• Title/Summary/Keyword: T-2 toxin

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Corn Cultivation to Reduce the Mycotoxin Contamination (곰팡이 독소 오염 경감을 위한 옥수수 재배법)

  • Kim, Yangseon;Kang, In Jeong;Shin, Dong Bum;Roh, Jae Hwan;Jung, Jingyo;Heu, Sunggi;Shim, Hyeong Kwon
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.256-261
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    • 2017
  • The effects of insecticide and fungicide treatment were investigated to reduce mycotoxin contamination of corn (Zea mays L.) seeds. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contents were reduced in the treated seeds, but aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisin, and T-2 toxin were not effective by chemical treatments. The chemical treatment did not affect the growth of saprophyte, but inhibited the pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. equiseti. Myotoxin contents at different harvesting time were compared. As the harvest time was delayed, both levels of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone and frequency of Fusarium spp. increased. However, the major nutrient contents of corn seeds were not affected by harvesting period. These results show that chemical treatments are necessary to reduce the fungal contamination of corn and harvest without delay is important as well.

Toxigenic Mycobiota of Small Grain Cereals in Korea

  • Lee, Theresa
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • 2016.05a
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    • pp.33-33
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    • 2016
  • Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They can be present in where agricultural-based commodities are contaminated with toxigenic fungi. These mycotoxins cause various toxicoses in human and livestock when consumed. Small grains including corn, barley, rice or wheat are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins due to infection mainly by toxigenic Fusarium species and/or under environment favorable to fungal growth. One of the most well-known Fusarium toxin groups in cereals is trichothecenes consisting of many toxic compounds. Deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, and various derivatives belong to this group. Zearalenone and fumonisin (FB) are also frequently produced by many species of the same genus. In order to monitor Korean cereals for contamination with Fusarium and other mycotoxigenic fungal species as well, barley, corn, maize, rice grains, and soybean were collected from fields at harvest or during storage for several years. The fungal colonies outgrown from the grain samples were identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. Trichothecene chemotypes of Fusarium species or presence of FB biosynthetic gene were determined using respective diagnostic PCR to predict possible toxin production. Heavy grain contamination with fungi was detected in barley, rice and wheat. Predominant fungal genus of barley and wheat was Alternaria (up to 90%) while that of rice was Fusarium (~40%). Epicoccum also appeared frequently in barley, rice and wheat. While frequency of Fusarium species in barley and wheat was less than 20%, the genus mainly consisted of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) which known to be head blight pathogen and mycotoxin producer. Fusarium composition of rice was more diverse as FGSC, Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), and Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) appeared all at considerable frequencies. Prevalent fungal species of corn was FFSC (~50%), followed by FGSC (<30%). Most of FFSC isolates of corn tested appeared to be FB producer. In corn, Fusarium graminearum and DON chemotype dominate within FGSC, which was different from other cereals. Soybeans were contaminated with fungi less than other crops and Cercospora, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium etc. were detected at low frequencies (up to 14%). Other toxigenic species such as Aspergillus and Penicillium were irregularly detected at very low frequencies. Multi-year survey of small grains revealed dominant fungal species of Korea (barley, rice and wheat) is Fusarium asiaticum having NIV chemotype.

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Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris Extract Usability to Improve Silage Hygienic Quality and Reduce Mycotoxin Concentrations

  • Vaiciuliene, Gintare;Bakutis, Bronius;Jovaisiene, Jurgita;Falkauskas, Rimvydas;Gerulis, Gediminas;Baliukoniene, Violeta
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.1149-1155
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    • 2020
  • Silage is one of the main feed components of ruminants around the world and can make up about 50-80% of the rations of dairy cows during the winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) aqueous and ethanol extracts to improve the hygienic quality of perennial ryegrass, red clover and blue alfalfa silage samples and estimate their effect on mycotoxins concentrations. Under laboratory conditions, 63 silage samples (21 perennial ryegrass, 21 blue alfalfa, 21 red clover) were fermented with inserted aqueous and ethanol extracts of oregano and thyme and two commercial inoculants with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. After 96 days of fermentation, in silage samples were established fermentation parameters, microbiological status and mycotoxins concentrations. It was determined that the best results for achieving hygienic quality of perennial ryegrass and red clover silage samples was by insertion of aqueous and ethanol extracts of oregano and thyme. In blue alfalfa samples, the best results of silage hygienic indicators were determined by inserting aqueous and ethanol extracts of oregano. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and T-2 toxin concentrations in perennial ryegrass, red clover and blue alfalfa silage samples were best reduced by inserting aqueous and ethanol extracts of oregano and thyme. The present study shows that these extracts can be used to improve silage hygienic quality, reduce mycotoxins concentrations and thus ensure the wellness of cattle.

Effect of inoculants and storage temperature on the microbial, chemical and mycotoxin composition of corn silage

  • Wang, Musen;Xu, Shengyang;Wang, Tianzheng;Jia, Tingting;Xu, Zhenzhen;Wang, Xue;Yu, Zhu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.1903-1912
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    • 2018
  • Objective: To evaluate the effect of lactic acid bacteria and storage temperature on the microbial, chemical and mycotoxin composition of corn silage. Methods: Corn was harvested at 32.8% dry matter, and chopped to 1 to 2 cm. The chopped material was subjected to three treatments: i) control (distilled water); ii) $1{\times}10^6$ colony forming units (cfu)/g of Lactobacillus plantarum; iii) $1{\times}10^6cfu/g$ of Pediococcus pentosaceus. Treatments in triplicate were ensiled for 55 d at $20^{\circ}C$, $28^{\circ}C$, and $37^{\circ}C$ in 1-L polythene jars following packing to a density of approximately $800kg/m^3$ of fresh matter, respectively. At silo opening, microbial populations, fermentation characteristics, nutritive value and mycotoxins of corn silage were determined. Results: L. plantarum significantly increased yeast number, water soluble carbohydrates, nitrate and deoxynivalenol content, and significantly decreased the ammonia N value in corn silage compared with the control (p<0.05). P. pentosaceus significantly increased lactic acid bacteria and yeast number and content of deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone, while decreasing mold population and content of nitrate and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalneol in corn silage when stored at $20^{\circ}C$ compared to the control (p<0.05). Storage temperature had a significant effect on deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone level in corn silage (p<0.05). Conclusion: Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus did not decrease the contents of mycotoxins or nitrate in corn silage stored at three temperatures.

Relationships between Genetic Diversity and Fusarium Toxin Profiles of Winter Wheat Cultivars

  • Goral, Tomasz;Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga;Busko, Maciej;Boczkowska, Maja;Walentyn-Goral, Dorota;Wisniewska, Halina;Perkowski, Juliusz
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.226-244
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    • 2015
  • Fusarium head blight is one of the most important and most common diseases of winter wheat. In order to better understanding this disease and to assess the correlations between different factors, 30 cultivars of this cereal were evaluated in a two-year period. Fusarium head blight resistance was evaluated and the concentration of trichothecene mycotoxins was analysed. Grain samples originated from plants inoculated with Fusarium culmorum and naturally infected with Fusarium species. The genetic distance between the tested cultivars was determined and data were analysed using multivariate data analysis methods. Genetic dissimilarity of wheat cultivars ranged between 0.06 and 0.78. They were grouped into three distinct groups after cluster analysis of genetic distance. Wheat cultivars differed in resistance to spike and kernel infection and in resistance to spread of Fusarium within a spike (type II). Only B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and nivalenol) produced by F. culmorum in grain samples from inoculated plots were present. In control samples trichothecenes of groups A (H-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, T-2 tetraol, T-2 triol, scirpentriol, diacetoxyscirpenol) and B were detected. On the basis of Fusarium head blight assessment and analysis of trichothecene concentration in the grain relationships between morphological characters, Fusarium head blight resistance and mycotoxins in grain of wheat cultivars were examined. The results were used to create of matrices of distance between cultivars - for trichothecene concentration in inoculated and naturally infected grain as well as for FHB resistance Correlations between genetic distance versus resistance/mycotoxin profiles were calculated using the Mantel test. A highly significant correlation between genetic distance and mycotoxin distance was found for the samples inoculated with Fusarium culmorum. Significant but weak relationships were found between genetic distance matrix and FHB resistance or trichothecene concentration in naturally infected grain matrices.

Survey of Fungal Infection and Fusarium Mycotoxins Contamination of Maize during Storage in Korea in 2015 (2015년 국내산 저장 옥수수에서의 후자리움 독소 오염 및 감염 곰팡이 조사)

  • Kim, Yangseon;Kang, In Jeong;Shin, Dong Bum;Roh, Jae Hwan;Heu, Sunggi;Shim, Hyeong Kwon
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.278-282
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    • 2017
  • Maize is one of the most cultivated cereals as a staple food in the world. The harvested maize is mainly stored after drying, but its quality and nutrition could be debased by fungal spoilage and mycotoxin contamination. In this study, we surveyed mycotoxin contamination fungal infection of maize kernels that were stored for almost one year after harvest in 2015. The amount of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone detected were higher than the other mycotoxin, such as aflatoxin, ochratoxin, fumonisin and T-2 toxin. In particular, level of deoxynivalenol was detected as $1200{\pm}610{\mu}g/kg$ in small size kernels, which was four to six times higher than the large and the medium size kernels. Moreover, the amount of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and fumonisin were increased with discolored kernels. 10 species including Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were isolated from the maize kernels. F. graminearum was predominant in the discolored kernels with detection rates of 60% (red) and 40% (brown). Our study shows that the mycotoxin contents of stored maize can be increased by discolored maize kernels mixed. Therefore elimination of the contaminated maize kernels will help prevent fungal infection and mycotoxin contamination in stored maize.