• Title/Summary/Keyword: TMDL

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GIS AND WEB-BASED DSS FOR PRELIMINARY TMDL DEVELOPMENT

  • Choi, Jin-Yong;Bernard A. Engel;Yoon, Kwang-Sik
    • Water Engineering Research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2003
  • TMDL development and implementation have great potential fur use in efforts to improve water quality management, but the TMDL approach still has several difficulties to overcome in terms of cost, time requirements, and suitable methodologies. A well-defined prioritization approach for identifying watersheds of concern among several tar-get locations that would benefit from TMDL development and implementation, based on a simple screening approach, could be a major step in solving some of these difficulties. Therefore, a web-based decision support system (DSS) was developed to help identify areas within watersheds that might be priority areas for TMDL development. The DSS includes a graphical user interface based on the HTML protocol, hydrological models, databases, and geographic information system (GIS) capabilities. The DSS has a hydrological model that can estimate non-point source pollution loading based on over 30 years of daily direct runoff using the curve number method and pollutant event mean concentration data. The DSS provides comprehensive output analysis tools using charts and tables, and also provides probability analysis and best management practice cost estimation. In conclusion, the DSS is a simple, affordable tool for the preliminary study of TMDL development via the Internet, and the DSS web site can also be used as an information web server for education related to TMDL.

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Environmental Accounting of the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) Program in the Nakdong River Basin using the Emergy Analysis (Emergy 분석을 이용한 낙동강유역의 오염총량관리계획에 대한 환경회계)

  • Kim, Jin Lee;Lee, Su-Woong;Kim, Yong-Seok;Lee, Suk-Mo
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.349-356
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    • 2011
  • This study, which evaluated the contribution of the real economic value and system in the Nakdong River Basin, estimated the emergy analysis for environmental accounting of the TMDL program. And an environmental accounting for TMDL is evaluated before and after adopting TMDL program respectively. The value of emergy after adopting the TMDL was 7.90 E+20 sej/yr. Although the real yield of the river after governmental investment was high (before: 9.7118 E+20 sej/yr and after: 9.7224 E+20 sej/yr), the effects of improvement was not great, in terms of an investment cost. The benefit/cost ratio resulted from environmental accounting has decreased from 1.493 to 1.230 due to the cost of managing treatment facilities. The method of improving water quality in the Nakdong River Basin by the TMDL program should be changed into an ecological treatment facilities using resources efficiently from a control of water quality depending on expansion of the wastewater treatment facilities and advanced treatment plant using high cost and non-renewable energies.

Policy Directions of Total Maximum Daily Loads for the Scientific Management of Water Quality (과학적인 수질관리를 위한 오염총량관리제도의 추진 방안)

  • Park, Seok-Soon;Na, Yu-Mee;Na, Eun-Hye
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.157-165
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    • 2001
  • This paper presents the policy directions of total maximum daily loads(TMDL), which was recently adopted in Korea, for scientific management of water quality. The basic principles of water quality management are also discussed in this paper, along with the TMDL policy in United States as well as the previous policy in Korea. We discussed several unreasonable points out of the previous approaches, such as regulation of all point sources with equal standards, negligence of an assimilative capacity of the receiving water, and emphasis only on drinking water supply, etc.. For successful applications of the TMDL policy in Korea, the following directions are suggested: 1) the unit drainage basin for each TMDL application should be given, 2) the water body where the water quality standards should be maintained, needs to be guided, 3) the water quality parameters of TMDL should be given, 4) the technical guidances should be given for applications of water quality models, and 5) the seasonal TMDL would be allowed. In order to maximize the benefits of the TMDL policy, the local governments would need to implement the following strategies: 1) the increment of an assimilative capacity of the receiving water, 2) the effective controls of the non-point source pollution, 3) the advanced treatment of the point sources, 4) application of system optimization techniques along with effluent trade, and 5) utilization of watershed management systems.

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Effects of the Voluntary Scheme of Total Maximum Daily Load based on Water Quality and Annual Evaluation data in the Gyeongan Watershed, South Korea (경안천 유역 수질 및 이행평가 자료를 통한 임의적 오염총량관리제도 시행의 성과 분석)

  • Lee, Bum-Yeon;Lee, Chang-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.263-274
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    • 2021
  • This study presents the achievements and limitations of the voluntary-based Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) through statistical analysis of water quality monitoring data and performance assessments of TMDL plans implemented in the Gyeongan watershed. The results clearly showed that responsible local governments complied the allocated TMDL and the designated water quality goals were successfully achieved in the required period. This was possible because the Ministry of Environment provided innovative incentives, such as, relaxations of the existing tight land-use regulations and full-scale financial aids for constructing and operating public treatment facilities to draw local government voluntary participation. However, a couple of problems which decreased the effectiveness and efficiency of the voluntary TMDL were identified. The different TMDL implementation schedules between upstream (Yongin) and downstream (Gwangju) governments caused delay in water quality improvement and exaggerated TMDL allocation to the local development which made excessive investment in the treatment facilities. Although it is not directly related to the voluntary scheme, technical methods for establishing and assessing the water quality goals should be improved so that the effects of flow conditions on water quality are properly assessed. We expect that results of this case study contribute to developing a more effective voluntary-based scheme for the implementation of the so-called 'tributary TMDL' in the future.

A Study to Improve the Spatial Data Design of Korean Reach File to Support TMDL Works (TMDL 업무 지원을 위한 Korean Reach File 공간자료 설계 개선 연구)

  • Lee, Chol Young;Kim, Kye Hyun;Park, Yong Gil;Lee, Hyuk
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.345-359
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    • 2013
  • In order to manage water quality efficiently and systematically through TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load), the demand for the construction of spatial data for stream networks has increased for use with GIS-based water quality modeling, data management and spatial analysis. The objective of this study was to present an improved KRF (Korean Reach File) design as framework data for domestic stream networks to be used for various purposes in relation to the TMDL. In order to achieve this goal, the US EPA's RF (River Reach File) was initially reviewed. The improved design of the graphic and attribute data for the KRF based on the design of the EPA's RF was presented. To verify the results, the KRF was created for the Han River Basin. In total, 2,047 stream reaches were divided and the relevant nodes were generated at 2,048 points in the study area. The unique identifiers for each spatial object were input into the KRF without redundancy. This approach can serve as a means of linking the KRF with related database. Also, the enhanced topological information was included as attributes of the KRF. Therefore, the KRF can be used in conjunction with various types of network analysis. The utilization of KRF for water quality modeling, data management and spatial analysis as they pertain to the applicability of the TMDL should be conducted.

Establishment of Role Between Central and Local Government for Implementation of Total Maximum Daily Load (수질오염총량관리제 시행에 있어서 중앙정부와 지방자치단체 간 역할정립)

  • Yi, Sang-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.378-383
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    • 2011
  • The policy of total maximum daily load (TMDL) was adopted to manage water pollutants so as to keep the total amount of pollutants in the watersheds within established target water quality. While the TMDL was implemented in all four major river basins, various problems occurred. Even though the corrections for problems were conducted, the role between central and local government was not established exactly. This study was presented to suggest a role between central and local governments for effective implementation of TMDL. When the central government establishes the environmental criteria with water quality standards and pollutants in the main rivers, the local government should establish the level of target pollutants in the watershed. Also, the local government should be continuously implementing the water quality and flowrate monitoring of the tributaries to find out the degree of water quality improvement in the tributaries. Especially, the basic plan of TMDL for the whole watershed should be established by the river basin environmental office at the central government. The local government should be established the implementation plan of TMDL for the watershed where exceeds the established target water quality. The performance assessment of TMDL should be implemented every year to the water quality and flowrate monitoring of the tributaries for satisfaction assessment of target water quality in the watershed by the lower-lever government. The performance assessment report of TMDL included with an analysis of causes for the excess water quality in the watershed should be submitted to the river basin environmental office at the end of the TMDL planning period.

Improvement of Procedures for Reasonable Implementation of TMDL (수질오염총량관리제의 합리적인 시행을 위한 시행절차 개선방안)

  • Kim, Young-Il;Yi, Sang-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.617-622
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    • 2011
  • The policy of total maximum daily load (TMDL) was introduced to manage wasteload within the loading capacity to achieve water quality standards in the watershed. While the TMDL was implemented, the institutional and technical correction for the improvement of procedure was accomplished even though there were various problems and basically through the process of trial & error. However, a fundamental improvement of this policy is needed to implement the TMDL. This study has come up with a new viewpoint on improving this procedure for reasonable implementation of TMDL. First of all, the water quality and flowrate monitoring of the tributaries should be implemented. This should be done through the establishment of a monitoring system which will include standards of scope, a set time period, water quality parameters and frequency follow ups for the implementation of TMDL. The basic plan in all of the watersheds should be developed based on the establishment of water quality parameters and standards for water use and ecological purposes according to the results of the water quality and flowrate monitoring in the watersheds. The implementation plan for water quality improvement should be established in the watersheds where exceeds the targeted water quality standards. The performance assessment of TMDL should be conducted every year to meet the satisfaction assessment of water quality standards in the watersheds. Finally, if the water quality standards in the watersheds can not be attained or the water quality parameters and standards should be changed, the implementation procedure will be performed according to the iterative process. On the contrary, the policy of TMDL in the watersheds where the water quality standards have been met the goal will be finished.

Assessment of Cell Based Pollutant Loadings in an Intensive Agricultural Watershed (농업 소유역 격자단위 오염부하량 평가)

  • Kang, Moon-Seong;Cho, Jae-Pil;Chun, Jong-An;Park, Seung-Woo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2009
  • The objectives of this paper were to estimate cell based pollutant loadings for total maximum daily load (TMDL) programs and to evaluate the applicability of the agricultural nonpoint source (AGNPS) model for an intensive agricultural watershed in Korea. The model was calibrated and validated at a watershed of 384.8 ha of drainage area using the observed data from 1996 through 2000 in terms of runoff, suspended solid, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus on a hourly basis. Analysis of spatial variations of pollutant loadings for rainfall frequencies of various intensities and durations were conducted. In addition, the validated model was applied to estimated the TMDL removal efficiency for best management practices (BMPs) scenarios which were selected by taking into account the pollutant characteristics of the study watershed. The model can help to understand the problems and to find solutions through landuse changes and BMPs. Thus, the method used for this study was able to identify TMDL quantitatively as well as qualitatively for various sources pollution that are spatially dispersed. Also it provides an assessment of the impact of BMPs on the water bodies studied, allowing the TMDL programs to be complemented more effectively.

Study on Allocation of Pollution Discharges by Watersheds and Administrative Regions with Pollution Sources for the TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) in Tamjin River (탐진강의 총량규제를 위한 오염원별 수계${cdot}$행정구역 허용부하량과 삭감부하량 할당에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang Kum-Lok;Hwang Dae-Ho;Paik Do-Hyeon;Lee Hong-Keun
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.30 no.5 s.81
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    • pp.449-454
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    • 2004
  • This study is to calculate Allocation of Pollution Discharges by administrative region for the TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) on Tamjin River. TMDL has the water quality target and value ($BOD_5$, 1 ppm) and is calculated by the QUAL2E model. The expected TMDL for Tamjin River is 1,532,360 kg/day. The calculation showed that the main pollutants are due to the non-point sources in Tamjin River and the aqua-farms are another important sources near the bay. And sources from population and livestock should be reduced, especially aqua-farm source should be managed and eliminated first which is over 14,000 ton/day.

Application of Web-based Load Duration Curve System to TMDL Watersheds for Evaluation of Water Quality and Pollutant Loads (수질오염총량제도 유역의 수질 및 부하량 평가를 위한 웹기반 LDC 시스템의 적용)

  • Kang, Hyunwoo;Ryu, Jichul;Shin, Minhwan;Choi, Joongdae;Choi, Jaewan;Shin, Dong Seok;Lim, Kyoung Jae
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.689-698
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    • 2011
  • In South Korea, Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) has been enforced since 2004 to restore and manage water quality in the watersheds. However, the appraisal of TMDL in South Korea has lots of weaknesses to establish the plan for recovery of water quality because it just evaluates the target water quality during the particular flow duration interval. In the United States, Load Duration Curve (LDC) method bas been widely used in the TMDL to evaluate the water quality and pollutant loads considering variation of stream flow. In a recent study, web-based Load Duration Curve system was developed to create the LDC automatically and provide the convenience of use. In this study, web-based Load Duration Curve system was applied in the Gapyeongcheon watershed using the daily flow and 8-day interval water quality data, and Q-L Rating Curve was used to evaluate the water quality and pollutant load in the watershed, also. As a result of study, water quality and pollutant load in Gapyeongcheon watershed were met with water quality standard and allocated load in the all flow durations. Web-based Load Duration Curve system could be applied to the appraisal of South Korean TMDL because it can be used to judge the impaired flow duration and build up the plan of load reduction, and it could enhance the publicity. But, web-based Load Duration Curve system should be enhanced through addition of load assessment tools such as Q-L rating curve to evaluate water quality and pollutant load objectively.