• Title, Summary, Keyword: TMD

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The Clinical and Psychological Characteristics of the Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders according to Its Diagnostic Subgroups (진단분류에 따른 측두하악장애 환자의 임상적 및 심리적 특징)

  • 김정호;기우천;최재갑
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.45-63
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    • 1997
  • A Study was conducted to examine the nature and extent of psychological differences among diagnostic subgroups of temporomandibular disorders(TMD) patients and to whether psychological distress acts as a precipitator for TMD or is only an incidental consequence of the discomfort and frustrations presented by the disorder. Ninty six TMD patients and ninty seven non-TMD dental patients were included for the study as an experimental group and control group. TMD patients were classified into subgroups according to their primary pain sites and labeled as: 1) Myogenous TMD group; 2) Arthrogenous TMD group; 3) Mixed TMD group. After Hilkimo indices were rated from patient history and clinical examination, levels of psychological distress were measured using SRRS (Social Readjustment Rating Scale) and MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory). Outcomes from Helkimo indices, SRRS, and MMPI were assessed in terms of diagnostic subgroups and pain chronicity. The relationship between SRRS and MMPI scores were also assessed. The results were as follows : 1. The TMD patients showed higher frequencies of AiII, DiII, and DiIII of Helkimo indices than those in the control subjects. 2. The chronic TMD patients showed lower frequencies of DiII and DiIII of Helkimo indices than those in the acute group. 3. The arthrogenous TMD group showed higher frequencies of DiII and DiIII of Helkimo indices than those in the myogenous TMD group. 4. The TMD patients showed higher SRRS mean score than that in the non-TMD patients. 5. The SRRS mean score was highest in the myogenous TMD group and lowest in the arthrogenous TMD group. 6. The chronic TMD patients showed higher SRRS mean score than the acute TMD group. 7. The TMD patients showed higher MMPI mean scores on the Hs, D, Hy, and Pt scales than those in the non-TMD patients. 8. The MMPI mean scores on th Hs, D, and Hy scales were higher than of other MMPI scales in the TMD patients as well as in the myogenous and the mixed TMD group and they showed 1-3-2(Hs, -Hy, -D.) profile pattern, conversion "V". 9. The MMPI mean scores on the Hs and Hy scales were higher in all subgroups of TMD patients than non-TMD patients. 10. Although there were no significant differences in the MMPI mean scores on all the scales between the acute and the chronic groups of all TMD patients, the chronic myogenous TMD group showed higher MMPI mean scores on the Hs, Hy, Pa, and Pt scales than the acute myogenous TMD group. 11. There were positive correlationships between SRRS score and each MMPI scores on the Hs and Hy scales.Hy scales.

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Parameter Study for Optimal Design of Smart TMD (스마트 TMD의 최적설계를 위한 파라메터 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun-Su;Kang, Joo-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.123-132
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    • 2017
  • A smart tuned mass damper (TMD) was developed to provide better control performance than a passive TMD for reduction of earthquake induced-responses. Because a passive TMD was developed decades ago, optimal design methods for structural parameters of a TMD, such as damping constant and stiffness, have been developed already. However, studies of optimal design method for structural parameters of a smart TMD were little performed to date. Therefore, parameter studies of structural properties of a smart TMD were conducted in this paper to develop optimal design method of a smart TMD under seismic excitation. A retractable-roof spatial structure was used as an example structure. Because dynamic characteristics of a retractable-roof spatial structure is changed based on opened or closed roof condition, control performance of smart TMD under off-tuning was investigated. Because mass ratio of TMD and smart TMD mainly affect control performance, variation of control performance due to mass ratio was investigated. Parameter studies of structural properties of a smart TMD was performed to find optimal damping constant and stiffness and it was compared with the results of optimal passive TMD design method. The design process developed in this study is expected to be used for preliminary design of a smart TMD for a retractable-roof spatial structure.

Application of Tuned Mass Damper to Suppress Man-Induced Vibrations of Cable Stayed Foot-bridge (사장교형식 보도교의 보행진동제어를 위한 TMD 적용)

  • Kim, Yun-Seok;Lee, Seung-Woo;Kim, Jae-Min;Chang, Seong-Kyu
    • 한국방재학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.74-74
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    • 2011
  • 본 연구에서는 중앙경간 54m, 교폭 4m의 사장교형식의 보도교로 측경간은 계단으로 이루어진 1경간 케이블교량을 대상으로 보행하중에 의한 수직진동을 제어하기 위해 제진장치(TMD)를 적용하기로 하고 실물 TMD의 설계 및 제작 그리고 설치 및 제어성능실험을 수행하였다. 우선 사장교형식의 교량. 그리고 1경간 교량이라는 점에서 상대적으로 감쇠율이 낮을 것으로 예측되었고 또한 54m의 경간장이 보행자가 가진 주파수에 근접한 고유진동수를 나타낼 것으로 사료되어 Eurocode 2 part 2(EC5-2)의 규준에 따라 1인 및 다수 보행하중에 의한 보도교의 발생가속도를 산출하였다. 이 경우 최대가속도는 다수의 보행자가 연속적으로 진행할 때 발생하였으며, 수직방향의 가속도가 사용성기준을 초과하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 구조해석프로그램에 의한 고유치 해석결과, 보행하중의 주파수대역내에 진동모드가 존재하는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 본 교량의 설계단계에 있어서 보행진동을 제어하기 위하여 유지관리가 용이한 수동형의 동조질량감쇠장치(Tuned Mass Damper)를 적용하기로 하였으며 TMD의 설계에서는 TMD의 제어목표를 만족시킬 수 있는 TMD의 가동질량(moving mass)을 우선적으로 결정하였고, 이로부터 Den Hartog의 제안식에 따라 TMD의 고유진동수비, 유효감쇠비를 산정하였다. 산정된 변수들을 이용하여 설계된 TMD는 현장설치 및 튜닝의 편의성을 고려하여 수평 외팔보형식으로 설계, 제작되었으며 제작된 TMD의 경우 회전축에 대해 질량, 스프링, 댐퍼의 중심거리를 조정함으로써 TMD의 진동수, 강성, 감쇠력을 상대적으로 매우 용이하게 조절할 수 있으며, 조정범위 또한 광범위하여 일반 TMD에 비해 현장설치시 대상구조물에 동조시키기가 용이하며, 작동시 마찰감쇠가 거의 없다는 장점이 있다. 현장설치전에 제작된 TMD를 대상으로 자유진동 시험을 통하여 질량의 중심거리, 스프링 크기 그리고 댐퍼의 설치유무를 각각 변화시키며 TMD의 자유진동 데이터를 취득하였다. 각각의 시험에서 얻어진 데이터로부터 스펙트럼해석을 통하여 고유진동수를 구하였고, 자유진동 파형으로 부터 감쇠비를 구하였다. TMD는 일반적으로 제어모드의 변형형상이 가장 큰 곳에 설치되었을 때 최대의 제진효과를 발휘할 수 있다. 그러나 현장여건상 설치가 불가능하거나 미관을 해치는 경우에는 가능한 범위 내에서 TMD 제어효율이 가장 크게 발휘할 수 있는 곳을 선택하여야 한다. 본 보도교의 경우, 중앙경간 중심부에서 가장 큰 모드변형형상을 나타내지만, 보도교의 상판 연결부 등에 따른 TMD 시공문제로 인하여 TMD 설치위치는 교량 중앙에서 양 방향으로 1.25m 떨어진 곳에 대칭으로 총 2기를 설치하기로 하였다. 일반적으로 TMD의 모든 설계변수는 구조물의 설계단계에서 수행된 구조해석결과에 근거하여 설정하므로 완공된 구조물, 즉 실제보도교의 동적특성을 계측하여 정확하게 진동수를 튜닝하여야 한다. 구조해석에 의한 보도교의 수직방향(TMD 작동방향) 고유진동수는 1.5225 Hz이며, 감쇠비는 규준에 의하여 0.6 %로 가정하였다. 그러나 이 값들은 구조해석모델 및 재료적 특성과 시공상의 오차에 의하여 실제와 다를 수 있으므로 현장계측에 의한 확인이 요구된다. 또한 TMD의 제진효율이 설계시의 목표대로 확보되었는지도 확인해야 하므로 현장튜닝 및 성능시험을 실시하였다. 보도교의 가진은 사전에 실시한 상시 미진동계측결과를 토대로 2Hz를 목표로 하여 인력가진실험을 수행하였고, 탁월진동 주파수는 1.9896Hz로 나타나 구조해석결과와 오차가 있음을 알 수 있다. 가진실험결과를 토대로 TMD의 진동수를 최적진동수비로 튜닝하고 인력가진 실험을 다시 실시하여 TMD의 진동제어성능을 검토하였다. TMD 튜닝 전, 후의 보도교 감쇠비를 비교한 결과, TMD를 설치함으로써 약 4.218%의 감쇠비 증가가 있음을 알 수 있다.

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Seismic Response Control of Arch Structures using Semi-active TMD (준능동 TMD를 이용한 아치구조물의 지진응답제어)

  • Kang, Joo-Won;Kim, Gee-Cheol;Kim, Hyun-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.103-110
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    • 2010
  • In this study, the possibility of seismic response control of semi-active tuned mass damper (TMD) for spatial structures has been investigated. To this end, an arch structure was used as an example structure because it has primary characteristics of spatial structures and it is a comparatively simple structure. A TMD and semi-active TMD were applied to the example arch structure and the seismic control performance of them were evaluated based on the numerical simulation. In order to regulate the damping force of the semi-active TMD, groundhook control algorithm, which is widely used for semi-active control, was used. El Centro (1940) and Northridge (1994) earthquakes and harmonic ground motion were used for performance evaluation of passive TMD and semi-active TMD. Based on the analytical results, the passive TMD could effectively reduce the seismic responses of the arch structure and it has been shown that the semi-active TMD more effectively decreased the dynamic responses of the arch structure compared to the passive TMD with respect to all the excitations used in this study.

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Application of Semi-active TMD for Floor Vibration Control (바닥판 구조물의 진동제어를 위한 준능동 TMD의 적용)

  • Kim, Gee-Cheol;Kwak, Chul-Seung
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2007
  • Passive, active and semi-active control system are classified in floor vibration control system by providing control force. This paper discusses the application of a new class of semi-active TMD(MR-TMD), for the reduction or floor vibrations due to machine and human movements. This MR-TMD consists of passive TMD and MR damper. Here, displacement-based control methods are used to assess the performance of this STMD(MR-TMD). And, skyhook and the groundhook algorithm are applied to a single degree of freedom system representative of building floors. If the allowed operation space of tuned mass is limited in MR-TMD system, skyhook algorithm is more efficient than groundhook algorithm for floor vibration control. Hybrid control method demonstrates the efficiency of MR-TMD with respect to another methods.

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Performance Evaluation of Semi-Active Tuned Mass Damper for Elastic and Inelastic Seismic Response Control (준능동 동조질량감쇠기의 탄성 및 비탄성 지진응답 제어성능 평가)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Chung, Lan;Woo, Sung-Sik;Cho, Seung-Ho
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2007
  • In this study, tile performance of a passive tuned mass damper (TMD) and a semi-active tuned mass damper (STMD) was evaluated in terms of seismic response control of elastic and inelastic structures under seismic loads. First, elastic displacement spectra were obtained for the damped structures with a passive TMD, which was optimally designed using the frequency and damping ratio presented by previous study, and with a STMD proposed in this study. The displacement spectra confirm that STMD provides much better control performance than passive md with less stroke. Also, the robustness or the TMD was evaluated by off-tuning the frequency of the TMD to that of the structure. Finally, numerical analyses were conducted for an inelastic structure of which hysteresis was described by Bouc-Wen model and the results indicated that the performance of the passive TMD of which design parameters were optimized for a elastic structure considerably deteriorated when the hysteretic portion or the structural responses increased, while the STMD showed about 15-40% more response reduction than the TMD.

Reduced-mass Adaptive TMD for Tall Buildings Damping

  • Weber, Felix;Huber, Peter;Spensberger, Simon;Distl, Johann;Braun, Christian
    • International Journal of High-Rise Buildings
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.117-123
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    • 2019
  • Tall buildings are prone to wind-induced vibrations due to their slenderness whereby peak structural accelerations may be higher than the recommended maximum value. The common countermeasure is the installation of a tuned mass damper (TMD) near the highest occupied floor. Due to the extremely large modal mass of tall buildings and because of the narrow to broad band type of wind excitation the TMD mass may become inacceptable large - in extreme cases up to 2000 metric tons. It is therefore a need to develop more efficient TMD concepts which provide the same damping to the building but with reduced mass. The adaptive TMD concept described in this paper represents a solution to this problem. Frequency and damping of the adaptive TMD are controlled in real-time by semi-active oil dampers according to the actual structural acceleration. The resulting enhanced TMD efficiency allows reducing its mass by up to 20% compared to the classical passive TMD. The adaptive TMD system is fully fail-safe thanks to a smart valve system of the semi-active oil dampers. In contrast to active TMD solutions the adaptive TMD is unconditionally stable and its power consumption on the order of 1 kW is negligible small as controllable oil dampers are semi-active devices. The adaptive TMD with reduced mass, stable behavior and lowest power consumption is therefore a preferable and cost saving damping tool for tall buildings.

Design Method Development of Smart TMD for Retractable-Roof Spatial Structure (개폐식 대공간 구조물을 위한 스마트 TMD 설계기법 개발)

  • Kim, Hyun-Su;Kang, Joo-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.107-115
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, a structural design method of a smart tuned mass damper (TMD) for a retractable-roof spatial structure under earthquake excitation was proposed. For this purpose, a retractable-roof spatial structure was simplified to a single degree of freedom (SDOF) model. Dynamic characteristics of a retractable-roof spatial structure is changed based on opened or closed roof condition. This condition was considered in the numerical simulation. A magnetorheological (MR) damper was used to compose a smart TMD and a displacement based ground-hook control algorithm was used to control the smart TMD. The control effectiveness of a smart TMD under harmonic and earthquake excitation were evaluated in comparison with a conventional passive TMD. The vibration control robustness of a smart TMD and a passive TMD were compared along with the variation of natural period of a simplified structure. Dynamic responses of a smart TMD and passive TMD under resonant harmonic excitation and earthquake load were compared by varying mass ratio of TMD to total mass of the simplified structure. The design procedure proposed in this study is expected to be used for preliminary design of a smart TMD for a retractable-roof spatial structure.

Pressure Effect on the Aquation of $trans-[Cr(tmd)_2F_2]^+\;and\;trans-[Cr(tmd)_2FCl]^+$ Ions ($trans-[Cr(tmd)_2F_2]^+$$trans-[Cr(tmd)_2FCl]^+$ 착이온의 수화반응에 미치는 압력의 영향)

  • Jong-Jae Chung;Han-Tae Kim;Sung-Oh Bek
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.164-167
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    • 1989
  • The rate for the aquation of $trans-[Cr(tmd)_2FX]^+(X=F^-,\;Cl^-)$ ion in aqueous acidic solution has been measured by spectrophotometric method at various temperatures and pressures. The rate constants are increased with increasing temperatures and pressures. The values of activation entropy are 5.2 eu for $trans-[Cr(tmd)_2F_2]^+$ and -16.62 eu for $trans-[Cr(tmd)_2FCl]^+$ ions. Activation volumes have all negative values and lie in the limited range $-3∼-2\;cm^3mol^{-1}$ for $trans-[Cr(tmd)_2F_2]^+$ and $-8∼-7\;cm^3mol^{-1} for $trans-[Cr(tmd)_2FCl]^+$ ion. From the above results, we may deduce that the mechanism for the aquation of $trans-[Cr(tmd)_2F_2]^+$ and $trans-[Cr(tmd)_2FCl]^+$ ions is interchange-associative mechanism and dissociative mechanism respectively.

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Fuzzy Control of Smart TMD using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (다목적 유전자알고리즘을 이용한 스마트 TMD의 퍼지제어)

  • Kang, Joo-Won;Kim, Hyun-Su
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.69-78
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    • 2011
  • In this study, an optimization method using multi-objective genetic algorithm(MOGA) has been proposed to develop a fuzzy control algorithm that can effectively control a smart tuned mass damper(TMD). A 76-story benchmark building subjected to wind load was selected as an example structure. The smart TMD consists of 100kN MR damper and the natural period of the smart TMD was tuned to the first mode natural period of the example structure. Damping force of MR damper is controlled to reduce the wind-induced responses of the example structure by a fuzzy logic controller. Two input variables of the fuzzy logic controller are the acceleration of 75th floor and the displacement of the smart TMD and the output variable is the command voltage sent to MR damper. Multi-objective genetic algorithm(NSGA-II) was used for optimization of the fuzzy logic controller and the acceleration of 75th story and the displacement of the smart TMD were used as objective function. After optimization, a series of fuzzy logic controllers which could appropriately reduce both wind responses of the building and smart TMD were obtained. Based on numerical results, it has been shown that the control performance of the smart TMD is much better than that of the passive TMD and it is even better than that of the sample active TMD in some cases.