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Application of Synergistic Solvent Extraction by Formation of Ternary Complex for Determination of Trace Zn(II) in Water Samples

  • Choi, Jong-Moon;Park, Hyun-Mo;Choi, Sun-Do
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.563-567
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    • 2006
  • The application of a synergistic solvent extraction by the formation of ternary complex with pyrocatechol violet (PV) and benzalkonium chloride (BC) was studied for determination of trace Zn(II) in water samples. The pH of sample solution and the amount of PV and BC added were optimized for the formation of the stable complex, a proper solvent was selected for the effective extraction, and the concentration of nitric acid was fixed for the back extraction of the complex from the solvent. After the ionic strength of 100 mL sample solution was adjusted to 0.1 M by adding NaCl and the pH was fixed at 9 with a carbonate buffer, 1.0 mL of 2% PV solution was added to form Zn(II)-PV complex then the Zn(II)-PV/BC ternary complex was made by adding 1.0 mL of 10% BC solution. The ternary complex was extracted into 10 mL of MIBK. And the ternary complex was back-extracted with 10 mL of 1.0 mol/L nitric acid to determine Zn(II) by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (flame-AAS). The interference of concomitant ions on the extraction of Zn(II) was investigated. This procedure was applied to the analysis of three real samples such as Dalbang-dam water, laboratory tap water and Jungnajin seawater. The recoveries of Zn(II) in spiked samples were 86.58-104.1%.

PROPERTIES OF HYPERHOLOMORPHIC FUNCTIONS ON DUAL TERNARY NUMBERS

  • Jung, Hyun Sook;Shon, Kwang Ho
    • The Pure and Applied Mathematics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 2013
  • We research properties of ternary numbers with values in ${\Lambda}(2)$. Also, we represent dual ternary numbers in the sense of Clifford algebras of real six dimensional spaces. We give generation theorems in dual ternary number systems in view of Clifford analysis, and obtain Cauchy theorems with respect to dual ternary numbers.

DERIVATIVES FOR THE LINEARITY OF TERNARY NUMBER VALUED FUNCTIONS

  • Kang, Han Ul;Lee, Kwangho;Shon, Kwang Ho
    • Honam Mathematical Journal
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.685-692
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this paper is to investigate the differentials of the hypercomplex valued functions in Clifford analysis. Like as the differentials defined by the naïve approach in one complex variable analysis, we define the differentials of functions with values in ternary number functions by same ways. And we survey the properties of each differential with respect to a non-commutativity of the skew field.

The Oxidation of Hydrazobenzene Catalyzed by Cobalt Complexes in Nonaqueous Solvents

  • Kim, Stephen S.B.;Hommer, Roger B.;Cannon, Roderick D.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.255-265
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    • 2006
  • The oxidation of hydrazobenzene by molecular oxygen in the polar solvent methanol is catalysed by a Schiff's base complex Co(3MeOsalen) which is a synthetic oxygen carrier. The products are trans-azobenzene and water. The rate of the reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically and the rate law established. A mechanism involving a ternary complex of catalyst, hydrazobenzene and molecular oxygen has been proposed. The kinetic studies show that a ternary complex $CoL{\cdot}H_2AB{\cdot}O_2$ is involved in the rate determining step. The reactions are summarised in a catalytic cycle. The kinetic data suggest that a ternary complex involving Co(3MeOsalen), triphenyl-phosphine and molecular oxygen is catalytically acive species but at higher triphenylphosphine concentrations the catalyst becomes inactive. The destruction of the catalytic activity could be due to the catalyst becoming coordinated with triphenyl phosphine at both z axis sites of the complex e.g. Co (3MeOsalen)$(PPh_3)_2$.

Determination of the pKa for Histidine-51 Residue in the Ternary Compelx of Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase

  • Lee, Kang-Man;Son, Su-Yeon
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.229-233
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    • 1992
  • The pKa value of histidine-51 residue was determined by the pH dependency of contents of NADH bound to the active site in the orse liver alcohol dehydrogenase and % inactivation with diethyl pyrocarbonate treatment of the enzyme. The pKa for His-51 was -7.15 in the ternary complex and -6.7 in the enzyme itself.

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R3V6 Amphiphilic Peptide with High Mobility Group Box 1A Domain as an Efficient Carrier for Gene Delivery

  • Ryu, Jaehwan;Jeon, Pureum;Lee, Minhyung
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.12
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    • pp.3665-3670
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    • 2013
  • The R3V6 peptide includes a hydrophilic arginine stretch and a hydrophobic valine stretch. In previous studies, the R3V6 peptide was evaluated as a gene carrier and was found to have low cytotoxicity. However, the transfection efficiency of R3V6 was lower than that of poly-L-lysine (PLL) in N2A neuroblastoma cells. In this study, the transfection efficiency of R3V6 was improved in combination with high mobility group box 1A domain (HMGA). HMGA is originated from the nuclear protein and has many positively-charged amino acids. Therefore, HMGA binds to DNA via charge interaction. In addition, HMGA has a nuclear localization signal peptide and may increase the delivery efficiency of DNA into the nucleus. The ternary complex with HMGA, R3V6, and DNA was prepared and evaluated as a gene carrier. First, the HMGA/DNA complex was prepared with a negative surface charge. Then, R3V6 was added to the complex to coat the negative charges of the HMGA/DNA complex, forming the ternary complex of HMGA, R3V6, and DNA. A physical characterization study showed that the ternary complex was more stable than the PLL/DNA complex. The HMGA/R3V6/DNA complex had a higher transfection efficiency than the PLL/DNA, HMGA/DNA, or R3V6/DNA complexes in N2A cells. Furthermore, the HMGA/R3V6/DNA complex was not toxic to cells. Therefore, the HMGA/R3V6/DNA complex may be a useful gene delivery carrier.

Tandem Mass Spectrometric Evidence for the Involvement of a Lysine Basic Side Chain in the Coordination of Zn(II) Ion within a Zinc-bound Lysine Ternary Complex

  • Yu, Sung-Hyun;Lee, Sun-Young;Chung, Gyu-Sung;Oh, Han-Bin
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.1477-1483
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    • 2004
  • We present the tandem mass spectrometry applications carried out to elucidate the coordination structure of Zn(II) bound lysine ternary complexes, $(Zn+Lys+Lys-H)^+$, which is a good model system to represent a simple (metallo)enzyme-substrate complex (ES). In particular, experimental efforts were focused on revealing the involvement of a lysine side chain ${\varepsilon}$-amino group in the coordination of $Zn^{2+}$ divalent ions. MS/MS fragmentation pattern showed that all the oxygen species within a complex fell off in the form of $H_2O$ in contrast to those of other ternary complexes containing amino acids with simple side chains (4-coordinate geometries, Figure 1a), suggesting that the lysine complexes have different coordination structures from the others. The participation of a lysine basic side chain in the coordination of Zn(II) was experimentally evidenced in MS/MS for $N{\varepsilon}$-Acetyl-L-Lys Zn(II) complexes with acetyl protection groups as well as in MS/MS for the ternary complexes with one $NH_3$ loss, $(Zn+Lys+Lys-NH_3-H)^+$. Detailed structures were predicted using ab initio calculations on $(Zn+Lys+Lys-H)^+$ isomers with 4-, 5-, and 6-coordinate structures. A zwitterionic 4-coordinate complex (Figure 7d) and a 5-coordinate structure with distorted bipyramidal geometry (Figure 7b) are found to be most plausible in terms of energy stability and compatibility with the experimental observations, respectively.

Spectrofluorimeteric Determination of Oxalate Based on Its Ternary Complex Between Eu3+ and Thenoyltrifluoroacetone

  • Cha, Ki-Won;Huang, Hua-Zi;Choi, Hyun Cheol
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1456-1458
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    • 2002
  • A simple, sensitive and selective determination method of oxalate has been investigated based on the fluorescence enhancement of $Eu^{3+}$-TTA complex due to the formation of $Eu^{3+}$-TTA-oxalate ternary complex. An emission peak of $Eu^{3+}$-TTA, which is increased linearly with addition of oxalate, occurs at 610 nm in aqueous solution with excitation at 306 nm. The linear range of the calibration curve is 1 ${\times}$$10^{-6}$-8 ${\times}$$10^{-6}$ M and the detection limit is 1 ${\times}$$10^{-6}$ M. The effects of foreign ions were studied. The present method was applied to determine oxalate of two synthetic samples.

Structural Basis for Recognition of L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino Butyric Acid by Lysine Cyclodeaminase

  • Min, Kyungjin;Yoon, Hye-Jin;Matsuura, Atsushi;Kim, Yong Hwan;Lee, Hyung Ho
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.331-341
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    • 2018
  • L-pipecolic acid is a non-protein amino acid commonly found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. It is a well-known precursor to numerous microbial secondary metabolites and pharmaceuticals, including anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, and several antibiotics. Lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD) catalyzes ${\beta}$-deamination of L-lysine into L-pipecolic acid using ${\beta}$-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. Expression of a human homolog of LCD, ${\mu}$-crystallin, is elevated in prostate cancer patients. To understand the structural features and catalytic mechanisms of LCD, we determined the crystal structures of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis LCD (SpLCD) in (i) a binary complex with $NAD^+$, (ii) a ternary complex with $NAD^+$ and L-pipecolic acid, (iii) a ternary complex with $NAD^+$ and L-proline, and (iv) a ternary complex with $NAD^+$ and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. The overall structure of SpLCD was similar to that of ornithine cyclodeaminase from Pseudomonas putida. In addition, SpLCD recognized L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid despite differences in the active site, including differences in hydrogen bonding by Asp236, which corresponds with Asp228 from Pseudomonas putida ornithine cyclodeaminase. The substrate binding pocket of SpLCD allowed substrates smaller than lysine to bind, thus enabling binding to ornithine and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. Our structural and biochemical data facilitate a detailed understanding of substrate and product recognition, thus providing evidence for a reaction mechanism for SpLCD. The proposed mechanism is unusual in that $NAD^+$ is initially converted into NADH and then reverted back into $NAD^+$ at a late stage of the reaction.

Effect of Salicylic and Picolinic Acids Acids on the Adsorption of U(VI) onto Oxides (산화물 표면의 U(VI) 흡착에 미치는 살리실산과 피콜린산의 영향)

  • Park, Kyoung-Kyun;Jung, Euo-Chang;Cho, Hye-Ryun;Song, Kyu-Seok
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.219-227
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    • 2009
  • The effect of organic acids on the adsorption of U(VI) onto oxide surfaces ($TiO_2)$(anatase), $SiO_2$(amorphous) and $Al_2O_3$(amorphous)) has been investigated. Two different organic acids, salicylic and picolinic acids, were used. Changes of adsorption ratio of U(VI), which depend on the existence of organic acids in a sample, were measured as a function of pH. Quantities of adsorbed organic acids, which depend on the existence of U(VI) in a sample, were also measured as a function of pH. It is confirmed that the soluble complex formation of U(VI) with organic acids can deteriorate the adsorption of U(VI) onto $TiO_2$ surface. It is noteworthy that salicylic acid does not affect the adsorption of U(VI) onto $SiO_2$ surface, however, picolinic acid enhances the adsorption of U(VI) onto $SiO_2$ surface. The latter effect can be understood by considering the formation of a ternary surface complex on $SiO_2$ surface, which was confirmed by the co-adsorption of picolinic acid with U(VI) and the change in a fluorescence spectra of U(VI) on surface, In the case of $Al_2O_3$, organic acids themselves were largely adsorbed onto a surface without deteriorating the adsorption of U(VI). This would support the possibility of a ternary surface complex formation on the $Al_2O_3$ surface, and an additional spectroscopic study is required.

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