• Title, Summary, Keyword: TWT

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Comparison of the Effect of Treadmill Walking Combined With Obstacles-Crossing on Walking Function in Stroke Patients (장애물 통과 트레드밀 보행훈련이 뇌졸중 환자의 보행기능에 미치는 효과)

  • Jeong, Yeon-Gyu;Jeong, Yeon-Jae;Kim, Hyun-Sook
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2013
  • The study aimed to compare the effect of the treadmill walking training combined with obstacle-crossing (TWT-OC) and treadmill walking training (TWT) on the walking function of patients with chronic stroke. 29 subjects volunteered to participate in this study; they were randomly assigned to either TWT-OC group (15 subjects) or TWT group (14 subjects). Subjects from the TWT-OC group underwent a treadmill walking combined with obstacles-crossing for 30 minutes daily, three days a week for four weeks, whereas subjects from the TWT group received only a treadmill walking. The 10 m walk test (10MWT), 6-min walk test (6MWT), berg balance scale (BBS), timed up and go test (TUG), activities-specific balance confidence-Korean version (ABC-K), and walking ability questionnaire (WAQ) were measured before and after the 4-week training. The TWT-OC group showed significantly better functional mobility of walking and balance measured by 6MWT (p<.01), BBS (p<.01), and TUG scores (p<.05) when compared with those of the TWT group. Further, within-group comparison showed significant improvement in all variables (p<.01) except for 10MWT. These findings suggest that the TWT-OC and TWT may be helpful for improving the walking function of patients with chronic stroke, and the TWT-OC has probably more favorable outcomes for chronic stroke, however, further trials with wider range of subjects are warranted for generalization and clinical relevance.

Linear Characteristics Improvement of X-band TWT Amplifier for Satellite Communication with Linearizer (선형화기를 이용한 위성통신용 X-밴드 TWT 증폭기 선형특성 개선)

  • Choi, Won;Yang, Hong-Sun;Koo, Kyung-Heon
    • The Journal of Advanced Navigation Technology
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.789-794
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    • 2011
  • This paper has analyzed the AM-AM and AM-PM characteristics of 7.9 GHz~8.4 GHz X-band TWT used for satellite communication and improved its linearity and IMD performance by using linearizer. The TWT amplifier with the linearizer shows better AM-AM and AM-PM conversion, and has increased 1 dB compression point by 12.3 dB and $2.0^{\circ}/dB$ phase distortion point by 10 dB. The 3rd order intermodulation distortion, IMD3 is measured to be 37.0 dBc that is 16.2 dB improvement at the operating output. This paper also proposed the measurement method of IMD for high power amplifier, and that TWT amplifier can have better linearity and output power by compensating for the AM-PM characteristics.

Hardware configuration of High-Density HVPS and High Speed independent Control method Using FPGA for Phased Array Transmitters (위상 배열 고출력증폭기용 고밀도 고전압 전원공급기 하드웨어 구성 및 FPGA를 이용한 고속 독립 제어방식)

  • Kang, Chun-Ho;Lee, Sung-Wook;Lee, Hong-Hak;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Byun, Gi-Sig
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.2758-2764
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    • 2015
  • In the field of electronic warfare applications, high voltage power supply(HVPS) for high power phased array transmitters must necessarily have an independent operating characteristics for driving mini TWTs. TWT independent operational characteristics, in order to run without interrupting the electronic warfare mission by maintaining the partial transmission function even when one of the TWT has occurred a failure, is known to be very important. In this paper, we describe the research on high-speed independent control system using a high-density HVPS, including FE modulators, hardware configuration and the FPGA in order to independently operate mini TWTs. Also, we have simulated some possible faults in phased array transmitters, and presents the test results to control a faulted TWT independently.

Dispersion Characteristics of Periodically Loaded Conducting Posts in a Rectangular Waveguide as an Interaction Circuit of Broadband Gyro-TWT

  • Lee, Yong-Hee;Lee, Jae-Gon;Lee, Jeong-Hae
    • KIEE International Transactions on Electrophysics and Applications
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    • v.4C no.6
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    • pp.263-267
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    • 2004
  • A new type of interaction circuitry for a broadband gyro-TWT is presented in this paper. A method for the analysis of dispersion characteristics of a periodic structure, which is composed of conducting posts in a rectangular waveguide, is presented. This method utilizes a mode matching technique and equivalent circuit model. The calculated and measured results demonstrate that this periodic structure could be utilized for the interaction circuit of a wide band Gyro-TWT.

고출력 증폭기의 연구개발 동향

  • 박건식
    • The Proceeding of the Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.26-38
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    • 2000
  • 전파 방해장치(jammer)의 핵심 부품이라 할 수 있는 광대역 고출력 증폭기는 초소형화, 초고주파화 및 초고출려고하하는 다양성을 각각 다른 형태의 증폭장치에서 실현하고 있다. 이 논문에서는 먼저 진공 고출력 증폭기를 반도체 증폭기와 비교하며 각각의 영향권에서 대해 비교하였다. 본론에서는 첫째로 초소형화되어가는 광대역 TWT와 MMIC와 같은 반도체소자와 연합하여 효율이 높은 초소형 고출력(>100W CW) 증폭기의 혁신을 일으키는 MPM(Microwave Power Module)을 소개하였고 둘째로는 고출력(>kW)으로 초고주파화(밀리미터파) 되어가는 Gyro-TWT를 소개하였다. 세째로 원리적으로는 현재 무기체계의 전면적인 수정을 불가피하게 할지 모르는 초고출력화(>GW) 되어가는 HPM(High Power Microwaves)이 소개되었다. 마지막으로 한국에서의 고출력 증폭기에 관련된 연구개발 상황과 TWT국산화에 대한 현황이 소개되었다.

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The Effects of Treadmill Obstacle-Stepping on Physical Activity in Ambulatory Patients After Stroke

  • Kim, Jeong-soo;Jeong, Yeon-gyu
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2015
  • Previous studies have investigated stepping over obstacles in treadmill walking training (TWT-OS) and treadmill walking training (TWT) alone for walking capacity not considering real physical activity. As such, we investigated the effects of TWT-OS on physical activity and changes in different levels of physical activity based on community ambulation in stroke patients. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group, with 15 and 15 subjects, respectively. However, one subject from the control group was excluded because of inadequate treatment sessions. All subjects underwent routine physical therapy in the form of treadmill walking. The subjects in the experimental group underwent simultaneous training in obstacle-stepping while walking on the treadmill for 30 min/day, five times/week, for four weeks. Subjects were given a three-axis accelerometer to wear at the hip on a belt for one-week pre- and post-training physical activity. Step counts for seven days, average daily step counts, and the average of minutes spent in sedentary, light, and above moderate activity were chosen as outcome measures of physical activity. No significant differences between the groups were found in terms of step counts for seven days, average daily activity, or daily activity spent at sedentary levels after four-week interventions. However, the average daily activity spent at light levels (-42.60 min vs. -6.71 min) was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the controls. Conversely, average daily activity spent at above moderate levels was higher (19.86 min vs. 11.07 min) (p<.05) after adjusting for each baseline value. Significant pre- and post-training differences were found in all variables of the experimental group (p<.05). Thus, TWT-OS could improve physical levels above moderate activity as a community-oriented task more than simple repetitive waking on a treadmill, and it could provide an opportunity for patients ambulatory after stroke to participate in the community again.

Design and fabrication on 7-11 GHz, Broadband MPM (7-11 GHz, 광대역 MPM 설계 및 제작)

  • Choi Gil-Woong;Lee Yu-Ri;Kim Ki-Ho;Choi Jin-Joo;So Joon-Ho
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2006
  • In this paper, a broadband Microwave Power Module(MPM) operating at 7 - 11 GHz is designed and fabricated. The MPM consists of a SSA (Solid State Amplifier) and a conventional TWT (traveling Wave Tube). This combined module takes advantage of a low noise and high gain of SSA. The computer modeling and simulation of the SSA are designed by the use of the ADS (Advanced Design System) software. The SSA is designed by configurating the CSSDA (Cascaded Single Stage Distributed Amplifier). The broadband MPM is measured to be noise figure 8.3 - 10.02 dB at 7 - 11 GHz bandwidth, output power of 38.12 dBm at 9 GHz.

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Development of High Voltage Power Supply for MPM (MPM 구동용 고전압 전원공급기의 개발)

  • Jung, Yong-Joon;Park, Dong-Sun
    • Proceedings of the KIPE Conference
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    • pp.256-258
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    • 2010
  • MPM(Microwave Power Module)은 진공 전력증폭기인 진행파관(TWT,Traveling Wave Tube)과 반도체 전력증폭기(SSA, Solid State Amplifier)를 결합한 구조로서, 미세한 RF신호를 입력 받아 고출력의 RF 신호로 증폭하는 장치이다. 본 논문은 MPM을 구동하기 위해, 필요한 수 kV이상의 높은 전압을 TWT에 공급해주는 고전압 전원공급기(HVPS, High Voltage Power Supply)에 관한 것이다. Main Topology는 Resonant Phase Shift Full Bridge Converter이며, 승압의 효과를 높이기 위해 2차 측에는 Voltage Multiplier를 사용하였다. MPM을 구동하는데 필요한 전압인Cathode(-4kV), FE_Bias(-5.25kV), Collector(-2kV)를 생성하며, FE_ON, OFF신호에 따라 고전압 스위칭 동작을 하여, RF 증폭을 제어 할 수 있다. 최종적으로 Prototype을 제작하고, 고찰된 실험결과를 제시하여 개발된 HVPS의 우수성을 검증한다.

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High Power Transmitters (고출력 전자파 발진기)

  • 박건식
    • The Proceeding of the Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.29-37
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    • 1997
  • CW나 pluse의 형태로 RF를 발진하는 고출력 전자파 발진기는 레이더 체계의 기본요소이다. 레이더 체계의 성공적인 운행을 위한 요건 중에 적합한 전자파 발진기의 선택과 개발을 무시할 수 없다. 이차세계대전을 전후로 활발히 개발되었던 전자파 발진기들 중에는 널리 알려진 Magnetron과 klystron 이 있고 TWT(traveling wave tube)도 그 후 널리 사용되는 발진기이다. 지난 반세기를 지나오며 성능 및 신뢰도 등에서 괄목할만한 발전을 이루었으며 밀리미터파대역의 고출력 발진을 위해 gyrotron 등이 지난 30년간 개발되었다. 현재는 성능, 크기(무게) 및 가격의 문제뿐 아니라 고정밀 영상을 위한 고주파 발진기의 개발이 추진되고 있다. 여기서는 현재 레이더에 쓰이고 있는 magnetron, klystron, TWT 및 gyrotron에 대한 간략한 배경, 원리 및 특성 등을 비교 설명하였다.

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Protective effect of selenium on alcohol and/or paraquat-induced thyroid toxicity in guinea pigs (Guinea pig에서 alcohol과 paraquat에 의한 갑상선 독성에 미치는 selenium의 방어 효과)

  • Kim, Jin-sang;Kang, Hyung-sub
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.209-219
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    • 1996
  • This study examined the effect of alcohol(AL) and/or paraquat(PQ) on serum TSH, thyroid hormones and enzyme activities, and the protective effect of selenium(SE) againse alcohol and/or paraquat-induced thyroid toxicity in guinea pigs. The experomental group consisted of control, 15% alcohol(AL), 4ppm sodium selentite(SE), 200ppm paraquat(PQ), AL+PQ, AL+SE, PQ+SE and AL+PQ+SE mixed in drinking water-fed guinea pigs for 4 weeks. The morphological changes of thyroid gland were studies on paraffin-embedded sections stained with H-E stain. Body weight losses, high serum concentration in TSH and cholesterol, and low values on triiodothyronine($T_3$), thyrozine($T_4$), free $T_4$ and alkaline phosophatase(ALP) were produced in the groups fed AL and/or PQ. We also noted that AL+PQ-fed group was marked increase in serum TSH. In AL or AL+PQ-fed groups when cpmpared to control group had increased the ratio of thyroid weight to body weight(ratio Twt/Bwt), whereas the ratio Twt/Bwt was decresed in SE or PQ-fed groups. However, the serum TSH, $T_3$,$T_4$ free $T_4$ and cholesterol values, and the ratio Twt/Bwt were reversed in groups given the combination of SE, compared with AL and/or Pq-fed groups, also ALP values were reversed in groups given the combination of SE, compared with AL or AL+PQ-fed groups. In microscope, morphological changes showed a remarkable between the AL or PQ-fed group and controls. In AL+PQ+SE-fed guinca pig, follicular colloid is high density in thyroid follicle and increased in connective tissue around the thyroid cells, and thyroidal epithelia were composed of cuboidal or columnar epithelium. The indicated that the morphological changes of thyroid were direct action in the thyroid cell. The results of this study confirmed that the toxic effect of AL or PQ on thyroid occur independently of changes in liver function, and that SE confers marked protection against AL or PQ-induced thyroid toxicity.

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