• Title/Summary/Keyword: TGF-$\beta$

Search Result 288, Processing Time 0.217 seconds

Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β in Tumor Invasion and Metastasis

  • Kim, Eun-Sook;Moon, Aree
    • Toxicological Research
    • /
    • v.23 no.3
    • /
    • pp.197-205
    • /
    • 2007
  • Cancer metastasis is a major determinant of cancer patient mortality. Mounting evidence favors a strong positive role for $TGF-{\beta}$ in human cancer progression. The complex pattern on cross-talk of $TGF-{\beta}$ and the related other signaling pathways is an important area of investigation that will ultimately contribute to understanding of the bifunctional role of $TGF-{\beta}$ in cancer progression. This review summarizes some of the current understanding of $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling with a major focus in its contribution to the tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Five issues are addressed in this review: (1) $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling, (2) $TGF-{\beta}$ and EMT, (3) $TGF-{\beta}$ and MMP, (4) $TGF-{\beta}$ and Ras, and (5) Role of $TGF-{\beta}$ in invasion and metastasis. Due to the bifunctional cellular effects of $TGF-{\beta}$, as a tumor promoter and a tumor suppressor, more precisely defined $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling pathways need to be elucidated. According to the current literature, $TGF-{\beta}$ is clearly a major factor stimulating tumor progression through a complex spectrum of the interplay and cross-talk between various signaling molecules. Understanding the role of $TGF-{\beta}$ in invasion and metastasis will provide valuable information on establishing strategies to manipulate $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling which should be a high priority for the development of anti-metastatic therapeutics.

Expressions of transforming growth factor β in patients with rheumatioid arthritis and osteoarthritis (류머티스 관절염과 골관절염 환자에서 Transforming growth factor β의 발현 양상)

  • Kim, Chae-Gi;Yoon, Wern Chan;Song, Yong-Ho;Kim, Sang-Gyung;Choe, Jung-Yoon
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
    • /
    • v.1 no.3
    • /
    • pp.244-249
    • /
    • 2001
  • The transforming growth $factor-{\beta}$ ($TGF-{\beta}$) is a multifunctional cytokine modulating the onset and course of autoimmune disease as shown in experimental models. In synovial inflammation, there is a potential role for $TGF-{\beta}$ in repairment, the inhibition of cartilage and bone destruction, and the down-regulation of immune response. The biologic effects of $TGF-{\beta}$ depend on the cell type, the isoform and the availability of active $TGF-{\beta}$. We investigated $TGF-{\beta}$ expression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and compared to those of osteoarthritis (OA). And we determined a correlation between $TGF-{\beta}1$ and $TGF-{\beta}2$, and also the relationships between each $TGF-{\beta}$ isoform and the parameters for disease activity of RA. Methods: The study population consisted of 20 patients with RA and 20 patients with OA. The commercial ELISA kit was used to study $TGF-{\beta}1$ and $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels in peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluids (SF). Results: 1) While PB $TGF-{\beta}1$ level was of no difference between RA and OA patient groups, SF $TGF-{\beta}1$ level was higher in RA group than OA group. Similarly, PB $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels of RA and OA groups was not different, but SF $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels was higher in RA group than OA group. 2) In patients with RA, the $TGF-{\beta}1$ levels were higher than $TGF-{\beta}2$ in both the PB and SF, while in patients with OA, there showed higher readings for $TGF-{\beta}1$ than $TGF-{\beta}2$ in SF but no difference between $TGF-{\beta}1$ and $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels in PB. 3) In patients with RA, there were no correlations between PB $TGF-{\beta}1$ and PB $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels, nor between SF $TGF-{\beta}1$ and SF $TGF-{\beta}2$ levels. At the same way, there was no correlation between PB $TGF-{\beta}1$ and SF $TGF-{\beta}1$ levels, nor between each levels of $TGF-{\beta}2$ in patients with RA. 4) There was also no correlation between each $TGF-{\beta}$ isoform and the parameters for disease activity such as ESR, CRP, tender joint count, swollen joint count, rheumatoid factor, and the duration of morning stiffness except between in PB $TGF-{\beta}1$ and disease duration of RA (r=0.637, p<0.01). Conclusion: Each $TGF-{\beta}$ isoforms were higher in synovial fluid of patients with RA than that of patients with OA. The data from the RA patients demonstrated different patterns of expressions of the isoforms depending on which compartment (PB or SF) was investigated. The quantification of different $TGF-{\beta}$ isoform is thought to be important when $TGF-{\beta}$ is measured under disease conditions of RA.

  • PDF

Smad-dependent Expression of Gadd45b Gene during TGF-β-induced Apoptosis in EpH4 Cells. (EpH4 세포에서 TGF-β에 의한 세포사멸시 Smad 단백질에 의존한 Gadd45b 유전자의 발현 변화)

  • Cho, Hee-Jun;Yoo, Ji-Yun
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.18 no.4
    • /
    • pp.461-466
    • /
    • 2008
  • Transforming growth $factor-{\beta}$ ($TGF-{\beta}$)-dependent apoptosis is important in the elimination of damaged or abnormal cells from normal tissues in vivo. Gadd45b has been known to participate in $TGF-{\beta}-induced$ apoptosis by the activation of p38 kinase. In this report, we show that Gadd45b is an immediate-early response gene for $TGF-{\beta}$ during apoptosis in EpH4 cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of $TGF-{\beta}-induced$ Gadd45b gene expression, we cloned the 5'-flanking region of the mouse Gadd45b gene. When transfected into EpH4 cells, this 5'-flanking region conferred promoter activity and inducibility by $TGF-{\beta}$. Deletion analyses demonstrated that the minimal promoter activity was detected in the proximal region 220 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. We also found that the proximal Gadd45b promoter is activated by $TGF-{\beta}$ through the action of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4. Finally, we show that the expression of Gadd45b gene by $TGF-{\beta}$ is suppressed in EpRas cells in which $TGF-{\beta}$ could not induce apoptosis, suggesting that Gadd45b may be a crucial target for $TGF-{\beta}-induced$ apoptosis in EpH4 cells.

Effect of Soy Isoflavones on the Expression of $TGF-{\beta}1$ and Its Receptors in Cultured Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

  • Kim Young-Hwa;Jin Kyong-Suk;Lee Yong-Woo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
    • /
    • v.11 no.2
    • /
    • pp.175-183
    • /
    • 2005
  • The two major isoflavones in soy, genistein and daidzein, are well known to prevent hormone-dependent cancers by their anti estrogenic activity. The exact molecular mechanisms for the protective action are, however, not provided yet. It has been reported that genistein and daidzein have a potential anticancer activity through their antiproliferative effect in many hormone-dependent cancer cell lines. Transforming growth $factor-\beta1(TGF-\beta1)$ has also been found to have cell growth inhibitory effect, especially in mammary epithelial cells. This knowledge led to a hypothetical mechanism that the soy isoflavones-induced growth inhibitory effect can be derived from the regulation of $TGF-\beta1$ and $TGF-\beta$ receptors. In order to test this hypothesis, the effects of the soy isoflavones at various concentrations and periods on the expression of $TGF-\beta1$and $TGF-\beta$ receptors were investigated by using Northern blot analysis in human breast carcinoma epithelial cell lines, an estrogen receptor positive cell line (MCF-7) and an estrogen receptor negative cell line (MDA-MB-231). As a result, only genistein has shown a profound dose-dependent effect on $TGF-\beta1$ expression in the $ER^+$ cell line within the range of doses tested, and the expression levels are correspondent to their inhibitory activities of cell growth. Moreover, daidzein showed down-regulated $TGF-\beta1$ expression at a low dose, the cell growth proliferation was promoted at the same condition. Therefore, antiproliferative activity of the soy isoflavones can be mediated by $TGF-\beta1$ expression, and the effects are mainly, if not all, occurred by ER dependent pathway. The expression of $TGF-\beta$ receptors was induced at a lower dose than the one for $TGF-{\beta}1$ induction regardless of the presence of ER, and the expression patterns are similar to those of the cell growth inhibition. These results indicated that the regulation of $TGF-\beta$ receptor expression as well, prior to $TGF-\beta1$ expression, may be involved in the antiproliferative activity of soy isoflavones. Little or no expression of $TGF-\beta$ receptors was found in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting refractory properties of the cells to growth inhibitory effect of the $TGF-\beta$. The soy isoflavones can seemingly restore the sensitivity of growth inhibitory responses to $TGF-\beta1$ by re-inducing $TGF-\beta$ receptors expression. In conclusions, our findings presented in this study show that the antitumorigenic activity of the soy isoflavones could be mediated by not only $TGF-\beta1$induction but $TGF-\beta$ receptor restoration. Thus, soy isoflavones could be good model molecules to develop new nonsteroidal antiestrogenic chemopreventive agents, associated with, regulation of $TGF-\beta$ and its receptors.

  • PDF

Pharmacological and Biochemical Characterization of Cells Isolated from Fetal Rat Calvaria (백서태자두개관에서 분리한 세포의 약리학적 및 생화학적 특성에 관한연구)

  • Han, Nam-Soo;Cheong, Dong-Kyun;Mori, Masakazu
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.26 no.2
    • /
    • pp.193-207
    • /
    • 1990
  • Transforming growth factor ${\beta}(TGF-{\beta})$ is a multifunctional polypeptide with diverse effects on the proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. $TGF-{\beta}$ is highly abundant in bone matrix and induces divergent responses in many aspects of bone cell metabolism . Several lines of investigation indicate that matrix-associated $TGF-{\beta}$ is the products of bone cells themselves. However, exact bone cell type reponsible for the production of $TGF-{\beta}$ is still in controversy, The present study was undertaken to determine the cellular origin of matrix-associated $TGF-{\beta}$ and to assess how different bone cells respond to $TGF-{\beta}$. As a prerequisite for this, 5 bone cell populations of distinct phenotype were isolated from fetal calvaria with sequential enzyme digestion protocol and biochemical characterization. Calvarial cell populations released in early stage showed fibroblastic features whereas populations relesed later was enriched with osteoblast-like cell as judged by their acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, cAMP responsiveness to parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and prostaglandin $E_2$ and collagen synthesis rate. By polyacylamide gel and immunoblot analysis of bone and calvarial cell extracts, presence of $TGF-{\beta}$ in bone tissues and production of $TGF-{\beta}$ by bone cells were confirmed again. Subsequent analysis of calvarial cell extracts prepared as individual population revealed that all calvarial cell populations synthesize $TGF-{\beta}$. Exogenously added $TGF-{\beta}$ induced biphasic response upon bone cell proliferation under serum-free condition. In osteoblastic cell populations, it was stimulatory whereas inhibitory in fibroblastic cell populations. In contrast, collagen and noncollagen protein synthesis of all calvarial cell populations were stimulated by $TGF-{\beta}$. Enhancement of protein synthesis was found to be more general rather than specific for collagen synthesis. In addition, effects of $TGF-{\beta}$ on protein synthesis were independent to its effects on cell proliferation. In summary, production of $TGF-{\beta}$ by bone cells and differential actions on various cell populations observed in this study suggest that $TGF-{\beta}$ may play an important role in the regulation of bone metabolism by modulating the specific cellular functions in autocrine and paracrine fashion.

  • PDF

Effects of Injinchunggan-tang (Yinchenqinggan-tang) on $TGF-{\beta}1-Mediated$ Hepatic Fibrosis (인진청간탕이 $TGF-{\beta}1$ 매개성 간섬유화에 미치는 영향)

  • 심재옥;김영철;이장훈;우홍정
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.24 no.2
    • /
    • pp.1-11
    • /
    • 2003
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of Injinchunggan-tang on $TGF-{\beta}1-induced$ hepatic fibrosis. Methods : mRNA and protein expression levels of $TGF-{\beta}1$ in Injinchunggan-tang-treated HepG2 cells were compared to untreated cells using quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA assay, respectively. mRNA expression levels of the TGF-1 pathway genes (TR-1, TR-II, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and PAI-1) and fibrosis-associated genes (CTGF, fibronectin, and collagen type 1) were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. The effect of Injinchunggan-tang on cell proliferation of T3891 human fibroblast was evaluated using [$^3H$]thymidine incorporation assay. Results : Expression of $TGF-{\beta}1$ mRNA and protein was inhibited by Injinchunggan-tang in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Whereas $TGF-{\beta}1-mediated$ induction of PAI-1 was suppressed by Injinchunggan-tang, expression of the $TGF-{\beta}1$ pathway genes such as TR-1, TR-II, Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 was not affected by Injinchunggan-tang treatment. Injinchunggan-tang was found to inhibit $TGF-{\beta}1-induced$ cell proliferation of T3891 human fibroblast, and also abrogated $TGF-{\beta}1-mediated$ transcriptional up-regulation of CTGF, fibronectin, and collagen type I. Conclusions : This study strongly suggests that the liver cirrhosis-suppressive activity of Injinchunggan-tang may be derived at least in part from its inhibitory effect on $TGF-{\beta}1$ functions, such as blockade of $TGF-{\beta}1$ stimulation of fibroblast cell proliferation and fibrosis-related gene expression as well as expression of $TGF-{\beta}1$ itself.

  • PDF

Pro-tumorigenic roles of TGF-β signaling during the early stages of liver tumorigenesis through upregulation of Snail

  • Moon, Hyuk;Han, Kwang-Hyub;Ro, Simon Weonsang
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.50 no.12
    • /
    • pp.599-600
    • /
    • 2017
  • Many studies have focused on the tumor suppressive role of $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling during the early stages of tumorigenesis by activating the target genes involved in cytostasis and apoptosis. We investigated the effects of $TGF-{\beta}$ inhibition on early tumorigenesis in the liver, by employing diverse inhibitory methods. Strikingly, $TGF-{\beta}$ inhibition consistently suppressed hepatic tumorigenesis that was induced either by activated RAS plus p53 downregulation or by the co-activation of RAS and TAZ signaling; this demonstrates the requirements for canonical $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling in tumorigenesis. Moreover, we found that Snail is the target gene of the $TGF-{\beta}$ signaling pathway that promotes hepatic carcinogenesis. The knockdown of Snail suppressed the early tumorigenesis in the liver, as did the $TGF-{\beta}$ inhibition, while the ectopic expression of Snail restored tumorigenesis that was suppressed by the $TGF-{\beta}$ inhibition. Our findings establish the oncogenic $TGF-{\beta}$-Smad-Snail signaling axis during the early tumorigenesis in the liver.

The Effect of Ultrasound on $TGF-\beta$ Expression in the Injured Achilles Tendons of Rats (초음파가 흰쥐 아킬레스건 손상부위의 $TGF-\beta$발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon Soo-Jin
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
    • /
    • v.14 no.3
    • /
    • pp.145-173
    • /
    • 2002
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of ultrasound irradiation on $TGF-\beta_1$ expression in the surgically injured achilles tendons of rats. The results of this study were as following: 1. The control group (3 days after injury) expressed little immunoreactivity for $TGF-\beta_1$. 2. In the experimental groups, $TGF-\beta_1$ immunoreactivity of group 11(applied US for 3 days) was increased markedly than that of group 1(applied US for 1 day). 3, The experimental group 11(applied US for 3 days) expressed higher immunoreactivity for $TGF-\beta_1$ than control group. These findings suggest that ultrasound irradiation on the injured Achilles tendon may be of benefit such as increasing $TGF-\beta$ release in the inflammatory phase of heal ins process.

  • PDF

Expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits according to transforming growth factor-β1 administration after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats (신생 백서의 저산소 허혈 뇌손상에서 Transforming Growth Factor-β1 투여에 따른 Nitric Oxide Synthase 이성체와 N-methyl-D-aspartate 수용체 아단위의 발현)

  • Go, Hye Young;Seo, Eok Su;Kim, Woo Taek
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
    • /
    • v.52 no.5
    • /
    • pp.594-602
    • /
    • 2009
  • Purpose : Transforming growth factor (TGF)-${\beta}1$ reportedly increases neuronal survival by inhibiting the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in astrocytes and protecting neurons after excitotoxic injury. However, the neuroprotective mechanism of $TGF-{\beta}1$ on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in neonatal rats is not clear. The aim of this study was to determine whether $TGF-{\beta}1$ has neuroprotective effects via a NO-mediated mechanism and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor modulation on perinatal HI brain injury. Methods : Cortical cells were cultured using 19-day-pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats treated with $TGF-{\beta}1$ (1, 5, or 10 ng/mL) and incubated in a 1% O2 incubator for hypoxia. Seven-day-old SD rat pups were subjected to left carotid occlusion followed by 2 h of hypoxic exposure (7.5% $O_2$). $TGF-{\beta}1$ (0.5 ng/kg) was administered intracerebrally to the rats 30 min before HI brain injury. The expressions of NOS and NMDA receptors were measured. Results : In the in vitro model, the expressions of endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) increased in the hypoxic group and decreased in the 1 ng/mL $TGF-{\beta}1-treated$ group. In the in vivo model, the expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) decreased in the hypoxia group and increased in the $TGF-{\beta}1$-treated group. The expressions of eNOS and nNOS were reversed compared with the expression of iNOS. The expressions of all NMDA receptor subunits decreased in hypoxia group and increased in the $TGF-{\beta}1$-treated group except NR2C. Conclusion : The administration of $TGF-{\beta}1$ could significantly protect against perinatal HI brain injury via some parts of the NO-mediated or excitotoxic mechanism.

A study of $TGF-\beta$ Expression Patterns In Cleft Palate Formed Rats Induced by BAPN (BAPN으로 유도한 구개열 백서에서 $TGF-\beta$ 발현 양상에 대한 연구)

  • Tae, Ki-Chul;Kim, En-Chel
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
    • /
    • v.31 no.6
    • /
    • pp.579-587
    • /
    • 2001
  • Cleft palate has been studied with epidemiologic and molecular methods, and many etiologic factors have been examined closely Among the research methods, biologic molecule research has been the most important method for cleft palate formation study The $TGF-\beta$ played an important role in cell migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis and deposition. But there was not much research on the correlation cleft palate induced by beta-aminonitroproprionitrile(BAPN) and $TGF-\beta$ expression. The purpose of the present study was to examine how $TGF-\beta$ is expressed in cleft palate rats. 4 Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were obtained on the 10th gestation day. On the 13th day of gestation, BAPN-monofumarate salts (${(C_3H_6N_2)}_2{\cdot}C_4H_4O_4$) were individually, ovally administered to 3 pregnant rats at a ratio of 1g/kg body weight. And 4 pregnant rats were sacrificed on day 20 post coitus (p.c.). The $TGF-\beta$ expression in the cleft formed rats fetuses showed the following patterns : 1. Osteoblast and mesenchymal cells of the cleft pa)ate rats were of low expression compared with those of the control rats. 2. The cleft palate rats didn't show uy difference in the $TGF-\beta$ expression of osteocyte item the control rats. 3. In western blot analysis, the thickness of band of $TGF-\beta$ in the cleft palate rats was thinner and more diluted than that of the control rats.

  • PDF