• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tail latency

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Low Latency Encoding Algorithm for Duo-Binary Turbo Codes with Tail Biting Trellises (이중 입력 터보 코드를 위한 저지연 부호화 알고리즘)

  • Park, Sook-Min;Kwak, Jae-Young;Lee, Kwy-Ro
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SC
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.47-51
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    • 2009
  • The low latency encoder for high data rate duo-binary turbo codes with tail biting trellises is considered. Encoder hardware architecture is proposed using inherent encoding property of duo-binary turbo codes. And we showed that half of execution time as well as the energy can be reduced with the proposed architecture.

Effect of Infra-red laser irradiation on pain relive in rats (적외선 레이저 자극이 흰쥐의 진통 작용에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee In-Hak
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Ga-Al-As (Gallium-Aluminum-Arsenid) laser radiation on the tail-flick latency in rat. Thirty Sprague-Dawley male and female rats Were divided into five groups : that is control, laser 15sec radiation, laser 30sec radiation, laser 60sec radiation, and Tramadol Hcl injection groups. The continuous Ga-Al-As laser with, wave length 780-830nm and diameter of probe in the 3mm, averse output of 100mw radiation was applied to the meridian point(Gv 1 : Governing vessel) of the rats. Tail-flick latency were measured with hot plate at $55^{\circ}C$ : before treatment and immediately, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 24 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours after treatment. The result were as follows ; 1. The tail-flick latency according to time varition, control group was not significance. 2. The tail-flick latency according to time varition, laser 15 sec irradiate rats in post-treared was significance(P<0.05). 3. The tail-flick latency according to time varition, laser 30 sec irradiate rats group was not significance. 4. The tail-flick latency according to time varition, laser 60 sec irradiate rats in post 30 minute was significance(P<0.05). 5. The tail-flick latency according to time varition, Tramadol Hcl injection rats in post-treated (P<0.05), post 30 minute(P<0.05), post 60 minute (P<0.01) and 2 hour(P<0.05) was significance. This study suggest that Ga-Al-As (Gallium-Aluminum-Arsenid) laser applied to meridian point of the rat with 15 sec, 30 sec, and 60 set radiation could induc no analgesic effect, but Tramadol Hcl injection rat is good analgesic effect.

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Electrophysiologic Mechanism of Tail Flick Reflex in Rats (흰쥐 Tail Flick Reflex의 신경생리학적 기전)

  • Seoh, Sang-Ah;Kim, Jun
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.139-149
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    • 1989
  • Although tail flick reflex (TFR) in rats has been used as a classic model of the nociceptive test to evaluate the action of analgesics, there have been few studies on the origin of the latent period of TFR. Present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of increase in latency of TFR by morphine in anesthetized rats. Tail skin and dorsolateral tail nerve were stimulated electrically and EMG activities were recorded from abductor caudae dorsalis muscle participating in tail flick reflex. In the case of noxious radiant heat stimulation to tail, the tail flick tension was recorded before and after administration of morphine. Then changes in latency and conduction velocity of peripheral nerve were evaluated. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The latencies of TFR evoked by the electrical stimulation of tail skin and dorsolateral tail nerve were all within 40 ms and were elongated by several milliseconds from control after the administration of morphine. Peripheral conduction velocities of tail flick afferent nerve were within the range of 10-25 m/s. 2) The conduction velocity of peripheral nerve was significantly reduced after morphine administration, therefore the afferent time (utilization time+conduction time to spinal cord) was significantly increased. But the time for central delay and efferent time was not affected by morphine. 3) The conduction velocity under room temperature $(20-25^{\circ}C)$ was significantly reduced after morphine while that under vasodilation state $(40{\sim}42^{\circ}C)$ increased, 30 min and 45 min after morphine. The conduction velocity under vasodilation state without treatment of morphine increased continuously 4) The latency in tension response of TFR evoked by electrical stimulation was elongated by several milliseconds from control while the latency evoked by noxious radiant heat was elongated by several seconds compared with that of control. From the above results, it could be concluded that: 1) the increased latency of TFR evoked by electrical stimulation of the tail after morphine administration was due to the reducton in conduction velocity of peripheral nerve, which was the secondry effect of morphine on the peripheral vasomotion and 2) increased latency of TFR evoked by noxious radiant heat was also due to the same effect of morphine and the increase in cutaneous insulation to the noxious heat.

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Naloxone Reversal of He-Ne Laser Stimulation Induced Analgesia in Rat (헬륨 -네온 레이저자극으로 유발된 흰쥐 진통작용의 날록손 반전)

  • Lee Jae-Hyoung;Song In-Yong;Choi Eun-Yong
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study were to 1) determine the analgesic effect of 632.8 nm of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser stimulation on acupuncture point in rat and 2) determine the reversal of analgesic effect by naloxone injection. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were devided into three groups : control (n=6) : laser (n=6), laser stimulation at $3.58\;J/cm^2$ ; and naloxone (n=6), 1 mg/kg of naloxone chloride inject into peritoneum before laser stimulation at $3.63J/cm^2$. Tail-flick latency were measured pretreat and posttreat with hot plate $(55^{\circ}C)$. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and paired t-teat for tail-flick latency. No significant change was noted in the tail-flick latency in either control or naloxone groups. But significant increased in tail-flick latency in taller group. The results suggest that He-Ne laser induced analgesic effect, and endogenous opioids may be involved in He-Ne laser induced analgesia.

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Garbage Collection Synchronization Technique for Improving Tail Latency of Cloud Databases (클라우드 데이터베이스에서의 꼬리응답시간 감소를 위한 가비지 컬렉션 동기화 기법)

  • Han, Seungwook;Hahn, Sangwook Shane;Kim, Jihong
    • Journal of KIISE
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    • v.44 no.8
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    • pp.767-773
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    • 2017
  • In a distributed system environment, such as a cloud database, the tail latency needs to be kept short to ensure uniform quality of service. In this paper, through experiments on a Cassandra database, we show that long tail latency is caused by a lack of memory space because the database cannot receive any request until free space is reclaimed by writing the buffered data to the storage device. We observed that, since the performance of the storage device determines the amount of time required for writing the buffered data, the performance degradation of Solid State Drive (SSD) due to garbage collection results in a longer tail latency. We propose a garbage collection synchronization technique, called SyncGC, that simultaneously performs garbage collection in the java virtual machine and in the garbage collection in SSD concurrently, thus hiding garbage collection overheads in the SSD. Our evaluations on real SSDs show that SyncGC reduces the tail latency of $99.9^{th}$ and, $99.9^{th}-percentile$ by 31% and 36%, respectively.

Antioxidant Effects of Berchemia berchemiaefolia in Nerve Pain Models

  • Lee, Gil-Hyun;Hyun, Kyung-Yae;Choi, Seok-Cheol
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.380-387
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    • 2017
  • Berchemia berchemiaefolia (BB) are climbing plants or small to medium-sized trees that live in Africa, Asia and America. We performed the present study to investigate whether oral administration of Berchemia berchemiaefolia extract (BBE) protects SD rats from pain. The SD rat experimental groups were divided into four groups. Two of the animal model groups were fed on BBE (200 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg). We performed oral acute toxicity test to determine the optimal oral dose of BBE. To explore if BBE alleviated pain in the SD rat, we undertook the tail flick latency test and formalin test. Additionally, we conducted the anti-oxidative test. The findings of the present study suggest that Berchemia berchemiaefolia extract exhibits strong antioxidant and analgesic activities.

Capsaicin Induces Acute Spinal Analgesia and Changes in the Spinal Norepinephrine Level (Capsaicin에 의한 척수 수준에서의 급성 진통효과와 Norepinephrine의 변화)

  • Park, Hyoung-SuP;Park, Kyung-Pyo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 1993
  • Central analgesic effect of capsaicin was assessed by the tail flick reflex (TFR) test, using male Sprague-Dawley rats under anesthesia with pentobarbital sodium (induction with 40 mg/kg and maintenance with $4{\sim}8\;mg/kg/hr$). Level of norepinephrine in the spinal cord was also measured. Capsaicin, $35{\sim}150\;{\mu}g$, was injected intrathecally, and the TFR latency was measured before, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the drug administration. TFR latency was increased 100% or more immediately by intrathecal capsaicin, from 2.9 seconds to the maximum of 7.0 seconds at 10 minute after the drug; P<0.01. The increase in TFR latency was maintained during the course of experiment of 2 hours. Concomitant reduction of NE content in the spinal cord was observed; from 16 ng/mg protein to 7 ng/mg protein. On the other hand, subcutaneous injection of capsaicin of 50 mg/kg did not change the TFR latency although the NE content reduced similarly to the case of intrathecal injection. Pretreatment of the animal with 0.5 mg/kg of MK-801 reversed the increase of TFR latency and NE reduction induced by intrathecal capsaicin. These results suggest that capsaicin causes analgesia at the spinal cord level by activating the excitatory amino acid-NE-dorsal horn interneurons axis of the descending inhibitory pain modulation pathway.

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Low Latency Encoding Algorithm for Duo-Binary Turbo Codes with Tall Biting Trellises (이중 입력 터보 코드를 위한 저지연 부호화 알고리즘)

  • Park, Soak-Min;Kwak, Jae-Young;Lee, Kwy-Ro
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.117-118
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    • 2008
  • The low latency encoder for high data rate duo-binary turbo codes with tail biting trellises is considered. Encoder hardware architecture is proposed using inherent encoding property of duo-binary turbo codes. And we showed that half of execution time as well as the energy can be reduced with the proposed architecture.

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An Adaptive Polling Selection Technique for Ultra-Low Latency Storage Systems (초저지연 저장장치를 위한 적응형 폴링 선택 기법)

  • Chun, Myoungjun;Kim, Yoona;Kim, Jihong
    • IEMEK Journal of Embedded Systems and Applications
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2019
  • Recently, ultra-low latency flash storage devices such as Z-SSD and Optane SSD were introduced with the significant technological improvement in the storage devices which provide much faster response time than today's other NVMe SSDs. With such ultra-low latency, $10{\mu}s$, storage devices the cost of context switch could be an overhead during interrupt-driven I/O completion process. As an interrupt-driven I/O completion process could bring an interrupt handling overhead, polling or hybrid-polling for the I/O completion is known to perform better. In this paper, we analyze tail latency problem in a polling process caused by process scheduling in data center environment where multiple applications run simultaneously under one system and we introduce our adaptive polling selection technique which dynamically selects efficient processing method between two techniques according to the system's conditions.

Effects of Anticonvulsants on Acute and Tonic Pains in the Rat

  • Shin, Hong-Kee
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 1996
  • Different neural substrates have been reported to be implicated in analgesic mechanisms in the acute phasic and the sustained tonic pains. To explore the differential antinociceptive action of diphenylhydantoin (DPH) and carbamazepine (CBZ) on the acute phasic and the tonic pains, changes in tail flick latency, hot plate latency and the formalin-induced nociceptive score were assessed prior to and after intraperitoneal administration of DPH (20 & 40 mg/Kg) and CBZ (20 mg/Kg). In 11 rats, CBZ was administered repeatedly for 6 days at the dose of 20 mg/Kg/day. Also studied were the effects of strychnine and picrotoxin (1 mg/Kg, i.p.) on the CBZ-produced changes in the formalin-induced pain behaviors. The tail flick and hot plate ltencies were not changes after administration of DPH and CBZ. However DPH strongly suppressed the formalin-induced tonic pain. A single and the repeated administration of CBZ inhibited both the early phasic and the late tonic pain responses to formalin in n similar manner. On the other hand, the antinociceptive actions of CBZ were not altered by strychnine or picrotoxin. These experimental findings lead to the conclusion that DPH and CBZ have differential antinociceptive action on the acute and the tonic pains and that their antinociceptive actions are independent of the GABA- and glycine-receptors.

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