• Title, Summary, Keyword: Th1/Th2 balance

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Effects of Piperis Longi Fructus on Regulatory T Cells Number, IgE, Histamine Production in Asthma Model Mice and Th1/Th2 Cytokine Balance in vitro (천식 모델 생쥐에서 필발이 CD25+T 세포수, IgE, Histamine 생성량과 in vitro에서 Th1/Th2 Cytokine Balance에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Young-Cheol;Kim, Seung-Hyung
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.79-88
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : It has been recently shown that Piperis Longi Fructus (PLF) is involved in the reduction of eosinophil recruitment and production of Th2 cytokines in vivo. However, the main therapeutic mechanisms of PLF remains a matter of considerable debate. To investigate the therapeutic mechanisms of PLF, we examined the influence of PLF on regulatory T cells number, IgE, histamine production in vivo and Th1/Th2 cytokine balance in vitro. Methods : All mice were immunized on two different days (21 days and 7 days before inhalational exposure) by i.p. injections of 0.2 $m\ell$ alum-precipitated Ag containing 100 ${\mu}g$ of OVA bound to 4 mg of aluminum hydroxide in PBS. Seven days after the second sensitization, mice were exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin for 30 min/day on 3 days/week for 12 weeks(at a flow rate of 250 L/min, 2.5% ovalbumin in normal saline) and PLF (150 mg/kg) were orally administered 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice at 8 weeks of age were stimulated with anti-CD3 (1 mg/ml) plus anti-CD28 (1 mg/ml) antibody for 48hrs. IL-4 and IFN-$\gamma$ in the culture supernatants were measured by ELISA Results : The suppressive effects of PLF on asthma model were demonstrated by the increase the number of regulatory T cells and by reducing IgE, histamine production in vivo and modulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. Conclusions : These results indicate that PLF has a deep inhibitory effects on asthma model mice by increase the number of regulatory T cells, and by reducing IgE, histamine production.

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The Relationship Between Balance and Gait Outcome in Patients With Stroke (뇌졸중환자의 균형과 보행능력과의 관계)

  • Kim, Myoung-Jin;Yi, Chung-Hwi;Chung, Bo-In;Lee, Young-Hee
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.17-29
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between sitting and standing balance in acute stroke patients and gait outcome, and to determine appropriate test times. The subjects of this study were 20 hemiplegic patients who had been hospitalized in Sangji University Oriental Medical Hospital from August 26, 1997 through November 3, 1997. Twenty patients with cerebral infarcts had sitting and standing balance assessed on the 5th day and 10th day of stroke onset. Gait outcome was assessed 5 weeks later using the MMAS (Modified Motor Assessment Scale) score. The data were analyzed by the Spearman's Rho test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. The results were as follows: 1) Correlation coefficients between sitting balance on the 5th day and 10th day after their stroke and gait outcome 5 weeks after their stroke were $r_s$=0.89 and $r_s$=0.83, respectively. All of the sitting balance data significantly correlated with gait outcome (p<0.05). 2) Correlation coefficients between standing balance on the 5th day and 10th day after their stroke and gait outcome 5 weeks after their stroke were $r_s$=0.82 and $r_s$=0.87, respectively. All of the standing balance data significant1y correlated with gait outcome (p<0.05). 3) The difference between sitting balance scores on the 5th day and 10th day after stroke onset were statistically significant (p<0.05). But the difference between standing balance scores on the 5th day and 10th day after stroke onset were not statistically significant (p>0.05). In conclusion, sitting and standing balance tests on the 5th day and 10th day after their stroke appear to be predictive of gait outcome. Also, the result of this study can provide reference for appropriate test times as an assessment of sitting and standing balance in stroke patients.

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Effects of Anti-Asthma Agents on Cytokine and Prostaglandin Production in Ovalbumin-Sensitized Splenocytes

  • Won, Tae-Joon;Lee, Chan-Woo;Kwon, Seok-Joong;Lee, Do-Ik;Park, So-Young;Hwang, Kwang-Woo
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.388-394
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    • 2009
  • The cytokines which is produced by allergen-specific T helper (Th) cells play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma is caused by exaggerated T-helper 2 (Th2)-based immune responses. It is suggested that controlling such Th2-based response is necessary for asthma therapy. The current therapies for asthma focus primarily on control of symptoms and suppression of inflammation, without affecting the underlying cause. So, we examined that anti-asthmatic drugs might have play a certain role in Th2/Th1 balance. Splenocytes isolated from ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice cultured with anti-asthmatic drugs. It is well known that Th2 and Th1 immune responses can balance one another, as Th2 mediators suppress Th1 responses and Th1 mediators similarly inhibit Th2 responses. But salmeterol inhibits both of Th1 and Th2 mediators, which salmeterol is a suppressor of immune responses not only a suppressor of Th2-based immune responses. Aminophylline is a weak suppressor of immune responses. But ipratropium and cromoglycate don't have any suppressor effect to Th2-driven responses. They only have suppressor effect to Th1 immune responses. Salmeterol, ipratropium, aminophylline, and cromoglycate augmented mRNA levels of CRTH2, EP2, and IP2 receptors in OVA-sensitized splenocytes. It is well known that the up-regulation of CRTH2 - $PGD_2$ receptor - results in restraint of eosinophil recruitment and that the increment of IP and EP2 - $PGI_2$ and $PGE_2$ receptor, respectively - may induce the accumulation of cAMP that decrease the effector function of T cells. Moreover salmeterol and cromoglycate increase the mRNA expression of $PGD_2$ synthase. These findings indicate that anti-asthma agents may alleviate the immunological responses that cause the asthmatic diseases.

Immunomodulatory Effects by Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563 in Mouse Splenocytes and Macrophages

  • Choi, Mijoo;Lee, Yunjung;Lee, Na-Kyoung;Bae, Chun Ho;Park, Dae Chul;Paik, Hyun-Dong;Park, Eunju
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1739-1744
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    • 2019
  • The present study evaluates the immunomodulatory effect of Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563 in murine primary splenocytes and macrophages. B. longum KACC 91563 regulated T- and B-cell proliferation and inhibited the Th1 (IL-2, IFN-γ)/Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) cytokine imbalance and immune cytokine production. Moreover, immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly lower after treatment with B. longum KACC 91563. These findings suggest that B. longum KACC 91563 could modulate the systemic immune system toward both IgE production and regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (EC-18) Modulates Th2 Immunity through Attenuation of IL-4 Expression

  • Yoon, Sun Young;Kang, Ho Bum;Ko, Young-Eun;Shin, Su-Hyun;Kim, Young-Jun;Sohn, Ki-Young;Han, Yong-Hae;Chong, Saeho;Kim, Jae Wha
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.100-109
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    • 2015
  • Controlling balance between T-helper type 1 (Th1) and T-helper type 2 (Th2) plays a pivotal role in maintaining the biological rhythm of Th1/Th2 and circumventing diseases caused by Th1/Th2 imbalance. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a Th2-type cytokine and often associated with hypersensitivity-related diseases such as atopic dermatitis and allergies when overexpressed. In this study, we have tried to elucidate the function of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (EC-18) as an essential modulator of Th1/Th2 balance. EC-18 has showed an inhibitory effect on the production of IL-4 in a dose-dependent manner. RT-PCR analysis has proved EC-18 affect the transcription of IL-4. By analyzing the phosphorylation status of Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6), which is a transcriptional activator of IL-4 expression, we discovered that EC-18 induced the decrease of STAT6 activity in several stimulated cell lines, which was also showed in STAT6 reporter analysis. Co-treatment of EC-18 significantly weakened atopy-like phenotypes in mice treated with an allergen. Collectively, our results suggest that EC-18 is a potent Th2 modulating factor by regulating the transcription of IL-4 via STAT6 modulation, and could be developed for immune-modulatory therapeutics.

Effects of Thermotherapy on Th1/Th2 Cells in Esophageal Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy

  • Hong, Mei;Jiang, Zao;Zhou, Ying-Feng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2359-2362
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    • 2014
  • Background: To investigate the effects of double radiofrequency hyperthermia on Th1/Th2 cells in esophageal cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: 22 patients with esophageal cancer were divided into a radiotherapy group (10 cases) and a combined group (double radiofrequency hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy group, 12 cases). Both groups received conventional radiotherapy using a cobalt-60 therapy apparatus (TD60-66Gy/30-33F). Patients in the combined group also underwent double radiofrequency hyperthermia (2F/W, 8-10F). Before and after treatment, Th1, Th2, Tc1 and Tc2 cells in peripheral blood were determined with flow cytometry. Results: In the radiotherapy group, Th1 cell contents before and after radiotherapy were $17.5{\pm}5.26%$ and $9.69{\pm}4.86%$, respectively, with a significant difference (p<0.01). The Th1/Th2 ratio was significantly decreased from $28.2{\pm}14.3$ to $16.5{\pm}10.4 $(p<0.01). In the combined group, Th1 cell content before radiotherapy was $15.9{\pm}8.18%$, and it increased to $18.6{\pm}8.84$ after radiotherapy (p>0.05), the Th1/Th2 ratio decreasing from $38.4{\pm}36.3$ to $28.1{\pm}24.0$ (p>0.05). Changes in Th2, Tc1 and Tc2 cell levels were not significant in the two groups before and after therapy (p>0.05). Conclusions: Double radiofrequency hyperthermia can promote the conversion from Th2 to Th1 cells, and regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 cells.

CpG DNA for Treatment of Allergic Diseases (알레르기 질환의 치료로서의 CpG DNA)

  • Choi, Sung Min
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.251-259
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    • 2005
  • Atopy is a highly prevalent and serious health problem. The prevalence and severity of asthma and allergic diseases have increased over recent decades, particularly in industrialized nations. Early life infections may protect against the development of atopy and allergic diseases like asthma. The inverse relationship between the incidence of atopy and childhood infections has led to the 'hygiene hypothesis', which suggests that diminished exposure to childhood infections in modern society has led to decreased Th1-type responses. Th1 and Th2 responses are counter-regulatory. Reduced Th1 may lead to enhanced Th2-type inflammation, which is important in promoting asthma and allergic disease via up-regulation of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. It is now widely accepted that altered regulation of Th2 responses(and possibly the balance between Th1 and Th2 responses) is an important factor in the development of atopy. CpG DNA represent a novel class of drugs with substantial immunomodulatory properties. CpG DNA contain unmethylated motifs centered on the CpG dinucleotides, like bacterial DNA. These CpG DNA promote Th1 and regulatory type immune responses and suppress Th2 responses. In murine studies, CpG DNA are effective in prevention and treatment of asthma and allergic diseases. CpG DNA are just beginning to be tested in human asthma. While its precise mechanisms continue to be fully studied, CpG DNA offers considerable promise as a novel treatment for atopic inflammation. It may prove to be an important disease modifying therapy, or even curative therapeutic agent for asthma and allergic diseases.

Effect of the Fall Prevention Program(EPP) on gait, balance and muscle strength in elderly women at a nursing home (낙상예방 프로그램이 양로원 여성노인의 보행, 균형 및 근력에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeon, Mi-Yang;Choe, Myoung-Ae
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.5-23
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    • 2002
  • Purpose: To determine the effect of the Fall Prevention Program(EPP) on gait, balance and muscle strength in elderly women at a nursing home. Method: The subjects of this consisted of 38 elderly women between the ages of 70 to 89 years living at a nursing home located in Seoul. Each of the experimental group and control group was composed of 19 subjects. The subjects in experimental group have participated in FPP for the 8 weeks which consisted of exercise, education and foot care. They started to exercise for 40 minutes per session, 3 sessions a week during the 1st week at 40% of age adjusted maximum heart rate. From the 2nd week to the 4th week, they increased the duration of exercise to 50 minutes per session and the intensity to 60% of age-adjusted maximum heart rate. They participated in 50 minutes at 60% of age-adjusted maximum heart rate from the 5th week to the 8th week. Each exercise session consisted of 10 minutes of warming-up exercise, 30 minutes of conditioning exercise and 10 minutes of cooling-down exercise. They participated in education for 20 minutes per week from the 1st week to the 4th week. Then they participated in a 30-minute foot care program per week from the 5th week to the 8th week. Gait, balance and muscle strength for each subject were measured before and after FPP. Gait was evaluated by step length, step width, gait speed and walking distance. Balance was measured by the duration of standing on one leg with their eyes closed and open each, and a get-up and go test. Grip strength was measured by hand dynamometer. Hip extensor and flexor strength, knee extensor and flexor strength and ankle plantarflexor and dorsiflexor strength were measured by manual muscle tester. Data was analyzed using SPSS form Windows. t-test and Chi square test were utilized as a homogeneity test. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to test the effect of FPP. Result: 1) Step width significantly decreased, and step length, gait speed and walking distance significantly increased in the experimental group compared with the control group after FPP(p<0.005). 2) There was no significant change in standing time on one leg with their eyes closed after FPP. The standing time on leg with their eyes open and the time of "get-up and go" significantly decreased in the experimental group compared with the control group after FPP(p<0.005). 3) Muscle strength-grip strength, hip extensor and flexor strength-significantly increased in the experimental group compared with the control group after FPP(p<0.005). 4) There was no significant difference of frequency of fall between the experimental group and control group during the period of FPP. Conclusion: These results suggest that FPP can increase gait, balance and muscle strength of elderly women at a nursing home.

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Anti-inflammatory Effects and its Mechanisms of Hesperidin in an Asthmatic Mouse Model Induced by Ovalbumin

  • Chang, Jeong-Hyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 2010
  • Hesperidin, a member of the flavanone group of flavonoids, can be isolated in large amounts from the rinds of some citrus species [e.g., Citrus aurantium L. (bitter orange), Citrus sinensis L. (sweet orange) and Citrus unshiu Marcov. (satsuma mandarin)], and has been reported to have anticarcinogenic, antihypotensive and antimicrobial properties. Despite the efficacy of these polyphenolic compounds as immune modulators, the effects of the flavonoids are poorly understood about allergic effect. In this study, we investigated whether hesperidin could influence on Th1 and Th2 balance. Allergic reactions included an increase in the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, an increase in inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung tissue around blood vessels and airways, airway luminal narrowing, the development of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). The administration of hesperidin before the last airway OVA challenge resulted in a significant inhibition of all asthmatic reactions. Accordingly, this study may provide evidence that hesperidin plays a critical role in the amelioration of the pathogenetic process of asthma in mice. These findings provide new insight into the immunopharmacological role of hesperidin in terms of its effects in a murine model of asthma, and also broaden current perspectives in our understanding of the immunopharmacological functions of hesperidin.

Identification of DC21 as a Novel Target Gene Counter-regulated by IL-12 and IL-4

  • Kong, Kyoung-Ah;Jang, Ji-Young;Lee, Choong-Eun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.623-628
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    • 2002
  • The Th1 vs. Th2 balance is critical for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Therefore, the genes that are selectively-regulated by the Th1 and Th2 cytokines are likely to play an important role in the Th1 and Th2 immune responses. In order to search for and identify the novel target genes that are differentially regulated by the Th1/Th2 cytokines, the human PBMC mRNAs differentially expressed upon the stimulation with IL-4 or IL-12, were screened by employing the differential display-polymerase chain reaction. Among a number of clones selected, DC21 was identified as a novel target gene that is regulated by IL-4 and IL-12. The DC21 gene expression was up-regulated either by IL-4 or IL-12, yet counter-regulated by co-treatment with IL-4 and IL-12. DC21 is a dendritic cell protein with an unknown function. The sequence analysis and conserved-domain search revealed that it has two AU-rich motifs in the 3'UTR, which is a target site for the regulation of mRNA stability by cytokines, and that it belongs to the N-acetyltransferase family. The induction of DC21 by IL-12 peaked around 8-12 h, and lasted until 24 h. LY294002 and SB203580 significantly suppressed the IL-12-induced DC21 gene expression, which implies that PI3K and p38/JNK are involved in the IL-12 signal transduction pathway that leads to the DC21 expression. Furthermore, tissue blot data indicated that DC21 is highly expressed in tissues with specialized-resident macrophages, such as the lung, liver, kidney, and placenta. Together, these data suggest a possible role for DC21 in the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells regulated by IL-4 and IL-12.