• Title/Summary/Keyword: T-2 toxin

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Cultural and Physiological Conditions for T-2 Toxin Production by Fusarium sp. (Fusarium 균주의 배양 조건 및 생리적 조건에 따른 T-2 toxin의 생성 조건)

  • 홍성희;양규환
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2000
  • The cultural and physiological conditions for the T-2 toxin [4,15-diacetoxy-8-(3-mety1butyloxy)-12,13- epoxy-trichothec-9-en-3-01, $C_{24}H_{30}O_9$] production by Fusarium spp. were studied. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) assay and the microbiological assay uslng Rhodotomla rubra were used to quantitate tbe T- 2 toxin. Among the four strains of Fusarium spp., F tn'cinctum NRRL 3299 was best for T-2 toxin production. In solid culture, white com grit medium was best for T-2 toxm production. Temperature played a critical role in the production of T-2 toxin. T-2 toxin production was favored by long duration of low-temperature incubation. The growth and toxin production were relatively high on galactose, fructose, glucose, and sucrose media, when each was used as a sole carbon source, and relatively low on sorbitol, glycerol, and lactose media. For nitrogen sources, $NH_4^(+) and NO_3^{-}were used well as a sole nitrogen source, but $NO_2^-$ was not used. Initial pH and speed of shaker also affected the production of T-2 toxin. From temperature shifting experiment, it is clear that T-2 toxin metabolic pathway is regulated by temperature-dependent enzyme depression or enzyme induction system.

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Effect of T-2 Toxin on the Mitogen-Induced Blastogenesis in Chick Splenic Cell (T-2 Toxin이 병아리 비장세포의 유전질 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Chun, Hyang-Sook;Chung, Duck-Hwa;Lee, Su-Rae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.585-589
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    • 1994
  • The effects of T-2 toxin on mitogen-induced blastogenesis of chick splenic cells were investigated. The [$^3H$] thymidine incorporation in splenic cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin A were equally inhibited as the concentration of T-2 toxin was increased. The effective dose of T-2 toxin causing a 50% reduction of [$^3H$] thymidine incorporation was inbetween 1.0 and 5.0 ng/ml for both mitogens. Mitogen-induced blastogenesis in chick splenic cells showed differences among experimental groups with different exposure time of T-2 toxin, exhibiting the most inhibition in the experimental group exposed to T-2 toxin at both embryonic and chick periods.

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The Detection of T-2 toxin in Serum and Organ of Mouse by ELISA (ELISA법에 의한 mouse의 혈청 및 조직중의 T-2 toxin의 검색)

  • 김동술;송재영;정덕화
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 1996
  • In order to detect the T-2 toxin accumulation in the animal tissues, T-2 toxin, produced by Fusarium sporotrichioides M-1-1, was injected to mouse by 0, 1 and 2 mg per kilogram of body weight, respectively, and T-2 toxin extracted from serum and organs were analyzed by the indirected competitive ELISA. The indirect competitive ELISA established in the laboratory can be check less than 0.1 ppb level of T-2 toxin and average recovery of T-2 toxin spiked was 80~113% in animal samples such as serum, liver and kidney. After 6 weeks of treatment with 2 mg of T-2 toxin per kg body weight, T-2 toxin was accumulated in serum (133.0 ng/ml), liver(1.4 ng/g) and kidney(14.3 ng/g) of mouse injected with 2 mg of toxin per kg body weight.

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Effects of T-2 Toxin on Lipid Concentration in Rat Serum (T-2 toxin이 흰쥐 혈철 중 지질농도에 미치는 영향)

  • 강성조;박선자;이웅수;박정현;정덕화
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 1999
  • This study was designed to observe the effects of T-2 toxin on total cholesterol and lipid concentration in rat serum. T-2 toxin is a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium sp. which is often found on agricultural products including cereals, and it is a causal material of liver injuries in cattle and humans. When we fed rats with standard diet treated with T-2 toxin, the body weight and feed consumption of rats treated T-2 toxin were decreased. As the results of lipid analysis, the concentrations of total cholesterol and free cholesterol in serum of treated rats were increased compared to non-fed control group, On the other hand, the levels of triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum of T-2 toxin treated experimental groups were declined. In conclusion, T-2 toxin largely influenced on the total cholesterol and lipid levels in rat serum.

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Studies on Analysis Method of T-2 Toxin by ELISA (ELISA에 의한 T-2 toxin의 분석법에 관한 연구)

  • 오유진;장성재;윤여표
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 1988
  • T-2 toxin is one of mycotoxins produced by fungi such as Fusarium spp. and possesses a potent cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cell. The contamination of mycotoxins in cereals and feedstuffs is one of the great concerns in health authorities. Therefore, the development of the specific, sensitive and simplified analysis method for T -2 toxin is required. During more than ten years, several chemical and biological analysis methods were proposed and applied for the detection and quantification of T-2 toxin. TLC, GLC-FID and GC-MS are widely employed, but these methods required numerous clean-up procedures before analysis, and the detection limit for T-2 toxin is more than 10 ppb. Biological analysis methods with dermal tissues and cultured cells are not specific to T-2 toxin, since T-2 toxin and other related derivatives possess a similar toxicological activity although their relative activity is different each otber. Based on tbe specific reaction between antibody and antigen, the authors tried to introduce the immunochemical methods for determination of T-2 toxin. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method using monoclonal antibody for T-2 toxin was applied to analyse T-2 toxin. The detection limit of T-2 toxin by ELISA method was 0.1 ppb. The correlation between ELISA and GC-MS method on these samples was very high. ELISA method developed for the detection and quantification of T -2 toxin in this paper possesses simplicity, high sensitivity and specific for T-2 toxin. Furthermore, the ELISA method with T-2 toxin monoclonal antibody was an excellent tool for the screening of Fusarium spp. which was suspected to produce T-2 toxin.

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Effects of Polyphosphates on the Growth and T-2 Toxin Production of Fusarium sporotrichioides M-1-1 (인산염이 Fusarium sporotrichioides M-1-1 성장과 T-2 toxin 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • 장덕화;송재영;김일환
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.199-204
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    • 1995
  • The antifungal effects of polyposphates on the growth and T-2 toxin production of Fusarium sporotrichioides M-1-1 were investigated. The growth of the strain was significantly inhibited in the potatoes dextrose agar medium treated with 1.5% polyphosphates or more. When we checked T-2 toxin by the indirect competitive ELISA, the strain produced 11.25 ug/ml and 10.90 ug/ml levels of T-2 toxin rice and corn containing 50% moisture contents, respectively. However, T-2 toxin was little detected in rice medium and corn medium with 1.5% polyphosphates addition for short(14 days) and prolonged incubation time(45 days). We also observed the destruction of cell wall and outflow of cell ingredients with 1% polyphosphates treatment to the strain. Therefore, moisture and polyphosphates greatly effected on the growth and T-2 toxin production of the strain.

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Cytotoxicity of T-2 Toxin on Primary Cultures of Rat Hepatocytes

  • Kim, Hwan-Mook;Kim, Byung-Sam;Choe, Suck-Young;Yang, Kyu-Hwan
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 1988
  • Primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes were used to study in vitro cytotoxic effects of T-2 toxin on liver cells. When T-2 toxin was added to the culture, a significant depression of the hormonal induction of ${\alpha}$-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake and tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) activity was observed. However, T-2 toxin did not affect the uptake of ouabain into hepatocytes. Protein synthesis was inhibited by T-2 toxin, but RNA synthesis was not severely affected. The inhibitory effects of T-2 toxin on protein synthesis was diminished rapidly with culture time and the hepatocytes culture maintained control level of protein synthesis within 24 hrs.

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Potential Antidotes for T-2 Toxin Poisoning

  • Chang, I.M.;Mar, W.;Kim, J.H.;Gotvandi, H.N. Kalandi;Zong, M.
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.129-135
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    • 1985
  • In order to search for potential antidotes for T-2 toxin poisoning, seven Chinese herbal drug extracts and five natural constituents were tested on mice intoxicated with T-2 toxin. When extracts of Panax ginseng and Atractylodes japonica (500 mg/kg) were administered p.o. once 3 hrs before and once 1 hr after T-2 toxin treatment, a 30% complete survival rate was noted. In case of Paeonia albiflora var. typica, a 30% complete survival rate was also produced at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Other extracts, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Rehmannia glutinosa and Plantago asiatica exhibited no significant protection from the T-2 toxin poisoning. A nucleoside, thymidine showed protective activity against T-2 toxin toxicity and it produced a 40% complete survival rate when administered i.p. once 0.5 hr after T-2 toxin treatment. Other natural constituents, aucubin, vitamin C and E, and lipoic acid did not show any significant protective activities.

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Effects of T-2 Toxin, Zeolite and Mycosorb on Antioxidant Systems of Growing Quail

  • Dvorska, J.E.;Surai, P.F.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.1752-1757
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    • 2001
  • The present study was conducted to assess the dietary effect of T-2 toxin on the antioxidant systems of the liver in growing quail and to comparatively evaluate the protective properties of two different mycotoxin-adsorbent additives, Mycosorb and zeolite, in preventing inhibition of the antioxidant system. Four groups of 4 day old quail were formed with 20 birds in each group. The birds were maintained on the floor for the course of the study. The three treatment diets consisted of the basal diet with T-2 toxin added in the form of Fusarium sporotrichioides culture (8.1 mg/kg feed), T-2 toxin (8.1 mg/kg) plus zeolite (30 g/kg feed), and T-2 toxin (8.1 mg/kg) plus Mycosorb (1 g/kg feed). After 30 days of feeding (34 days old) all birds were sacrificed and liver samples for biochemical analyses were collected from five quail in each of the four groups. Antioxidant concentrations were evaluated by HPLC-based methods. Inclusion of T-2 toxin in the quail diet was associated with a significant (p<0.05) decrease in concentrations of all forms of antioxidants studied, including ${\alpha}$- and ${\gamma}$-tocopherols, ascorbic acid, retinol and retinyl esters. At the same time, liver susceptibility to lipid peroxidation significantly (p<0.05) increased. Inclusion of zeolite in the quail diet at the level of 3% was ineffective in preventing antioxidant depletion in the liver by mycotoxicosis. In contrast, Mycosorb in the diet at a 0.1% level was able to significantly inhibit liver antioxidant depletion and as a result decreased lipid peroxidation in the liver. Concentrations of all forms of antioxidants studied were significantly higher in the livers of the quails fed the basal and T-2 toxin/Mycosorb combination in comparison to birds fed the basal with T-2 toxin alone.

Efficacy of Glucomannan-containing Yeast Product (Mycosorb®) and Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate in Preventing the Individual and Combined Toxicity of Aflatoxin and T-2 Toxin in Commercial Broilers

  • Girish, C.K.;Devegowda, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.877-883
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    • 2006
  • A feeding trial was conducted on commercial broilers for a period of 35 days to determine the individual and combined effects of aflatoxin (AF) and T-2 toxin (T-2) on performance, organ weights and immune status. The efficacy of dietary glucomannan-containing yeast product (GYP) ($Mycosorb^{(R)}$) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) in preventing the adverse effects of aflatoxin and T-2 toxin was also evaluated. Twelve dietary treatments ($4{\times}3$ factorial) comprising two dietary levels each of AF (0 and 2 mg/kg), T-2 toxin (0 and 1 mg/kg), GYP (0 and 1 kg/ton) and HSCAS (0 and 10 kg/ton) were tested on 720 commercial broiler chickens divided at random into 36 replicates of 20 chicks each (10 males and 10 females). Weight gain and feed intake were recorded weekly. Organ morphology and antibody titers for Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) were measured on the $35^{th}$ day. AF and T-2 toxin individually decreased weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p<0.05). AF alone (p<0.05) increased weights of liver, kidney, gizzard and spleen and reduced thymus and bursal weights. T-2 toxin (p<0.05) increased liver and gizzard weights and decreased thymus weight. Both AF and T-2 toxin when fed individually affected ND and IBD titers in a significant manner. Significant interactions between AF and T-2 toxin were observed for their additive effects on weight gain, FCR, organ weights and antibody titers. Addition of GYP (p<0.05) improved weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and restored the organ weights. Antibody titers against ND and IBD were significantly improved with the supplementation of GYP. Supplementation of HSCAS (p<0.05) resulted in improvement in weight gain and restored organ weights in the groups fed AF alone, but not in T-2 toxin fed groups. HSCAS inclusion did not influence FCR in toxin fed groups. Addition of HSCAS (p<0.05) improved the antibody titers against ND and IBD only in AF fed groups. Thus, the results indicate that addition of GYP is effective in averting the individual and combined toxicity of aflatoxin and T-2 toxin in commercial broilers, while HSCAS is effective only against aflatoxin.