• Title, Summary, Keyword: Target brain image

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A Novel Automatic Algorithm for Selecting a Target Brain using a Simple Structure Analysis in Talairach Coordinate System

  • Koo B.B.;Lee Jong-Min;Kim June Sic;Kim In Young;Kim Sun I.
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.129-132
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    • 2005
  • It is one of the most important issues to determine a target brain image that gives a common coordinate system for a constructing population-based brain atlas. The purpose of this study is to provide a simple and reliable procedure that determines the target brain image among the group based on the inherent structural information of three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR) images. It uses only 11 lines defined automatically as a feature vector representing structural variations based on the Talairach coordinate system. Average characteristic vector of the group and the difference vectors of each one from the average vector were obtained. Finally, the individual data that had the minimum difference vector was determined as the target. We determined the target brain image by both our algorithm and conventional visual inspection for 20 healthy young volunteers. Eighteen fiducial points were marked independently for each data to evaluate the similarity. Target brain image obtained by our algorithm showed the best result, and the visual inspection determined the second one. We concluded that our method could be used to determine an appropriate target brain image in constructing brain atlases such as disease-specific ones.

Physiology of Eye Movements (안구 운동의 생리)

  • Kim, Ji Soo
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.173-181
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    • 1999
  • Eye movements serve vision by placing the image of an object on the fovea of each retina, and by preventing slippage of images on the retina. The brain employs two modes of ocular motor control, fast eye movements (saccades) and smooth eye movements. Saccades bring the fovea to a target, and smooth eye movements prevent retinal image slip. Smooth eye movements comprise smooth pursuit, the optokinetic reflex, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), vergence, and fixation. Saccades achieve rapid refixation of targets that fall on the extrafoveal retina by moving the eyes at peak velocities that can exceed $700^{\circ}/s$. Various brain lesions can affect saccadic latency, velocity, or accuracy. Smooth pursuit maintains fixation of a slowly moving target. The pursuit system responds to slippage of an image near the fovea in order to accelerate the eyes to a velocity that matches that of the target. When smooth eye movements velocity fails to match target velocity, catch-up saccades are used to compensate for limited smooth pursuit velocities. The VOR subserves vision by generating conjugate eye movements that are equal and opposite to head movements. If the VOR gain (the ratio of eye velocity to head velocity) is too high or too low, the target image is off the fovea, and head motion causes oscillopsia, an illusory to-and-fro movement of the environment.

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Shift of the Brain during Functional Neurosurgery

  • Kim, Suk-Min;Hwang, Hyung-Sik;Salles, Antonio De
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.359-365
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    • 2005
  • Objective : The study investigates the extent of brain shift and its effect on the accuracy of the stereotaxic procedure. Methods : Thirty-five patients underwent 40stereotactic procedures between June 2002 and March 2004. There were 26 males, mean age 59years old. There were 34procedures for Parkinson's disease, 2 for essential tremor, 3 for cerebral palsy, 1 for dystonia. Patients were divided in four groups based on postoperative pneumocephalus : under 5cc [9 procedures], between $5{\sim}10cc$ [13procedures], between $10{\sim}15cc$ [11 procedures] and more than 15cc [7procedures]. The coordinates of the anterior commissure[AC], posterior commissure[PC], and target were defined in pre-and intraoperative magnetic resonance image scans and the amount of air volume was measured with @Target (BrainLab, Heimstetten, Germany]. Results : The mean AC-PC was 26.5mm for patients with less than 5cc, 26.9mm for $5{\sim}10cc$, 25.8mm for $10{\sim}15cc$ and 26.2mm for more than 15cc. The length of AC-PC line and coordinates of AC, PC was also not statistically different, Euclidean distance as well as ${\Delta}x$, ${\Delta}y$, ${\Delta}z$ of AC, PC, and target were also not statistically different among the groups [p>,1]. There was a variance in target of $0.7{\sim}7.6mm$, Euclidean distance of 2.5mm, related to electrophysiology but not to brain-shift. Conclusion : The amount of air accumulated in the intracranial space and compressing the cortical surface has no effect on the localization of subcortical stereotactic target and landmarks.

Development of Image Guided 3D Localization Program for Stereotactic Brain Biopsy (뇌 정위 생검술을 위한 영상지원 3차원 국재 프로그램 개발)

  • Lee Do Heui;Lee Dong Joon
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.197-201
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    • 2004
  • Stereotactic brain biopsy using stereotactic head frame such as CRW (Radionics, USA) has demonstrated a precise lesion localizing accuracy. In this study, we developed the target point calculation program for brain lesion biopsy using CRW stereotactic head frame and designed a phantom for verify the new developed program. The phantom was designed to have capability to simulate clinical stereotactic brain biopsy. The phantom has 10 vertical rods whose diameters are 6mm and tip of each rods are 2mm. Each rod has different length, 150 mm x 4 ea, 130 mm x 4 ea, 110 mm x 2 ea. CT images were acquired with Simens CT scanner as continuous transverse slice, 1 mm thickness in a 25 cm field of view and stored in a dicom file as a 256 x 256 matrix. As a result, the developed new target localization program will be useful for planning and training in complicated 3 dimensional stereotactic brain biopsy.

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Accuracy Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Multimodal Image Registration Using a Brain Phantom (뇌팬톰을 이용한 삼차원 다중영상정합의 정확성 평가)

  • 진호상;송주영;주라형;정수교;최보영;이형구;서태석
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 2004
  • Accuracy of registration between images acquired from various medical image modalities is one of the critical issues in radiation treatment planing. In this study, a method of accuracy evaluation of image registration using a homemade brain phantom was investigated. Chamfer matching of CT-MR and CT-SPECT imaging was applied for the multimodal image registration. The accuracy of image correlation was evaluated by comparing the center points of the inserted targets of the phantom. The three dimensional root-mean-square translation deviations of the CT-MR and CT-SPECT registration were 2.1${\pm}$0.8 mm and 2.8${\pm}$1.4 mm, respectively. The rotational errors were < 2$^{\circ}$ for the three orthogonal axes. These errors were within a reasonable margin compared with the previous phantom studies. A visual inspection of the superimposed CT-MR and CT- SPECT images also showed good matching results.

Engraftment of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rat Photothrombotic Cerebral Infarction Model : Comparison of Intra-Arterial and Intravenous Infusion Using MRI and Histological Analysis

  • Byun, Jun Soo;Kwak, Byung Kook;Kim, Jae Kyun;Jung, Jisung;Ha, Bon Chul;Park, Serah
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.54 no.6
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    • pp.467-476
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    • 2013
  • Objective : This study aimed to evaluate the hypotheses that administration routes [intra-arterial (IA) vs. intravenous (IV)] affect the early stage migration of transplanted human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) in acute brain infarction. Methods : Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=40) were subjected to photothrombotic infarction. Three days after photothrombotic infarction, rats were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups [IA group : n=12, IV group : n=12, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) group : n=8, control group : n=8]. All groups were subdivided into 1, 6, 24, and 48 hours groups according to time point of sacrifice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) consisting of T2 weighted image (T2WI), $T2^*$ weighted image ($T2^*WI$), susceptibility weighted image (SWI), and diffusion weighted image of rat brain were obtained prior to and at 1, 6, 24, and 48 hours post-implantation. After final MRI, rats were sacrificed and grafted cells were analyzed in brain and lung specimen using Prussian blue and immunohistochemical staining. Results : Grafted cells appeared as dark signal intensity regions at the peri-lesional zone. In IA group, dark signals in peri-lesional zone were more prominent compared with IV group. SWI showed largest dark signal followed by $T2^*WI$ and T2WI in both IA and IV groups. On Prussian blue staining, IA administration showed substantially increased migration and a large number of transplanted hBM-MSCs in the target brain than IV administration. The Prussian blue-positive cells were not detected in SPIO and control groups. Conclusion : In a rat photothrombotic model of ischemic stroke, selective IA administration of human mesenchymal stem cells is more effective than IV administration. MRI and histological analyses revealed the time course of cell migration, and the numbers and distribution of hBM-MSCs delivered into the brain.

Differences in Target Volume Delineation Using Typical Radiosurgery Planning System (각각의 방사선수술 치료계획시스템에 따른 동일 병변의 체적 차이 비교)

  • Han, Su Chul;Lee, Dong Joon
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.265-270
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    • 2013
  • Correct target volume delineation is an important part of radiosurgery treatment planning process. We designed head phantom and performed target delineation to evaluate the volume differences due to radiosurgery treatment planning systems and image acquisition system, CT/MR. Delineated mean target volume from CT scan images was $2.23{\pm}0.08cm^3$ on BrainSCAN (NOVALS), $2.13{\pm}0.07cm^3$ on Leksell gamma plan (Gamma Knife) and $2.24{\pm}0.10cm^3$ on Multi plan (Cyber Knife). For MR images, $2.08{\pm}0.06cm^3$ on BrainSCAN, $1.94{\pm}0.05cm^3$ on Leksell gamma plan and $2.15{\pm}0.06cm^3$ on Multi plan. As a result, Differences of delineated mean target volume due to radiotherapy planning system was 3% to 6%. And overall mean target volume from CT scan images was 6.36% larger than those of MR scan images.

The Analysis of Information Transfer Efficiency in Medical Image Display

  • Kim, Jong-Hyo;Min, Byoung-Goo;Han, Man-Cheong;Lee, Choong-Woong
    • Proceedings of the KOSOMBE Conference
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    • v.1992 no.05
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    • pp.55-57
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    • 1992
  • Image display is the last step of imaging chain in which the diagnostic information is transformed into perceivable intensities and transformed to observer's eye-brain system. In this process, a certain part of information may be efficiently transfered and another part may be inefficiently transfered leading to information loss. In this study, the visual perceptual properties of image display on CRT monitor has been investigated. Psychophysical experiment of target image detection has been performed using CRT monitor for various background grey levels, and the threshold difference grey levels required for visual discrimination have been predicted by computer simulation with visual model.

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Patients with brain metastases the usefulness of contrast-enhanced FLAIR images after delay (뇌전이 환자의 조영 증강 후 지연 FLAIR 영상의 유용성)

  • Byun, Jae-Hu;Park, Myung-Hwan;Lee, Jin-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Digital Imaging in Medicine
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: FLAIR image is beneficial for the diagnosis of various bran diseases including ischemic CVS, brain tumors and infections. However the border between the legion of brain metastasis and surrounding edema may not be clear. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the practical benefits of delayed imaging by comparing the image from a patient with brain metastasis before a contrast enhancement and the image 10 minutes after a contrast enhancement. Materials and methods: Of the 92 people who underwent MRI brain metastases in suspected patients 13 people in three patients there is no video to target the 37 people confirmed cases, and motion artifacts brain metastases in our hospital June-December 2013, 18 people measurement position except for the three incorrect patient (male: 11 people, female: 7 people, average age: 60 years) in the target, test equipment, 3.0T MR System (ACHIEVA Release, Philips, I was 8ChannelSENSE Head Coil use Best, and the Netherlands). TR 11000 ms, TE 125 ms, TI2800 ms, Slice Thickness 5 mm, gap 5 mm, is a Slice number 21, the parameters of the 3D FFE, T2 FLAIR variable that was used to test, TR 8.1 ms, TE 3.7 ms, Slice number 240 I set to. The experiment was conducted by acquiring the FLAIR prior to contrast enhancement (heretofore referred to as Pre FLAIR), and acquiring the 3D FFE CE five minutes after the contrast enhancement, and recomposing the images in an axial plane of S/T 3mm, G 0mm (heretofore referred to as MPR TRA CE). Using the FLAIR 10 minutes after the contrast enhancement (heretofore referred to as Post FLAIR) and Pi-View, a retrospective study was conducted. Using MRIcro on the image of a patient confirmed for his diagnosis, the images before and after the contrast media, as well as the CNR and SNR of the MPR TRA CE images of the lesion and the site absent of lesion were compared and analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance. Results: CNR for Pre FLAIR and Post FLAIR were 34.35 and 60.13, respectively, with MPR TRA CE at 23.77 showing no significant difference (p<0.050). Post-experiment analysis shows a difference between Pre FLAIR and Post FLAIR in terms of CNR (p<0.050), but no difference in CNR between Post FLAIR and MPR TRA CE (p>0.050), indicating that the contrast media had an effect only on Pre FLAIR and Post FLAIR. The SNR for the normal site Pre FLAIR was 106.43, and for the lesion site 140.79. Post FLAIR for the normal site was 107.79, and for the lesion site 167.91. MPR TRA CE for the normal site was 140.23 and for the lesion site 183.19, showing significant difference (p<0.050), and post-experiment analysis shows that there was a difference in SNR only on the lesion sites for Pre FLAIR and Post FLAIR (p<0.050). There was no difference in SNR between the normal site and lesion site for Post FLAIR and MPR TRA CE, indicating no effect from the contrast media (p>0.050). Conclusions: This experiment shows that Post FLAIR has a higher contrast than Pre FLAIR, and a higher SNR for lesions, It was not not statistically significant and MPR TRA CE but CNR came out high. Inspection of post-contrast which is used in a high magnetic field is frequently used images of 3D T1 but, since the signal of the contrast medium and the blood flow is included, this method can be diagnostic accuracy is reduced, it is believed that when used in combination with Post FLAIR, and that can provide video information added to the diagnosis of brain metastases.

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Collimator Selection in Nuclear Medicine Imaging Using I-123 Generated by Te-124 Reaction (Te-124 Target로 생산된 I-123 SPECT 영상에서의 조준기 선택)

  • Kim, Hee-Joung;Son, Hye-Kyung;Bong, Joung-Kyun;Nam, Ki-Pyo;Lee, Hee-Kyung
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.372-378
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    • 1996
  • In the case of $^{123}I$ from the $^{124}Te$(p,2n)reaction, the radionuclidic impurity is the high-energy gamma-emitting $^{124}I$, which interferes greatly with nuclear medicine images. The choice of a collimator can affect the quality of clinical SPECT images of [I-123]MIBG, [I-123] ${\beta}$-CIT, or [I-123]IPT. The tradeoffs that two different collimators make among spatial resolution, sensitivity, and scatter were studied by imaging a line source at 5cm, 10cm, 15cm distance using a number of plexiglass sheets between source and collimator, petri dish, two-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom, Jaszczak phantom, and three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom after filling with $^{123}I$. (FWHM, FWTM, Sensitivity) for low-energy ultrahigh-resolution parallel - hole (LEUHRP) collimator and medium- energy general - purpose (MEGP) collimator were measured as (9.27mm, 61.27mm, $129CPM/{\mu}Ci$) and (10.53mm, 23.17mm, $105CPM/{\mu}Ci$), respectively. The image quality of two-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom with LEUHRP looked better than the one with MEGP. However, the image quality of Jaszczak phantom and three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom with LEUHRP looked much worse than the one with MEGP because of scatter contributions in three-dimensional imaging situation. The results suggest that the MEGP is preferable to LEUHRP for three-dimensional imaging studies of [I-123]MIBG, [I-123] ${\beta}$-CIT, or [I-123]IPT.

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