• Title, Summary, Keyword: Systolic blood pressure

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The Comparison of PTT and Systolic Blood Pressure in a hemorrhaged Rat (출혈을 일으킨 흰쥐에서의 PTT와 수축기 혈압 비교)

  • Shim, Young-Woo;Lee, Ju-Hyung;Yang, Dong-In;Kim, Deok-Won
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.138-140
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    • 2009
  • Hemorrhage shock occupies high rate in trauma patient's mortality and blood pressure is the variance that judges early diagnosis and the effect of remedy. Systolic blood pressure is related to pulse transit time(PTT). PTT means the time that is required to flow from the heart to peripheral artery. PTT is influenced from the length, cross section and stiffness of the blood vessels. It is hard to evaluate the correlation between systolic blood pressure and PTT because they are variable in human body. In this paper, we evaluated the correlation between the systolic blood pressure and PTT in normal and hemorrhage states using standardized rat. PTT is defined as the time differences between the R peak and the peak of pulse wave. The analyzed time differences of ECG and blood pressure are analyzed every 5minutes for 30 seconds when there is before and after bleeding. Before bleeding, systolic blood pressure and PTT are steadily preserved but when the bleeding comes started, systolic blood pressure is declined. However PTT was increased and decreased. Under the circumstance that the standardized rat is controlled by age, the length of the blood vessels, and any disease, it shows that PTT measurement using systolic blood pressure of bleeding is impossible.

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Differences in Blood Pressure among Adults in the Community according to Blood Pressure Measurement Time and Age (지역사회 성인의 혈압측정횟수 및 연령에 따른 혈압의 차이)

  • Park, Kyung-Yeon
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.275-282
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study aimed to identify the differences in blood pressure among adults in the community according to age and time of the blood pressure measurement. Methods: This was a secondary analysis study, using data from a 2015 community health survey, conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The data of three-time-measured blood pressure were collected from 337 subjects, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 years old, which are median ages by each age group. Results: The primary systolic pressure was significantly higher than the secondary systolic pressure (t= 3.46, p= .001) and the tertiary systolic pressure (t= 4.83, p= .001). The secondary systolic pressure was higher than the tertiary measurement (t= 2.05, p= .041). There was no significant difference between the three-time-measured values for diastolic pressure. There was a significant interaction between measurement times and age in the systoic blood pressure readings (F= 1.95, p= .036). However, there was no significant interaction between measurement times and age in the diastolic blood pressure readings (F= 1.03, p= .418). Conclusion: The findings suggest that attention must be paid to the use of blood pressure values in studies or one-time-measured clinical blood pressure values. In particular, the differences in systolic pressure readings taken at different times in the older age groups were significant. Therefore, it is more important to carefully assess blood pressure in adults over the age of 45 compared to other age groups.

Tracking of blood pressure during childhood (아동혈압의 지속성에 관한 시계열 분석)

  • Lee, Soon-Young;Seo, Il;Nam, Jeung-Mo
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 1991
  • The purpose of this study is to find the tracking of blood pressure in primary school-age children. A follow-up study was conducted from 1986 to 1990 on 330 first grade children attending primary schools in Kangwha County, Kyungki-Do. Basically we employed a linear regression model with random coefficients to figure out the relation between blood pressure changes and initial blood pressure. We obtained the following results ; 1. The mean blood pressures were increased grade went up in both sexs and were generally higher in female than male except for the systolic blood pressure at first grade. The size of difference was about 0.8 mmHg in mean systolic blood pressure and 1.5 mmHg in mean diastolic blood pressure. 2. The average annual increasing rates of systolic blood pressure were 2.5 mmHg in male and 3.1 mmHg in female respectively. For the diastolic blood pressure IV the average annual increasing rates were observed to be 3.0 mmHg in male and 2.9 mmHg in female respectively. Increasing rate of systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in female than male. 3. The adjusted regression coefficient of systolic blood pressure change on initial value was -0.11 in male and -0.13 in female and that coefficient of diastolic blood pressure change on initial value was -0.01 in male and -0.11 in female. This result shows that children with higher initial blood pressure do not pick up their blood pressure faster than others with lower initial blood pressure. There is no evidence of tracking of blood pressure in children. It is essential to find the earliest age having the tracking of blood pressure and we leave it for the further study.

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The Discriminant Analysis of Blood Pressure - Including the Risk Factors - (혈압 판별 분석 -위험요인을 중심으로-)

  • 오현수;서화숙
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.256-269
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of variables which were known to be related to blood pressure for discriminating between hypertensive and normotensive groups. Variables were obesity, serum lipids, life style-related variables such as smoking, alcohol, exercise, and stress, and demographic variables such as age, economical status, and education. The data were collected from 400 male clients who visited one university hospital located in Incheon, Republic of Korea, from May 1996 to December 1996 for a regular physical examination. Variables which showed significance for discriminating systolic blood pressure in this study were age, serum lipids, education, HDL, exercise, total cholesterol, body fat percent, alcohol, stress, and smoking(in order of significance). By using the combination of these variables, the possibility of proper prediction for a high-systolic pressure group was 2%, predicting a normal-systolic pressure group was 70.3%, and total Hit Ratio was 70%. Variables which showed significance for discriminating diastolic blood pressure were exercise, triglyceride, alcohol, smoking, economical status, age, and BMI (in order of significance). By using the combination of these variables, the possibility of proper prediction for a high-diastolic pressure group was 71.2%, predicting a normal-diastolic pressure group was 71.3%, and total Hit Ratio was 71.3%. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association of systolic blood pressure with life style-related variables after adjustment for obesity, serum lipids, and demographic variables. First, the effect of demographic variable alone on the systolic blood pressure was statistically significant (p=.000) and adjusted $R^2$was 0.09. Adding the variable obesity on demographic variables resulted in raising adjusted $R^2$to 0.11 (p=.000) : therefore, the contribution rate of obesity on the systolic blood pressure was 2.0%. On the next step, adding the variable serum lipids on the obesity and demographic variables resulted in raising adjusted R2 to 0.12(P=.000) : therefore, the contribution rate of serum lipid on the systolic pressure was 1.0%. Finally, adding life style-related variables on all other variables resulted in raising the adjusted $R^2$to 0.18(p=.000) ; therefore, the contribution rate of life style-related variables on the systolic blood pressure after adjustment for obesity, serum lipids, and demographic variables was 6.0%. Multiple regression analysis was also performed to examine the association of diastolic blood pressure with life style-related variables after adjustment for obesity, serum lipids, and demographic variables. First, the effect of demographic variable alone on the diastolic blood pressure was statistically significant (p=.01) and adjusted $R^2$was 0.03. Adding the variable obesity on demographic variables resulted in raising adjusted $R^2$to 0.06 (p=.000) ; therefore, the contribution rate of obesity on the diastolic blood pressure was 3.0%. On the next step, adding the variable serum lipids on the obesity and demographic variables resulted in raising the adjusted $R^2$ to 0.09(p=.000) ; therefore, the contribution rate of serum lipid on the diastolic pressure was 3.0%. Finally, adding life style-related variables on all other variables resulted in raising the adjusted $R^2$ to 0.12 (p=.000) : therefore, the contribution rate of life style-related variables on the systolic blood pressure after adjustment for obesity, serum lipids, and demographic variables was 3.0%.

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The change in blood pressure and factors affecting the change in blood pressure for Korean children: A six-year follow-up study (국민학생의 6년간 혈압의 변화양상과 혈압변화와 관련된 요인 분석)

  • Suh, Il;Lee, Soon-Young;Nam, Chung-Mo;Kim, Il-Soon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.96-109
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    • 1993
  • For the purposes of analyzing the distribution and the change in blood pressure according to age and determining the factors affecting the change in blood pressure, a follow-up study had been conducted for 6 years from 1986 to 1991 for 430 primary school children aged 6 years old in 1986 in Kangwha County, Korea. The mean blood pressure increased according to age. Specifically mean systolic blood pressure increased from 97.3 mmHg for male and 96.4mmHg for female (at 6 years of age) to 108.8mmHg fur male and 112.1mmHg for female (at 11 years of age). Mean diastolic blood pressure increased from 60.0mmHg for male and 61.8mmHg for female (at 6 years of age) to 72.9mmHg for male and 73.8mmHg for female (at 11 years of age). The average annual increase in blood pressure was 2.3mmHg (in systolic blood pressure) and 2.6 mmHg (in diastolic blood pressure) for male : and 3.1mmHg (in systolic blood pressure) and 2.4mmHg (in diastolic blood pressure) for female, respectively. To determine the factors affecting the change in blood pressure, the stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Children were divided into the three groups(low, middle, and upper) according to the level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the age of 6, and the regression analysis was performed in each group. For the change in systolic blood pressure, the changes in weight and skinfold thickness or initial skinfold thickness fer male, and the change in weight for female were selected as significant factors for children in middle and upper group. For the change of blood pressure in diastolic blood pressure, no variables was significant.

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Changes in Blood Pressures, Blood Profiles and Physical Conditions among Adults in the Daejeon Area (대전지역 일부 직장인의 혈압, 혈액성분 및 체위의 변화)

  • Kang, Hae-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.633-644
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    • 2005
  • The body mass index, blood pressures and blood profiles of adults, who worked at three colleges in the Daejeon area, were evaluated for use in developing well-balanced menus at their workplace cafeterias and/or in creating nutrition education programs tailored to their health statuses. The data analyzed were from physical examinations performed in 2002 and in 2004 by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Overall, levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum cholesterol were lower in the 2004 samples than in those of 2002, but most samples in 2004 showed higher levels of SGOT. In 2002, statistical differences occured in the levels of blood pressure and serum cholesterol among age groups, but not in 2004. And in 2004, the older the age group, the higher the BMI. Among subjects in their twenties, three variables (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and serum cholesterol) showed statistical differences; this increased to four variables (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose and serum cholesterol) among subjects in their thirties and to six variables (Hb, SGOT, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose and serum cholesterol) among those in their forties, followed by a decline to four variables (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Hb and serum cholesterol) among subjects in their fifties. In general, the results of physical examinations showed improvements in blood pressure and blood profiles in 2004 in comparison with results in 2002. The level of SGOT was the exception. Despite these improvements, of those employees who had physical examinations in 2004, $5.2\%$ had high blood glucose and $18.1\%$ hypertension, $27.9\%$ hypercholesterolemia, $8.3\%$ registered abnormal liver functions, and $31.3\%$ were classified as overweight and obese. Moreover, because some vulnerable blood profiles were found in the older age groups, various programs, including nutrition education, and/or development of healthful diets as well as excercise activities, may be needed within their workplaces.

Effect of changing position from supine to standing up-right on the circulation in young men and women (앙와위에서 직립자세로의 체위변화가 정상인의 순환에 미치는 영향)

  • 최명애;김종임;김현리
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.285-298
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    • 1989
  • This study investigated the effect of changing position from supine to standing upright on the circulation of young men and women. Healthy men and women ranging from age of 18 to 24 were examined. Two minutes before standing, the baseline heart rate and blood pressure were measured. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded immediately and at every minute for 10 minutes after standing upright. Differences in heart rate and blood pressure between supine and standing upright position were evaluated. The results were summarized as follows : 1. Heart rate increased significantly immediately and at every minute for 10 minutes after standing upright. 2. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly immediately and at every minute for 4 minutes after standing upright. 3. Diastolic and mean blood pressure increased significantly immediately and at every minute for 10 minutes after standing upright. 4. Pulse pressure immediately and at every minute for 10 minutes after standing upright was significantly narrower than that of supine position. 5. There was no significant difference of heart rate between men and women after standing upright. 6. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure of men after standing upright was significantly greater than those of women. From these results, it may be concluded that heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure and pulse pressure increase after standing upright, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in men is greater than those of women after standing upright.

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Hemodynamic effects of induced overtransfusion of blood in dogs (과량수혈이 혈역학에 미치는 영향)

  • 기노석
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.418-423
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    • 1984
  • Appreciation of the large volume deficits which may occur in surgical or trauma patients due to blood loss has led to vigorous transfusion techniques designed to overt hypovolemic shock and ischemic damage to vital organs which may develop in minutes during the hypovolemic state. In a significant proportion of patients treated with massive rapid blood or fluid transfusion, hypervolemia occurs and life threatening pulmonary edema may develop. Especially, hypervolemia may occur during transfusion for preventing development of the so-called low output syndrome following cardiac surgery. However, the most effective indicator which reveals the adequate level of transfusion is not settled yet. The present study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of the indicators suggested thus far and to determine the most sensitive one. Eight dogs were experimentally studied in terms of left atrial pressure, pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, central venous pressure, mean systemic arterial pressure and heart rate before and after induced hypervolemia with infusion of 600ml heparinized homologous blood. Immediately after induced overtransfusion of the blood, pulmonary arterial systolic pressure increased 75.0%, in omparison with the control before transfusion, left atrial pressure 58.8%, central venous pressure 44.6%, and mean systemic arterial pressure 10.1%, one hour after transfusion, pulmonary arterial systolic pressure 40.0%, left atrial pressure 21.2%, central venous pressure 14.5%, and mean systemic arterial pressure 3.2%, central venous pressure 14.5%, and mean systemic arterial pressure 3.2%, respectively. Heart rate showed no significant change throughout the experiment. These result suggested that the changes of the pulmonary arterial systolic pressure is the most sensitive indicator for detection of hypervolemia during blood transfusion.

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The Depressive effect of Sa-Am Acupuncture(膀胱正格) treatment in Stroke Patients (뇌졸중 환자에서 사암침의 혈압강하에 대한 고찰)

  • Park, Young-soo;Kim, Eun-mi;Kim, Young-il;Hong, Kwon-eui;Lee, Hyun
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.217-223
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    • 2004
  • Objective: The aim of this research was to investigate the depressive effect of Sa-am Acupuncture(膀胱正格) in stroke patients. Methods: We measured the blood pressure of the patients who were admitted in the Oriental Medical hospital of Dae-Jeon University from June. 2003. to September. 2003. If systolic blood pressure was over 160mmHg or diastolic blood pressure was over 100 mmHg, 40 patients were treated by Sa-am Acupuncture(膀胱正格) and the other 20 patients were taken a rest in bed. Then 30 minutes and 60 minutes later, systolic, diastolic blood pressure were measured. Results: After 30 minute treatment, Sa-am Acupuncture(膀胱正格) significantly depressed the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but bedrest can't do it. After 60 minute treatment, both Sa-am Acupuncture(膀胱正格) and bedrest significantly depressed the systolic and diastolic bood pressure. Conclusion: These results suggest that Sa-am Acupuncture(膀胱正格) is effective in depressing the systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

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The Change of Children's Blood Pressure and Factors Affecting the Level of Blood Pressure In Children (아동혈압의 시계열 변화 양상 및 평균혈압에 관련된 요인 분석)

  • Suh, Il;Kim, Il-Soon;Nam, Chung-Mo;Lee, Soon-Young;Oh, Hee-Chul;Kim, Chun-Bae;Park, Eun-Cheol
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.303-312
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    • 1989
  • To show the distribution and change of blood pressure according to age and to find factors affecting the level of blood pressure in primary school children, a follow-up study was conducted from 1986 to 1989 on 401 first grade children attending primary school in Kangwha County in 1986 and their parents. The blood pressure of the children was significantly increased according to age. The average annual increase was 1.8mmHg in systolic blood pressure and 2.5mmHg in diastolic blood pressure. The level of blood pressure did not show any significant difference in both sexes. Among children who were at or above the 80th percentile of blood pressure in the first grade, 35 and 30% of them have remained at the same level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively in the fourth grade. But we could not find any significance in the tracking of blood pressure of children who were at or above the 90th percentile of blood pressure in the first grade. Weight and pulse rate were shown to be significant factors affecting systolic blood pressure in children of both sexes and mother's blood pressure and skinfold thickness were also affected systolic blood pressure in girls. The variables significantly affecting diastolic blood pressure were arm circumference and pulse rate for boys and height and pulse rate for girls.

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