• Title/Summary/Keyword: T-2 toxin

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Studies on development of ELISA Kits for T-2 toxin (T-2 독소의 측정을 위한 ELISA Kits의 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon, Hwa-joong;Kim, Taejong;Lee, Sung-yun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.613-618
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    • 1997
  • Direct competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies have been studied for quantitative determination of T-2 toxin from the mold corn. The T-2HS, T-2HS-BSA, T-2HS-HRP and monoclonal antibodies against T-2 toxin produced in the studies were qualified for quantitative ELISA test of T-2 toxin. The mean recovery rate from ground com spiked T-2 toxin was 83%. The meaning range of the T-2 test was 60ng to $2{\mu}g$. According to the recovery results with the com spiked T-2, the tests proved to be suitable in the screening of the moldy feed samples for the presence of T-2 toxin and will be able to become the basis of the ELISA test for the quantitative screening kits of T-2 toxin.

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Trends in Researches of Fusarium Mycotoxins, T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in Domestic and Foreign Countries (Fusarium 곰팡이독소 T-2 독소와 HT-2 독소의 국.내외 연구동향)

  • Lee, Su-Jin;Kim, Mee-Hye;Oh, Sang-Suk;Chun, Hyang-Sook
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2012
  • T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin, belong to type A trichothecences, are the most toxic mycotoxins among the trichothecene family. These mycotoxins are commonly found in cereals such as maize, wheat, barley, oats and rice, and their occurrence in food can be of concern. This review investigated the current trends of patents and researches on T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin pertaining to natural occurrence, toxicity, metabolism, risk assessment, analytical and screening methods, and reduction/detoxification techniques. As compared with other $Fusarium$ mycotoxins, there are limited data for natural occurrence and risk assessment, and regulatory limit and official analytical methods on T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in domestic and foreign countries. In particular, selective deacetylation at the C3 and/or C4 positions of T-2 toxin by carboxyesterase present in foods was reported to cause the disappearance of T-2 and the extremely high HT-2 recoveries. Currently, regulatory limits for T-2 and HT-2 are under discussion in EU. For enforcement purposes it is essential to have available precise and reliable analytical methods applicable at the regulatory levels for the T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin and relevant commodities. In addition, a further study on natural occurrence, risk assessment and reduction/detoxification techniques will be recommended.

Experimental Trichothecene(T-2) Toxicosis in Korean Native Goats (한국 재래산양에서의 실험적 Trichothecene(T-2) 독소중독증)

  • Kim, Jong-shu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 1988
  • To investigate the effects of T-2 toxin on the blastogenesis of lymphocytes, pathology, hemogram and blood chemistry in the goat, the korean native goats were treated orally with T-2 toxin for 21 days with a dosage of 0.6mg per kg body weight. The results were as follows: 1. The total count of leukocytes and lymphocytes decreased significantly from 14 to 21 days after treatment. 2. Mryeloid: erythroid ratios increased significantly on days 12 after treatment. 3. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reactions to tuberculin were reduced predominantly. 4. T-2 toxin induced prolonged prothrombin time. 5. Mitogenic responses of lymphocytes to both lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin were significantly depressed on days 7 and 14 after treatment. 6. Treatment of T-2 toxin caused marked depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus, mesenteric lymph node, peyer's patchs and spleen.

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HEPATOTOXICITY OF T-2 TOXIN IN RATS

  • Kang, Tae-Gyu;Lee, Yong-Soon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.89-102
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    • 1986
  • T-2 toxin was given to rats(Spargue Dawley) with a 4mg/kg and 2mg/kg dose p.o. Data was based on the T-2 toxin 4mg/kg treated group except for counting of acidophil bodies. GPT activities increased significantly from 0.5 to 10 hours. GOT activities were also increased at 1 and 5 hours significantly and the relative weights of liver were increased at 0.5 and 5 hours significantly. There were slight necrotic foci in microscopic observation. There was dose-dependent trend for the frequency of the acidophil body between the 4mg/kg treated group and the 2mg/kg treated group.

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Experimental Trichothecene (T-2) Toxicosis in Guinea pigs (기니픽그에서의 실험적 trichothecene (T-2) 독소중독증)

  • Kim, Jong-shu;Bak, Ung-bok
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.433-440
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    • 1991
  • Guinea pigs were administrated with T-2 toxin at a rate of 1 and 0.6mg/kg body weight per day for 21 days to study the immunological and pathological effects of T-2 toxin in guinea pigs. Blood was collected before T-2 treatment and on days 7, 14 and 21 of the trial for hematological and biological examinations and for the mitogen assay using lymphocytes. Myeloid: erythroid ratios were examined from the fernur bone marrow samples taken a day before T-2 toxin treatment began, on day 12 and at death. Guinea pigs received with 1mg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin daily showed leukopenic, lymphopenic and anemic signs on day 7 and 14. The mitogenic responses to the T-cell mitogen, Concanavalin A and B-cell mitogens, lipopolysaccharide were significantly depressed on day 7. Histologically, marked cellular damages including karyorrhexis and depletion of lymphocytes were observed in the actively dividing cells of the gastrointestinal tract, lymph node, spleen and bone marrow of guinea pigs.

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The Effects of T-2 Toxin on the Morphology of Mouse Organ (Mouse 장기의 형태에 미치는 T-2 Toxin의 영향)

  • 송재영;정덕화
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.96-101
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    • 1995
  • To study the immunotoxicity of mouse injected with fungal mycotoxin, T-2 toxin (Fusarium mycotoxin) was treated to 6 week-old female C3H/He mouse and the body, organ weight and morphological change were investigated. The weights of body, liver and kidney of mouse injected the 2 mg/kg of toxin was decreased to 17, 20 and 3%, respectively, compared to control animal and the comsumption of feed was also decreased with lapsing the time. The fat dropleting phenomenon and destruction of Golgi apparatus in liver and histopathological changes of tissue and mitochondria in small intestine were found by scanning electron microscopic observation.

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Significance of varying concentrations of T-2 toxin on growth performance, serum biochemical and hematological parameters in broiler chickens

  • Singh, Ram;Park, Sungkwon;Koo, Jin Su;Kim, In Ho;Balasubramanian, Balamuralikrishnan
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.62 no.4
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    • pp.468-474
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    • 2020
  • The study was to determine the effects of diverse concentrations of T-2 toxin in broiler diet. Three hundred 1-day-old chicks with initial body weight of 46 ± 0.52 g were chosen and randomly assigned into five dietary treatments with 5 replicate cages and 12 broilers per cage for 42 d feeding trial. Dietary treatments were prepared with basal diets containing 0 (T1), 50 (T2), 100 (T3), 150 (T4), 200 (T5) ppb T2-toxin. Significant results were observed in the decreased intake of feed, feed conversion ratio (FCR), body weight gain (BWG), level of serum protein, cholesterol and hemoglobulin of broilers in increased concentration of the T-2 toxin in diet (150 and 200 ppb) groups than control. Also, observed that the uric acid, serum glutamic pyruvic transferase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transferase (SGOT) and Heterophil/Lymphocyte (H/L) ratio value were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in groups T4 and T5 than control. However, the BWG, feed intake and FCR, as well blood biochemical profiles of serum protein, cholesterol, hemoglobulin, uric acid, SGPT, SGOT and H/L ratio in groups T2 and T3 were statistically similar to control diet of broilers. It was concluded that the results showed that no adverse effects on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters in broilers feed with T-2 toxin (50 and 100 ppb) during the entire trial.

Assessment of DNA Damage using an Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) Comet Assay and Toxic Effects in Chickens by T-2 Toxin Treatment (T-2 toxin을 투여한 닭에서 Comet assay 방법을 이용한 DNA 손상 평가와 독성)

  • Hah Dae-Sik;Heo Jung-Ho;Lee Kuk-Cheon;Cho Myung-Heui;Kim Kuk-Hun;Kim Chung-Hui;Lue Jae-Du;Lee Seung-Hwan;Kim Gon-Sup;Kim Eui-Gyung;Kim Jong-Shu
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.75-85
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    • 2006
  • This study was designed to evaluate the possible DNA damaging effects of T-2 toxin using an alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay and also to investigate toxic effects in chickens. A total of 20 chickens were used in these experiments. Graded concentrations of dietary T-2 toxin (0, 4, 8, and $16{\mu}g/g$ of diet) were given to groups of 5 broiler chickens. In comet assay, The DNA damage was analysed by the tail extent moment (TEM) and tail length (TL), which were used as markers of DNA strand breaks in SCGE. A significant dose-dependent increase in the extent of DNA migration as well as in the percentage of cells with tails was observed after treatment with T-2 toxin (P<0.05). Treatment with the low T-2 toxin ($4{\mu}/g$ of diet) induced a relatively low level of DNA damage in comparison with the high T-2 toxin ($16{\mu}/g$ of diet) group. The growth rate was significantly reduced by concentrations of 8, and $16{\mu}/g$ of diet (P < 0.05). The feed conversion ratio were significantly affected by any concentrations (P < 0.05). The relative weight of the spleen, and lung was decreased by the growth inhibitory concentrations. The bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and kid- ney were decreased in relative weight by concentrations of $16{\mu}/g$ of diet. The relative weight of the liver and heart were unaffected. The hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were decreased at concentration of $16{\mu}/g$ of diet. As compared with control chickens, there was no marked change in serum components except uric acid in T-2 treated chickens. All lymphoid tissues retained atrophic and lymphoid cell depletion throughout the three weeks trial.

Production of T-2 Toxin and Its Metabolites by Fusarium sporotrichioides Isolates from the Corn Producing Area in Korea (우리나라 옥수수산지에서 분리한 Fusarium sporotrichioides 균주들에 의한 T-2 독소 및 관련 대사물의 생성)

  • Lee, Yin-Won;Kim, Kook-Hyung;Chung, Hoo-Sup
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 1990
  • Four isolates of Fusarium sporotrichioides obtained from the corn producing area were tested for their toxicities by feeding the crude cultures to rats. Three out of four isolates were highly toxic and killed all rats within 3-4 days after feeding. The chemical analyses of toxic cultures by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that two isolates from Jeongsun district produced T-2 toxin and its related trichothecenes. This is the first report that F. sporotrichioides isolates produce T-2 toxin in Korea.

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Role of Glutathione Redox System on the T-2 Toxin Tolerance of Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)

  • Fernye, Csaba;Ancsin, Zsolt;Bocsai, Andrea;Balogh, Krisztian;Mezes, Miklos;Erdelyi, Marta
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.249-257
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different dietary concentrations of T-2 toxin on blood plasma protein content, lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox system of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). A total of 320 one-day-old female pheasants were randomly assigned to four treatment groups fed with a diet contaminated with different concentrations of T-2 toxin (control, 4 mg/kg, 8 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg). Birds were sacrificed at early (12, 24 and 72 hr) and late (1, 2 and 3 weeks) stages of the experiment to demonstrate the effect of T-2 toxin on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox status in different tissues. Feed refusal and impaired growth were observed with dose dependent manner. Lipid-peroxidation was not induced in the liver, while the glutathione redox system was activated partly in the liver, but primarily in the blood plasma. Glutathione peroxidase activity has changed parallel with reduced glutathione concentration in all tissues. Based on our results, pheasants seem to have higher tolerance to T-2 toxin than other avian species, and glutathione redox system might contribute in some extent to this higher tolerance, in particular against free-radical mediated oxidative damage of tissues, such as liver.