• 제목/요약/키워드: T-2 toxin

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곰팡이 독소 오염 경감을 위한 옥수수 재배법 (Corn Cultivation to Reduce the Mycotoxin Contamination)

  • 김양선;강인정;신동범;노재환;정진교;허성기;심형권
    • 식물병연구
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    • 제23권3호
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    • pp.256-261
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    • 2017
  • 살충제와 살균제 처리가 옥수수의 독소 오염을 경감시키는데 어떤 역할을 하는지 그 효과를 관찰하였다. 데옥시니발레논(DON)과 제랄레논(ZEN)은 약제처리시 높은 경감효과를 보였으나, 아플라톡신(AFT), 오크라톡신(OTA), 푸모니신(FUM)과 티-2(T-2 toxin)은 약제처리에 의한 효과가 없었다. 약제처리는 Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum, 그리고 F. equiseti 같은 병원성 곰팡이의 생장을 억제하는 것으로 나타났다. 옥수수 수확 시기에 따른 곰팡이 독소의 검출량을 비교하였는데, 수확시기가 늦어질수록 DON과 ZEN의 검출량이 증가하였고, Fusarium 속의 병원균 또한 높은 함량으로 검출되었다. 옥수수 종자의 주요 영양성분은 수확 시기에 따라 영향을 받지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구결과는 옥수수의 곰팡이 오염을 줄이기 위해, 살균제와 살충제의 약제처리가 필요하며 수확시기를 늦추지 않는 것이 중요하다는 것을 밝혀냈다.

Toxigenic Mycobiota of Small Grain Cereals in Korea

  • Lee, Theresa
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • 한국균학회 2016년도 춘계학술대회 및 임시총회
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    • pp.33-33
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    • 2016
  • Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They can be present in where agricultural-based commodities are contaminated with toxigenic fungi. These mycotoxins cause various toxicoses in human and livestock when consumed. Small grains including corn, barley, rice or wheat are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins due to infection mainly by toxigenic Fusarium species and/or under environment favorable to fungal growth. One of the most well-known Fusarium toxin groups in cereals is trichothecenes consisting of many toxic compounds. Deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, and various derivatives belong to this group. Zearalenone and fumonisin (FB) are also frequently produced by many species of the same genus. In order to monitor Korean cereals for contamination with Fusarium and other mycotoxigenic fungal species as well, barley, corn, maize, rice grains, and soybean were collected from fields at harvest or during storage for several years. The fungal colonies outgrown from the grain samples were identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. Trichothecene chemotypes of Fusarium species or presence of FB biosynthetic gene were determined using respective diagnostic PCR to predict possible toxin production. Heavy grain contamination with fungi was detected in barley, rice and wheat. Predominant fungal genus of barley and wheat was Alternaria (up to 90%) while that of rice was Fusarium (~40%). Epicoccum also appeared frequently in barley, rice and wheat. While frequency of Fusarium species in barley and wheat was less than 20%, the genus mainly consisted of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) which known to be head blight pathogen and mycotoxin producer. Fusarium composition of rice was more diverse as FGSC, Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), and Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) appeared all at considerable frequencies. Prevalent fungal species of corn was FFSC (~50%), followed by FGSC (<30%). Most of FFSC isolates of corn tested appeared to be FB producer. In corn, Fusarium graminearum and DON chemotype dominate within FGSC, which was different from other cereals. Soybeans were contaminated with fungi less than other crops and Cercospora, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Fusarium etc. were detected at low frequencies (up to 14%). Other toxigenic species such as Aspergillus and Penicillium were irregularly detected at very low frequencies. Multi-year survey of small grains revealed dominant fungal species of Korea (barley, rice and wheat) is Fusarium asiaticum having NIV chemotype.

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Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris Extract Usability to Improve Silage Hygienic Quality and Reduce Mycotoxin Concentrations

  • Vaiciuliene, Gintare;Bakutis, Bronius;Jovaisiene, Jurgita;Falkauskas, Rimvydas;Gerulis, Gediminas;Baliukoniene, Violeta
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • 제30권8호
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    • pp.1149-1155
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    • 2020
  • Silage is one of the main feed components of ruminants around the world and can make up about 50-80% of the rations of dairy cows during the winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) aqueous and ethanol extracts to improve the hygienic quality of perennial ryegrass, red clover and blue alfalfa silage samples and estimate their effect on mycotoxins concentrations. Under laboratory conditions, 63 silage samples (21 perennial ryegrass, 21 blue alfalfa, 21 red clover) were fermented with inserted aqueous and ethanol extracts of oregano and thyme and two commercial inoculants with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. After 96 days of fermentation, in silage samples were established fermentation parameters, microbiological status and mycotoxins concentrations. It was determined that the best results for achieving hygienic quality of perennial ryegrass and red clover silage samples was by insertion of aqueous and ethanol extracts of oregano and thyme. In blue alfalfa samples, the best results of silage hygienic indicators were determined by inserting aqueous and ethanol extracts of oregano. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and T-2 toxin concentrations in perennial ryegrass, red clover and blue alfalfa silage samples were best reduced by inserting aqueous and ethanol extracts of oregano and thyme. The present study shows that these extracts can be used to improve silage hygienic quality, reduce mycotoxins concentrations and thus ensure the wellness of cattle.

Effect of inoculants and storage temperature on the microbial, chemical and mycotoxin composition of corn silage

  • Wang, Musen;Xu, Shengyang;Wang, Tianzheng;Jia, Tingting;Xu, Zhenzhen;Wang, Xue;Yu, Zhu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • 제31권12호
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    • pp.1903-1912
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    • 2018
  • Objective: To evaluate the effect of lactic acid bacteria and storage temperature on the microbial, chemical and mycotoxin composition of corn silage. Methods: Corn was harvested at 32.8% dry matter, and chopped to 1 to 2 cm. The chopped material was subjected to three treatments: i) control (distilled water); ii) $1{\times}10^6$ colony forming units (cfu)/g of Lactobacillus plantarum; iii) $1{\times}10^6cfu/g$ of Pediococcus pentosaceus. Treatments in triplicate were ensiled for 55 d at $20^{\circ}C$, $28^{\circ}C$, and $37^{\circ}C$ in 1-L polythene jars following packing to a density of approximately $800kg/m^3$ of fresh matter, respectively. At silo opening, microbial populations, fermentation characteristics, nutritive value and mycotoxins of corn silage were determined. Results: L. plantarum significantly increased yeast number, water soluble carbohydrates, nitrate and deoxynivalenol content, and significantly decreased the ammonia N value in corn silage compared with the control (p<0.05). P. pentosaceus significantly increased lactic acid bacteria and yeast number and content of deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone, while decreasing mold population and content of nitrate and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalneol in corn silage when stored at $20^{\circ}C$ compared to the control (p<0.05). Storage temperature had a significant effect on deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone level in corn silage (p<0.05). Conclusion: Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus did not decrease the contents of mycotoxins or nitrate in corn silage stored at three temperatures.

Relationships between Genetic Diversity and Fusarium Toxin Profiles of Winter Wheat Cultivars

  • Goral, Tomasz;Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga;Busko, Maciej;Boczkowska, Maja;Walentyn-Goral, Dorota;Wisniewska, Halina;Perkowski, Juliusz
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • 제31권3호
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    • pp.226-244
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    • 2015
  • Fusarium head blight is one of the most important and most common diseases of winter wheat. In order to better understanding this disease and to assess the correlations between different factors, 30 cultivars of this cereal were evaluated in a two-year period. Fusarium head blight resistance was evaluated and the concentration of trichothecene mycotoxins was analysed. Grain samples originated from plants inoculated with Fusarium culmorum and naturally infected with Fusarium species. The genetic distance between the tested cultivars was determined and data were analysed using multivariate data analysis methods. Genetic dissimilarity of wheat cultivars ranged between 0.06 and 0.78. They were grouped into three distinct groups after cluster analysis of genetic distance. Wheat cultivars differed in resistance to spike and kernel infection and in resistance to spread of Fusarium within a spike (type II). Only B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and nivalenol) produced by F. culmorum in grain samples from inoculated plots were present. In control samples trichothecenes of groups A (H-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, T-2 tetraol, T-2 triol, scirpentriol, diacetoxyscirpenol) and B were detected. On the basis of Fusarium head blight assessment and analysis of trichothecene concentration in the grain relationships between morphological characters, Fusarium head blight resistance and mycotoxins in grain of wheat cultivars were examined. The results were used to create of matrices of distance between cultivars - for trichothecene concentration in inoculated and naturally infected grain as well as for FHB resistance Correlations between genetic distance versus resistance/mycotoxin profiles were calculated using the Mantel test. A highly significant correlation between genetic distance and mycotoxin distance was found for the samples inoculated with Fusarium culmorum. Significant but weak relationships were found between genetic distance matrix and FHB resistance or trichothecene concentration in naturally infected grain matrices.

2015년 국내산 저장 옥수수에서의 후자리움 독소 오염 및 감염 곰팡이 조사 (Survey of Fungal Infection and Fusarium Mycotoxins Contamination of Maize during Storage in Korea in 2015)

  • 김양선;강인정;신동범;노재환;허성기;심형권
    • 식물병연구
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    • 제23권3호
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    • pp.278-282
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    • 2017
  • 옥수수는 세계에서 가장 많이 재배되는 곡물 중 하나이며 중요한 식량자원이다. 생산 된 옥수수는 수확 및 건조 후에 저장되는데 저장 옥수수의 질을 떨어뜨리는 곰팡이 감염 및 곰팡이 독소는 생육 시기부터 저장기간 내내 발생한다. 이 연구는 우리나라에서 2015년 수확하여 1년정도 저장한 옥수수를 대상으로 옥수수의 크기와 변색 정도에 따른 감염 곰팡이 종과 독소검출을 조사하였다. 데옥시니발레놀과 제랄레논이 아플라톡신, 오크라톡신, 푸모니신, 티투독소보다 상대적으로 높은 수준으로 검출되었는데 특히, 데옥시니발레놀 경우 작은 낱알에서 $1200{\pm}610{\mu}g/kg$로 검출되었는데, 이는 이보다 큰 낱알에서 검출된 독소 함량에 비해 4배에서 6배까지 많은 양이 검출되었으며, 변색된 낱알의 혼입으로 인해 데옥시니발레놀, 제랄레논 및 푸모니신의 함량이 증가하였다. 곰팡이의 경우 Fusarium, Aspergillus 그리고 Penicillium 속 등 총 10종이 분리되었다. 이중 F. graminearum은 정상적인 낱알에 비해 변색 된 붉은색 낱알과 갈색 낱알에서 60%와 40%로 높은 빈도로 검출되었다. 따라서 수확 후 변색 또는 손상된 옥수수 낱알이 정상 낱알에 섞여 보관될 경우, 손상된 낱알에 오염되어 있던 병원균이 정상 낱알을 감염하여 진균 독소의 발생이 증가할 수 있으므로 오염 낱알의 제거가 곰팡이 및 독소의 오염 예방에 도움이 될 것이다.