• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tenderness

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Evaluation of Beef Carcass and Palatability Traits and Prediction of Tenderness in A Cross of Bos Indicus × Bos Taurus Cattle

  • Kim, Jong Joo;Taylor, Jerry
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1621-1627
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    • 2001
  • Steers and heifers (N=490) were produced between 1991 and 1996 by reciprocal fiillsib backcross and $F_1$ crosses from Angus and Brahman to compare characteristics of carcass and palatability traits between Bos indicus and Bos taurus inheritance. Carcasses of 3/4Angus were heavier, fatter (p<0.05), more tender and higher in other palatability attributes (p<0.01) than those of 3/4Brahman. Reciprocal effects of parental cross breeds were found on some traits. Within 3/4Brahman inheritance group, Brahman sired progeny produced heavier and fatter carcasses with better palatability (p<0.05) than progeny with Brahman as a dam breed. Estimates of heritability were intermediate to high in most carcass and palatability traits. Genetic correlations of tenderness with marbling score (MARB), sarcomere length (SARC), fragmentation index (FRAG) and calpastatin activity (CALP) were moderate to high, suggesting potential use of the tenderness-influencing factors as indirect selection criteria to improve palatability attributes. MARB and SARC that were best predictors of tenderness explained 3.07 to 5.85% and 4.32 to 8.24% of variation in tenderness, respectively. However, there was no tenderness-influencing factor to dominantly explain large portion of variation in tenderness.

A Study on the Correlation between Auricular Tenderness Testing on Mammary Gland Zone and Postpartum Breast Pain (산모에서 산후 유방통과 이혈 압통점과의 관계 연구)

  • Sung, Won-Young;Kim, Lak-Hyung
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.11-17
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : The objectives of this study were to examine the specificity and the sensitivity of tenderness testing on the ear about the postpartum breast pain, and to improve the efficacy of the tenderness test. Methods : Thirty women who visited in the hospital for recuperating 2-14 days after childbirth participated in this study. They answered the questionnaire of the severity of breast pain and their auricular acupuncture points were tested by a long metal probe with round tip 1.1mm in diameter. We analyzed the relationship between auricular tenderness testing on mammary gland zone[CW6] and postpartum breast pain with validity and significance as grouping 8 diagnosis methods. Results : When we consider above 'moderate pain' or 'severe pain' in the auricular tenderness testing as a positive sign, and above 'evere pain' or 'very severe pain' in the self-reported breast pain score as a positive symptom, the diagnostic efficacy was highest. The sensitivity for tenderness testing was 0.62-0.75, and the specificity was 0.64-0.72, and the sensitivity and the specificity in the contralateral ear were a little higher than in the ipsilateral ear. Conclusions : These results suggest that auricular tenderness testing can be objectified clinically and be used in diagnosis.

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PREDICTION OF BEEF TENDERNESS USING NEAR-INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

  • Cho, S.I.;Yeo, W.Y.;Nam, K.C.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.521-524
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    • 2000
  • Nearinfra-red(NIR) reflectance NIR a spectra (400 to 2,100 nm) were collected on 32 beef samples to find feasibility of predicting beef tenderness. The study to predict beef tenderness was accomplished with the stepwise second differential data of the collected NIR spectra. Beef tenderness was measured by Warner-Bratzler(WB) shear force using a Universal Testing Machine(UTM). After modeling the relation between Warner-Bratzler shear force and NIR spectrum of 19 samples among the 32 beef samples, the verification was carried out through predicting the other 13 samples. The SEC and R$^2$ values in the prediction equation were 9.07(N) and 0.6463, respectively. The SEP and R$^2$ were 14.8(N) and 0.7082 (wave length 552 nm, 1988 nm) respectively. The result implied that it was possible to predict the beef tenderness using NIR spectrum and that the tenderness could be predicted non-destructively in real time.

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Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements

  • Choe, Jee-Hwan;Choi, Mi-Hee;Rhee, Min-Suk;Kim, Byoung-Chul
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.1029-1036
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)-hardness, gumminess, and chewiness-were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation.

Correlations of Sensory Quality Characteristics with Intramuscular Fat Content and Bundle Characteristics in Bovine Longissimus Thoracis Muscle

  • Choi, Young Min;Garcia, Lyda Guadalupe;Lee, Kichoon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.197-208
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of sensory quality traits of cooked beef to fresh meat quality and histochemical characteristics, especially muscle bundle traits, in the longissimus thoracis muscle of Hanwoo steers. Cooking loss negatively correlated with softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, rate of breakdown (RB), and amount of perceptible residue (AR) after chewing (p<0.05), and drip loss showed negative correlation with RB and AR (p<0.05). All the attributes of tenderness exhibited negative correlation with the Warner-Bratzler shear force value (p<0.05). Marbling score and the intramuscular fat (IMF) content showed positive correlation with all the organoleptic characteristics, including tenderness attributes, juiciness, and flavor (p<0.05). Regarding histochemical characteristics, muscle fiber size did not have a significant correlation with all the sensory quality traits, although the area percentage of type I fiber was related with softness, initial tenderness, and chewiness (p<0.05). On the contrary, the characteristics of muscle bundle were related to all the sensory tenderness attributes (p<0.05), and the sensory tenderness increased with smaller muscle bundle size (p<0.05). These results suggest that the IMF content and bundle characteristics can be used as indicators for explaining the variations in sensory tenderness in well-marbled beef.

Cause of Pes Anserinus Tenderness (거위발 건 압통의 원인)

  • Kim, Jung-Man;Lee, Dong-Yeob;Koh, In-Jun;Kim, Sang-Il
    • The Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Ultrasound Society
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to know the cause of the tenderness at pes anserinus. Materials and Methods: Out of 24 patients with tenderness at pes anserinus, 23 patients were female and 1 patient was male, and their average age was 65.9 years old. We checked the tenderness at pes anserinus by history taking & physical examniation and then, checked the pes anserinus for the presence of bursitis by US in outpatient clinic. With no evidence of bursitis by US, we injected steroid-lidocaine mixture intraarticularly and checked whether the tenderness disappeared after 2~3 minutes. Results: There was no case with bursitis at pes anserinus by US. The tenderness at pes anserinus diminished in 2-3 minutes after the intraarticular injection of the steroid-lidocaine mixture. After 6 weeks follow up, 16 patients(66.7%) had little or no tenderness at pes anserinus. 8 cases had the recurrence of tenderness recurred, 4 cases underwent arthroscopic operation on the meniscal tear, and 1 case underwent total knee arthroplasty. All cases underwent any operations had the tenderness at pes anserinus disappeared. The others 3 cases did not undergo total knee arthroplasty despite of radiologic obliteration of knee joint adequate for Kellgren-Lawrence grade IV. Conclusion: Without the bursitis at Pes Anserinus, patients the osteoarthritis may have the tenderness due to the referred pain.

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Post-slaughter Intervention Techniques to Ensure Tenderness of Beef Muscles for Korean Consumers (한국 소비자 쇠고기 연도 보증을 위한 도축후 도체 처리기술)

  • 황인호
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.921-932
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    • 2006
  • Management to improve beef tenderness is always been a historical idea, but during the recent past it has become an issue of prime importance to the meat scientists and the industries as well. Variation in tenderness is the prime explanation for consumer’s dissatisfaction for the concern meat. It has been well documented that both postmortem proteolysis and sarcomere length have significant effect on meat tenderness and its consistency. Electrical stimulation and tenderstretch techniques have been used by a number of countries to underpin carcass quality assurance schemes focused on eating quality. The mechanism(s) by which the postmortem interventions improve tenderness (or prevent toughness) has not been fully elucidated. However, it is evident that electrical stimulation accelerates the development of rigor mortis so that prevention of cold shortening is possible and ageing commences at higher temperatures. On the other hand, tendersretch appears to prevent meat toughness via placing tension of the myofibrils and connective matrix during rigor development. Previous findings indicated that electrical stimulation and tenderstretch improved beef tenderness even for fattened cattle under moderate chilling conditions. Recent studies demonstrate beef tenderness to be one of the most important factors determining satisfaction levels of Korean beef consumers. There are number of studies which reported that electrical stimulation and tenderstretch techniques improved Hanwoo tenderness and color. It is believed that the techniques are mostly useful wherein controls of carcass size, fatness and/or chilling regimes are not easy such as Korean beef industry. However, Korean beef industry is one such area where postmortem intervention techniques have not been adopted so far. Taking into consideration of the Korean beef industry, wherein carcass size and fatness varies the post-slaughter intervention technique could be the most feasible measurement to ensure eating quality. The manuscript attempts to highlight the current knowledge aiming primarily towards the assurance of beef tenderness.

An Electromyographic Study of Tensed Mandibular Positions and Head and Neck Muscle Tenderness (긴장시 하악위 및 근압통에 관한 근전도학적 연구)

  • Mi-Hyun Park;Kyung-Soo Han;Chang-Kwon Song
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.171-183
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between tensed mandibular positions, muscle tenderness and EMG activity, respectively, and between range of motion of the neck and sternocleidomastoid muscle tenderness. Under stressful conditions, most of people take several types of behavioral patterns. Two of them observed frequently are clenching of teeth and grasping of fist. Prolonged clenching or grasping should increase electromyographic activity of associated muscle, especially muscles of mastication and neck muscles and will cause hyperfunction, dysfunction and muscle pain. So it is necessary to relate EMG activity with muscle pain. The author performed routine clinical examination in 47 patients with Temporomandibular Disorders, especially for presence or absence of muscle tenderness. Mandibular rest position was used as a baseline reference position and two more position in which EMG activity was taken were rest postion with grasping of fist and teeth clenching position. BioEMG of Biopak system (Bioresearch Inc, USA) was used for measuring of integrated EMG in masseter, anterior temporalis, anterior belly of digastic muscle and sternocleidomastoid muscle. To measure of the range of neck motion. CROM(Cervical-Range-of Motion, USA) was used. The obtained results were as follows : 1. EMG activity of all muscles except in masseter was higher in grasping of fist than those in rest position and there were significant correlation in EMG activity between the two position except in anterior belly of digastric muscle. 2. When comparing EMG activity between tender and non-tender muscle, all examined muscles did not show any significant difference. From this data, we could conclude that EMG activity was generally not changed with tenderness, of couse, it might be dependent with degree of muscle tenderness. 3. Number of tender points in examined muscles was also not significantly different between in patients with masticatory muscle disorders and in patients with internal derangement. 4. Cervical posture and range of motion of the neck was not differed significantly between in patients with and in patients without tenderness of sternocleidomastoid muscle.

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Application of Proteolytic Enzymes in Fruits for Meat Tenderization (과일에 존재하는 단백질 분해효소의 식육연화효과에 관한 연구)

  • 배영희;노정해
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.367-371
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    • 2000
  • In order to study the tenderizing effect of proteolytic enzymes in fruits, beef(M. semimembranosus) was marinated with meat sauce containing each fruit juices. After cooking, the shear force was measured by Rheometer and evaluated the sensory properties of beef by quantitative descriptive analysis method. The results are as follows: 1. The combination ratio of meat sauce:water was 2:1 with pH 5.0∼5.5 showed the max. tenderness. 2. As a result of shear force test, the decrease of shear force was pineapple>papaya>fig>kiwifruit>pear: especially, pineapple, papaya and fig tendered the beef significantly comparing with pear and kiwifruit at p<0.001. 3. The tendering effect of pineapple and papaya on the meat showed significant difference (p<0.01) comparing with pear in tenderness and overall acceptability by sensory evaluation; and there was a significant difference between pear and papaya in taste (p<0.05). 4. There was highly significant correlation between mechanical tenderness and sensory properties: correlation of fruit and mechanical tenderness was -.877(p<0.01); between mechanical tenderness and overall acceptability, r = .532(p<0.01); between fruit and sensory tenderness, r = .495(p<0.01); between mechanical tenderness and sensory tenderness, r = .490(p<0.01). At p<0.05, between taste and juiciness, r = .208.

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A Study on the Correlation between Signs/Symptoms of the Craniomandibular Disorders and Possible Contribution Occlusal Factors (두개하악장애증상발현과 교합요인 사이의 상관성에 관한 연구)

  • Young-O Kim;Keum-Back Shin;Jung-Min Kim
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.31-43
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    • 1993
  • To evaluate the correlationship between sign/symptoms of craniomandibular disorder(CMD) and possible contributing occlusal factors, the author analyzed craniomandibular index(CMI), clinical dysfunction index(CDI) and occlusal index(Oi) obtained from 88 subjects (32 males, 56 females, mean age 28.7) consisted of 49 CMD patients(15 males, 34 females, mean age 28.7) and 39 non-CMD patients (17 males, 22 females, mean age 24.5). The obtained results were as follows : 1. There was very high significant correlation bebween CMI and CDI in total subjects (r=0.83, p<0.01) 2. There was very low correlation between working-side interference and TMJ noise which was observed as a statistically significant value(p<0.05). And also there ws very low correlation between nonworking side interference and muscle tenderness, CDI, dysfunction index(DI), palpation index(PI) which were observed as statistically significant value (p<0.01) 3. There was very low correlation between as ymmetry of tetruded contact position(RCP)-intercuspal position(ICP) slide and muscle tenderness, TMJ tenderness, TMJ noise, CMI, DI, PI which were observed as statistically significant values(p<0.05) 4. In general there was low correlation between Oi and muscle tenderness, CDI, CMI, DI, PI which were observed as statistically significant values (p,0.05). But Oi had a relatively higher correlation with muscle tenderness, PI than whith CDI, DI.

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