• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)

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Effects of Pyrola japonica Extracts on Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption (녹제초 추출물이 파골세포 분화 및 골 흡수에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jung-Sik;Lim, Hyung-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.135-147
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    • 2019
  • Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the effect of Pyrola japonica extract (NJ) and its principal constituent, homoarbutin (HA) on osteoclast differentiation and gene expression and bone resorption. The osteoclastogenesis and gene expression were determined in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-stimulated RAW264.7 cell. Methods In order to evaluate the effect of HA extracted from NJ on bone resorption, osteoclasts were used to be differentiated and formed by stimulating RAW264.7 cells with RANKL. Tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (+) polynuclear osteoclast formation ability was evaluated, and differentiation control genes including cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), and TRAP in osteoclast differentiation were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunoblotting was performed to measure the effect of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) factors on bone resorption, and the effect of osteoclasts on osteoclast differentiation was measured. Results Both NJ and high concentration of HA blocked RANKL-stimulated differentiation from RAW264.7 cell to TRAP-positive multinucleated cells. NJ reduced RANKL-induced expression of TRAP, cathepsin K. Both NJ and high concentration of HA inhibited RANKL-mediated expression of MMP-9, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1, and cellular Jun-fos. NJ suppressed RANKL-stimulated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and levels of interleukins. Both NJ and HA decreased bone resorption in osteoclast-induced bone pit formation model. Conclusions These results suggest that NJ and HA blocked bone resorption by decreasing RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis through down-regulation of genes for osteoclast differentiation.

Negative regulators in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis

  • Lee, Jun-Won;Kim, Kab-Sun;Kim, Nack-Sung
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2007
  • Receptor activator of nuclear factor ${\kappa}B$ ligand (RANKL) induces osteoclast formation from hematopoietic cells via up-regulation of positive regulators, including $NF-{\kappa}B$, c-Fos, microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf), PU.1, and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1. In addition to the positive regulation by these transcription factors, RANKL appears to regulate negative regulators such as MafB and inhibitors of differentiation (Ids). Ids and MafB are abundantly expressed in osteoclast precursors, bone marrowderived monocyte/macrophage lineage cells (BMMs). Expression levels of these genes are significantly reduced by RANKL during osteoclastogenesis. Overexpression of these genes in BMMs inhibits the formation of tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear osteoclasts by down-regulation of NFATc1 and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), which are important for osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, reduced expression of these genes enhances osteoclastogenesis and increases expression of NFATc1 and OSCAR. Taken together, RANKL induces osteoclastogenesis via up-regulation of positive regulators as well as down-regulation of negative regulators.