• Title, Summary, Keyword: TMS

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Noise reduction Algorithm for CFA Images (컬러 필터 배열 영상에서의 잡음제거 알고리즘)

  • Lee, Min-Seok;Park, Sang-Wook;Kwon, Ji-Yong;Kang, Moon-Gi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Broadcast Engineers Conference
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    • pp.67-69
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    • 2010
  • 대부분의 디지털 카메라는 컬러 필터 배열(Color Filter Array)을 가진 하나의 영상 획득 센서를 사용한다. 따라서 영상획득 이후에 컬러 보간 알고리즘이 필수적으로 진행된다. 또 영상 획득 과정에서 센서의 열화나 암전류 등과 같은 잡음이 발생하여 영상 잡음 제거 알고리즘이 필요하다. 하지만 기존의 대부분의 영상 잡음 제거 알고리즘은 컬러 필터 배열 영상의 특징인 모자이크 데이터 기반이 아닌 컬러 보간 이후의 풀 컬러영상에(YCbCr) 적용되고 있다. 따라서 잡음이 포함된 영상으로 컬러 보간을 할 경우 잡음의 공간적 상관관계(spatial correlation)가 커짐에 의한 잡음 번짐 때문에 컬러 보간 이후의 잡음제거는 더욱 어렵게 된다. 이와 같은 문제를 해결하기 위해 컬러 필터 배열 영상에 대한 잡음제거 알고리즘이 연구되고 있으며, 본 논문에서도 CMOS/CCD의 이미지 센서에서 획득된 베이어 컬러 필터 배열 영상에서 잡음을 제거하는 알고리즘을 제안한다. 이를 위해서 베이어 컬러 필터 배열 영상 데이터에서 경계(edge)의 방향성을 고려한 LMMSE 방법을 기반으로 한 잡음제거 알고리즘을 제안한다. 제안하는 알고리즘은 영상의 경계를 보존해주며 잡음제거 과정 다음에 진행되는 컬러 보간 과정에서의 잡음 번짐의 문제를 해결할 수 있다. 실험 결과를 통해 향상된 잡음 제거 효과를 확인하였다.

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Use of the ultrasound-based total malignancy score in the management of thyroid nodules

  • Pompili, Giovanni Guido;Tresoldi, Silvia;Ravelli, Anna;Primolevo, Alessandra;Di Leo, Giovanni;Carrafiello, Gianpaolo
    • Ultrasonography
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.315-322
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the role of the total malignancy score (TMS) in identifying thyroid nodules suspicious for malignancy through the sum of their ultrasound features. Methods: The local ethical committee approved this prospective observational study. We examined 231 nodules in 231 consecutive patients (164 females and 67 males; age range, 20 to 87 years; median age, 59 years; interquartile range, 48 to 70 years) who underwent ultrasound followed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). The nodules were further classified using the TMS, which considers ultrasound features (number, echogenicity, structure, halo, margins, Doppler signal, calcifications, and growth), and the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC), which considers cytological features. Patients with non-negative nodules (TBSRTC categories III to VI) underwent histological analysis, repeated FNAC, or 2 years of regular ultrasound follow-up. The associations between the final diagnosis, each of the ultrasound features, and the TMS were estimated using the chi-square test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and multivariate logistic regression. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the TMS. Results: On ultrasound, 47% of the nodules (108 of 231) had a TMS <3, 18% (42 of 231) had a TMS of 3, and 35% (81 of 231) had a TMS >3. The FNAC results of 85% of the nodules (196 of 231) were benign, while 15% (35 of 231) had non-negative results. Hypoechogenicity, solid structure, the presence of microcalcifications, and the number of nodules were independent predictors of the final diagnosis, and the diagnostic accuracy of the TMS was good (area under the ROC curve, 0.82). Conclusion: The TMS system is simple to use, reliable, easily reproducible, and closely reflects malignancy risk. Based on our results, FNAC could be limited to nodules with a TMS ${\geq}3$ without missing any cases of carcinoma.

Determination of the Concentration of Panaxynol, Panaxydol and Panaxytrio1 by Capillary-GC(FID) (Capillary-GC(FID)에 의한 panaxynol, panaxydol 및 panaxytriol의 정량)

  • 노길봉;손현주
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.183-188
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    • 1989
  • A gas chromatographic method was developed for determination of the concentration of three major polyacetylene compounds in ginseng roots---panaxynol, panaxydol and panaxytriol. The column and the detector used were an SPB-1 fused silica capillary (0.2mm i.d.$\times$30m, Supelco) and a flame ionization detector (FID). The column oven temperature was kept at $250^{\circ}C$ isothermally The retention times of panaxynol, panaxydol and panaxytriol peaks were 4.2,5.1 and 6.9 min before TMS-derivatitration and 4.5,5.4 and 7.4 min after TMS-derivatization, respectively. The minimum determinable concentrations of panaxynol, panaxydol and panaxytriol before TMS-derivatiEation were at the 20, 50 and 100 ppm levels, while the concentrations of panaxydol and panaxytriol as well as panaxynol after TMS- derivatisation could be towered to the 5 ppm level. The panaxynol, panaxydol and panaxytriol contents in red ginseng were determined by use of this method after TMS-derivatization : the amounts obtained were 724, 721 and 71$\mu\textrm{g}$/g, respectively.

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Numerical simulation for ultrafine SiC powder synthesis using the vapor phase reaction (기상반응을 이용한 SiC 초미분말 합성에 관한 수치모사)

  • 유용호;어경훈;송은석;이성철;소명기
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.563-569
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    • 1999
  • The numerical simulation method was utilized to investigate the optimal condition for synthesizing ultrafine SiC powders by using $TMS[Si(CH_3)_4]-H_2$ gaseous mixtures in the horizontal reactor. As a result of the theoretical analysis, the conversion percentage of TMS source was increased with increasing reaction temperature, however, which was decreased with increasing H$_2$flow rate. Though the SiC particles concentration synthesized was decreased with increasing the reaction temperature due to the higher collision rate in the gas phase, they were increased with increasing the H$_2$flow rate and TMS concentration. The SiC particle size showed a tendency to become larger as the reaction temperature and the initial TMS concentration were increased and smaller as the H$_2$ flow rate was increased. The variation of experimental particle size with the reaction temperature, H$_2$flow rate and TMS concentration was agreed with the theoretical results.

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Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory experiments of Talmyung-san in RAW264.7 cells (탈명산(奪命散)의 항산화 및 항염증효과에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Hyeon-Jin;Park, Sun-Dong
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.79-92
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was identification of the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Talmyung-san (TMS) in mouse macrophage, RAW264.7 cells. Methods : To identify the anti-oxidative effect of TMS, scavenging activities of DPPH radical, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite were measured in vitro. In RAW264.7 cells, DCFH-DA assay was conducted to examine the inhibitory effect of TMS on ROS production in response to lipopolysaccharide. And the productions of nitric oxide (NO), $PGE_2$ and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. The levels of COX-2, iNOS, nuclear NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 expression and phosphorylation of $I{\kappa}B-{\alpha}$ in cytosol were detected by western blotting analyses. Results : TMS couldn't scavenged DPPH radical, but nitric oxide and peroxynitrite were decreased. TMS decreased intracellular ROS, NO, and IL-$1{\beta}$ production effectively. However, TMS inhibited $PGE_2$ levels only in high concentration ($300{\mu}g/m{\ell}$) and TMS failed to suppress the production of IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$. Results from immunoblot analyses revealed that TMS decreased activation of COX-2, iNOS, phosphorylation of $I{\kappa}B-{\alpha}$ and nuclear translocation of p65. Conclusions : TMS has anti-RNS and anti-inflammatory effects via NF-${\kappa}B$ pathway and more intensive studies will be required to evaluate therapeutic potential of TMS.

Effect of rTMS on Motor Sequence Learning and Brain Activation : A Preliminary Study (반복적 경두부 자기자극이 운동학습과 뇌 운동영역 활성화에 미치는 영향 : 예비연구)

  • Park, Ji-Won;Kim, Jong-Man;Kim, Yun-Hee
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.17-27
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    • 2003
  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulates cortical excitability beyond the duration of the rTMS trains themselves. Depending on rTMS parameters, a lasting inhibition or facilitation of cortical excitability can be induced. Therefore, rTMS of high or low frequency over motor cortex may change certain aspects of motor learning performance and cortical activation. This study investigated the effect of high and low frequency subthreshold rTMS applied to the motor cortex on motor learning of sequential finger movements and brain activation using functional MRI (fMRI). Three healthy right-handed subjects (mean age 23.3) were enrolled. All subjects were trained with sequences of seven-digit rapid sequential finger movements, 30 minutes per day for 5 consecutive days using their left hand. 10 Hz (high frequency) and 1 Hz (low frequency) trains of rTMS with 80% of resting motor threshold and sham stimulation were applied for each subject during the period of motor learning. rTMS was delivered on the scalp over the right primary motor cortex using a figure-eight shaped coil and a Rapid(R) stimulator with two Booster Modules (Magstim Co. Ltd, UK). Functional MRI (fMRI) was performed on a 3T ISOL Forte scanner before and after training in all subjects (35 slices per one brain volume TR/TE = 3000/30 ms, Flip angle $60^{\circ}$, FOV 220 mm, $64{\times}64$ matrix, slice thickness 4 mm). Response time (RT) and target scores (TS) of sequential finger movements were monitored during the training period and fMRl scanning. All subjects showed decreased RT and increased TS which reflecting learning effects over the training session. The subject who received high frequency rTMS showed better performance in TS and RT than those of the subjects with low frequency or sham stimulation of rTMS. In fMRI, the subject who received high frequency rTMS showed increased activation of primary motor cortex, premotor, and medial cerebellar areas after the motor sequence learning after the training, but the subject with low frequency rTMS showed decreased activation in above areas. High frequency subthreshold rTMS on the motor cortex may facilitate the excitability of motor cortex and improve the performance of motor sequence learning in normal subject.

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Developing and Applying TMS-Based Collaborative Learning Model for Facilitating Learning Transfer (학습전이 촉진을 위한 교류기억체계(TMS)기반 협력학습모형의 개발과 적용)

  • Lee, Jiwon
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.993-1003
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    • 2017
  • Teachers expect team-based project learning to help students develop collaborative and real-world problem solving skills. In practice, however, students tend to solve problems with simple division of labor, and there is a tendency that learning transfer does not occur in solving problems. The purpose of this study is to develop a collaborative learning model based on the transactive memory system (TMS) and to verify its effectiveness. The collaborative learning model based on the TMS is composed of three stages. The first stage is developing TMS. In this stage, the students learn physics concepts and make knowledge about the expertise of group members through peer instruction. The second stage, activating TMS, is building trust through solving well-defined problems for developing near-transfer. And in the third stage, applying TMS, the students solve an ill-defined problem based on real-world context for practicing far-transfer. Based on this model, a 15-week program including two projects on geometric optics and sound waves was developed and applied to 60 college students. The data for five weeks of one project were collected and analyzed. As a result, the TMS of the experimental group with the TMS-based collaborative learning model improved stepwise. Whereas, the difference between the first week and the last week was statistically significant, while the TMS change of the comparison group using the general project learning model was not significant. Also, the experimental group showed that the learning transfer occurred better in the project than the comparison group. A collaborative learning model based on TMS can be used to learn how students gain synergy through collaboration and how students collaboratively transfer the learned concepts in problem solving.

An Improved Analytical Method for the Determination of Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Di- and Trisaccharides in Honey using GC and GC/MS (GC 및 GC/MS에 의한 벌꿀 중의 이·삼당류 정성 및 정량 특성과 개선된 동시분석방법의 확립)

  • Kim, Jong-Bae;Jang, Eun-Suk;Kim, In-Suk;Lee, Hee-Jin;Lee, Hye-Jeong;Seo, Hyun-Sun;Park, Nam-Pyo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2015
  • The improved analytical method with gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry was established to identify and quantify disaccharides and trisacchrides in honey. In this method, the analysis of trimethylsilyl (TMS), TMS-oxime and TMS-methoxime sugars takes into account the determination of a single peak of complete separation on the chromatogram. The number of possible peaks for the qualitative and quantitative determination of TMS, TMS-oxime, and TMS-methoxime sugars was 17, 22, and 25, respectively. This new analytical method allowed for the determination of diand trisaccharides in honey by TMS-oxime and TMS-methoxime derivatives. This study suggested that the improved method is more suitable and precise than the other analytical methods for the simultaneous determination of sugars in honey.

Design of Intelligence State Diagnosis System for TMS (지능형 TMS 상태진단 시스템개발)

  • 김이곤;김서영;최홍준;유권종
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.386-392
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    • 2001
  • We design the intelligent diagnosis system for deciding on operation state of TMS Analyzer in this paper. We propose the method to model the neuro-fuzzy model for diagnosing theoperation state of analyzer by using input and output signals of TMS to measure Nox and SOx. By using experiment data, neuro-fuzzy model is investigated. Validity of the proposed system is asserted by numerical simulation.

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