and to improve searching system through classification and proper number allowance. Especially, the problem was that each number system and classification system bring about different result due to dual operation of record registration and archives registration, and that strict management through mutual contrast, searching and application are impossible. Besides, various problems such as filing tools, arrangement method, preservation facilities & equipment, lending service and use method were raised also. In the process this study for the system improvement of records and archives management, they recognized that records and archives are the identical thing and reached to create a successive management method of records and archives called "Records and Archives Chain Management Method(文書檔案連鎖法)" as a potential alternative. Several principles that records and archives management should be performed unitedly in each organization by the general record recipient section and the general archives section under the principle of task centralization, a consistent classification system should be used by classification method decided in advance according to organizational constitution and work functions and an identical number system should be used in the process of record management stage and archive management stage by using a card-type register were established. Though, this "Records and Archives Chain Management Method" was developed to the stage of test application in several organizations, but it was not adopted as a regular system and discontinued. That was because the administrative reform of the Nationalist Government was discontinued by the outbreak of the Chinese-Japanese War. Even though the administrative reform in the middle of 1930s didn't produce practical results but merely an experimentation, it was verified that the reform against tradition and custom conducted by the Nationalist Government that aimed for the construction of a modern country was not only a field of politics, but on the other hand, the weak basis of the government operation became the obstacle to the realization of the political power of the revolutionary regime. Though the subject of records and archives administrative reform was postponed to the future, it should be understood that the consciousness of modern records and archives administration and overall studies began through this examination of administrative reform.
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