• Title/Summary/Keyword: T-2 toxin

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Ability of Modified Glucomannan to Sequestrate T-2 Toxin in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Chicken

  • Reddy, N.B.;Devegowda, G.;Shashidhara, R.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.259-262
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    • 2004
  • The ability of Modified Glucomannan (MG) to bind T-2 toxin (T-2) in the gastrointestinal tract has been tested in vivo by feeding 120 five-wk-old broiler chicken with the following six treatment diets, 1) Control diet; 2) Control+MG (0.1%); 3) Control+T-2 (500 ppb); 4) Control+T-2 (500 ppb)+MG (0.1%); 5) Control+T-2 (1,000 ppb) and 6) Control+T-2 (1,000 ppb)+MG (0.1%). Twenty birds were assigned to each treatment group, which had five experimental groups. Four birds of each experimental group were sacrificed at an interval of 30 min i.e. at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after feeding experimental diets. The whole gut contents of each bird were collected, dried and toxin concentration was determined. Percent T-2 recovered from the gut was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the groups fed MG at all the time intervals. The percent T-2 adsorbed by the MG at different T-2 levels (500 and 1,000 ppb) was 15.97 and 14.77, 22.53 and 22.67, 26.88 and 28.03, and 31.50 and 31.83 at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min, respectively.

Esterified-Glucomannan in Broiler Chicken Diets-Contaminated with Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin and T-2 Toxin: Evaluation of its Binding Ability (in vitro) and Efficacy as Immunomodulator

  • Raju, M.V.L.N.;Devegowda, G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.1051-1056
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    • 2002
  • In vitro binding efficacy of esterified glucomannan (E-GM) (0.1%) on aflatoxin B1 (AF) (300 ppb), ochratoxin A (OA) (2 ppm) and T-2 toxin (T-2) (3 ppm), when present alone or in combination, was evaluated in toxin-contaminated feed at pH 4.5 and 6.5. Esterified glucomannan showed significantly (p<0.01) higher binding with AF (81.6%), whereas those recorded with T-2 (27.8%) and OA (25.6%) were moderate. Binding of each toxin decreased as the number of toxins in feed increased. pH of medium showed no effect on mycotoxin binding ability of E-GM. A $2{\times}2{\times}2{\times}2$ factorial experiment of 5 week duration was conducted to study the effects of two dietary levels each of AF (0 and 300 ppb), OA (0 and 2 ppm), T-2 (0 and 3 ppm ) and E-GM (0 and 0.1%) on the immune competence of a total of 960 day-old commercial broilers. Reductions in size of thymus (by AF and T-2) and bursa (by AF) and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and Infectious Bursal disease (by all the toxins) were noted. Additive and antagonistic interactions were seen among the toxins on certain parameters. Esterified glucomannan significantly (p<0.01) improved antibody titers and weights of bursa ofFabricius and thymus indicating its counteracting efficacy against immunosuppression in mycotoxicosis of multiple origin.

Effect of Enzymatic Deacetylation of T-2 Toxin on the Analysis of T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Corn and Brown Rice (옥수수 및 현미에서 효소적 탈아세틸화가 T-2와 HT-2 독소 분석에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Su-Jin;Ha, Sang-Do;Chun, Hyang-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.460-466
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    • 2012
  • Through an analysis of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in corn and brown rice, the effect of enzymatic deacetylation of T-2 toxin on HT-2 toxin was investigated. Gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection were used for quantitative determination. T-2 toxin was converted into HT-2 (84-86%) within 15 min in the presence of crude protein extracts from corn and brown rice. The absence of T-2 conversion was observed for autoclaved samples, in which the enzymes were inactivated. When phosphate buffered saline, followed by methanol, was used as the extraction solvent, recoveries of T-2 toxin spiked at 50 and 200 ${\mu}g/kg$ were from 60 to 87%, whereas those of HT-2 in the autoclaved samples were 0%. In non-autoclaved samples, recoveries of HT-2 were 37-66%, whereas those of T-2 were negligible. However, the conversion of T-2 into HT-2 was not observed when samples were extracted by methanol/water.

Analysis of Total Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin A, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol and T-2 Toxin Contamination in Nuts (시중유통 견과류의 총아플라톡신, 오크라톡신 A, 제랄레논, 데옥시니발레놀, T-2 독소의 오염도 조사)

  • Hong, JoonBae;Park, Kun Taek
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.58-64
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    • 2019
  • In the current study, 109 commercial nut samples were collected from different Korean markets and analyzed for the contamination of 5 different mycotoxins (aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and T-2 toxin) using ELISA kits. The results revealed that the most frequently detected mycotoxin was zearalenone (n=36, 33%), followed by aflatoxin (n=31, 28.4%) and ochratoxin A (n=30, 27.5%). Deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin were also detected in 22 (20.3%) samples, respectively. Among 109 nut samples, 33 samples (30.3%) were contaminated only with one kind of mycotoxin, whereas 43 samples had at least 2 kinds of mycotoxins. Two samples were contaminated with as many as 4 different mycotoxins, and they were both walnuts. Although the monitoring results revealed the amount of aflatoxin contamination was under the safety criteria, there is no current safety guideline for other kinds of mycotoxins or multiple contaminations in Korea. Therefore, further studies should be performed to reveal the distribution of mycotoxin in different foods and propose appropriate safety guidelines for Korean markets.

TRICHOTHECENES AS ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANTS

  • Ueno, Yoshio
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 1985
  • The trichothecenes are a chemically related sesquiterpenoid fungal metabolites of Fusarium, Trichoderma, Stachybotrys and others, and at moment more than 70 kinds of derivatives are identified. Historically, they are identified as antifungal and phytotoxic compounds, but after the finding of T-2 toxin from Fusarium tricinctum, several trichothecenes are now considered to be natural toxicants in foodstuffs and feeds.

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Simultaneous Analysis and Survey for Contamination of Nivalenol, Deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and Zearalenone in Feed (사료 중 Nivalenol, Deoxynivalenol, T-2 foxin과 Zearalenone의 동시분석과 오염도조사)

  • Kim, Dong-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Jang, Han-Sub;Kim, Yeong-Min;Choi, Heng-Bo;Ahn, Jong-Sung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2011
  • Nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2) and zearalenone (ZEN) are mycotoxins produced by some Fusarium species known to be very frequently contaminated in feed. The study for simultaneous analysis and contamination survey in animal feed carried out. All mycotoxins were analysed by using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass with internal standard. The limits of detection (LOD) were $2.0\;{\mu}g/kg$, $1.0\;{\mu}g/kg$, $1.0\;{\mu}g/kg$ and $0.1\;{\mu}g/kg$ for NIV, DON, T-2 and ZEN, respectively. Two hundred and thirty nine samples of feed were collected. The average concentration of DON was $212.3\;{\mu}g/kg$, $207.8\;{\mu}g/kg$ and $812.1\;{\mu}g/kg$ in chicken, pig and cattle feed, respectively. The average concentration of ZEN was $31.2\;{\mu}g/kg$, $35.6\;{\mu}g/kg$ and $147.2\;{\mu}g/kg$ for them, respectively. Especially, the levels of contamination for DON and ZEN were higher than those of NIV or T-2. And, the levels of contamination for four Fusarium mycotoxins in cattle feed appeared higher than those of pig and chicken feed. It was investigated that the high level of mycotoxin contamination in cattle feed was caused by com gluten feed of ingredients for feed, mainly.

Survey and method validation of simultaneous quantitative analysis of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereals (곡류 중 T-2 및 HT-2 독소 동시 정량분석의 유효성 검증 및 실태조사)

  • Paek, Ockjin;Kang, Teabeom
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.559-566
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for determination of T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin level in cereals and to survey their levels using LC-MS/MS. The T-2 and HT-2 toxins were simultaneously analyzed by electrospray ionization with a positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) after filteration and immuno-affinity column clean-up. A matrix-matched standard calibration used for quantification and recoveries of T-2 and HT-3 toxins were in the range of $100.6{\pm}7.2%$ and $96.8{\pm}9.4%$, respectively. Limits of detection and quantification of T-2 and HT-2 toxins were estimated to be 0.5 and $1.5{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. Each repeatability (RSRr) of T-2 and HT-2 toxins was determined to be 0.9~6.0%, and 4.9~6.1%, respectively. Total 115 samples cereals were collected from 9 types of cereals for analysis. The positive percentages of T-2 and HT-2 toxins obtained from collected samples were found to be 72% and 80%, respectively. The contamination level of T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in cereals were $37.1{\mu}g/kg$, and $5.4{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. Therefore, this study suggests that the developed method could be an useful analytical method to determine the T-2 and HT-2 toxin level in cereals and the present data could be used as a reference to estimate the risk assessment.

Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Korean Grains and Their Simultaneous Analysis (한국산 곡류에서의 곰팡이독소 오염현황 및 동시분석)

  • Kim, Dong-Ho;Jang, Han-Sub;Choi, Gyu-Il;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Ho-Jin;Kim, Hyo-Lin;Cho, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Chan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.111-119
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    • 2013
  • Eleven mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol, and HT-2 toxin, were analyzed simultaneously in rice, barley, and maize produced in 2011 by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Limits of detection (LOD) are 0.2 ${\mu}g/kg$ for aflatoxin $B_1$, and $G_1$, 0.3 ${\mu}g/kg$ for aflatoxins $B_2$, and $G_2$, 0.1 ${\mu}g/kg$ for ochratoxin, fumonisins, zearalenone, and T-2 toxin and 3.0 ${\mu}g/kg$ for deoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.6 ${\mu}g/kg$ for aflatoxins $B_1$, and $G_1$, 0.9 ${\mu}g/kg$ for aflatoxins $B_2$, and $G_2$, 0.3 ${\mu}g/kg$ for ochratoxin, fumonisins, zearalenone, and T-2 toxin and 10.0 ${\mu}g/kg$ for deoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin. Recoveries for 11 mycotoxins ranged from 70.45 to 111.11%. Fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zaeralenone were detected from 0.9 to 334.0 ${\mu}g/kg$ in the polished rice, barley and raw corn cultivated in Korea. Other mycotoxins were not detected. Deoxynivalenol contamination was mainly found in barley (24 out of 43 samples) and the average value in positive samples was 113.30 ${\mu}g/kg$.

A STUDY ON THE CLASTOGENICITY OF TRICHOTHECENE MYCOTOXINS IN CHINESE HAMSTER LUNG CELLS

  • Ryu, Jae-Chun;Chang, Il-Moo
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 1993
  • The chromosomal aberration of the trichothecene mycotoxins such as T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) which are one of the most important food borne contaminants produced by Fusarium species fungi, was investigated in the chinese hamster lung cells. These trichothecene mycotoxins showed high cytotoxicity in order of T-2, HT-2, NIV, and DON to the chinese hamster lung cells. Nevertheless high cytotoxicity of these trichothecene mycotoxins, no clastogenicity of T-2 and HT-2 in the range of 0.01-0.0025 ng/ml, of NIV in that of 0.3-0.075ng/ml, and of DON in that of 1.0-0.25 ng/ml was observed in both with and without metabolic activation system.

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