• Title, Summary, Keyword: Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13)

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The Suppressive Effect on Th2 Cytokines Expression and the Signal Transduction Mechanism in MC/9 Mast Cells by PRAL (MC/9 비만세포에서 행인(杏仁) 추출물의 Th2 cytokine 발현 억제 효과 및 신호전달 기전 연구)

  • Kang, Ki Yeon;Han, Jae Kyung;Kim, Yun Hee
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.23-39
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    • 2014
  • Objectives PRAL (Prunus armniaca Linne Var) is a herbal formula in Oriental Medicine, known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergenic properties. However, its mechanism of action and the cellular targets have not yet been found enough. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of PRAL on Th2 cytokines expression in MC/9 mast cells. Methods The effect of PRAL was analyzed by ELISA, Real-time PCR, Western blot in MC/9 mast cells. mRNA levels of GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, TNF-${\alpha}$ were analyzed with Real-time PCR. Levels of IL-13, MIP-$1{\alpha}$ were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). NFAT, AP-1 and NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 were examined by Western blot analysis. Results PRAL inhibited GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, TNF-${\alpha}$ mRNA expression in a dose dependent manner. GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-5 mRNA expression were inhibited significantly in comparison to DNP-IgE control group at concentration of 100 ${\mu}g/ml$ and IL-6, IL-13, TNF-${\alpha}$ mRNA expression were inhibited at concentration of 50 ${\mu}g/ml$, 100 ${\mu}g/ml$. PRAL also inhibited the IL-13, MIP-$1{\alpha}$ production significantly in comparison to DNP-IgE control group in a dose dependent manner. IL-13 production was inhibited at a concentration of 200 ${\mu}g/ml$, 400 ${\mu}g/ml$ and MIP-$1{\alpha}$ was inhibited at a concentration of 100 ${\mu}g/ml$, 200 ${\mu}g/ml$, 400 ${\mu}g/ml$. Western blot analysis of transcription factors involving Th2 cytokines expression revealed prominent decrease of the mast cell specific transcription factors including NFAT-1, c-Jun as well as NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 but not NFAT-2 and c-Fos. Conclusion These results indicate that PRAL has the effect of suppressing Th2 cytokines production in the MC/9 mast cells. These data represent that PRAL potentiates therapeutic activities to the allergic disease by regulating Th2 cytokines in the MC/9 mast cells.

The Suppressive Effect of Th2 Cytokines Expression and the Signal Transduction Mechanism in MC/9 Mast Cells by Forsythiae Fructus Extracts (비만세포에서 연교(連翹) 추출물의 Th2 사이토카인 발현 및 신호전달 기전 억제 효과)

  • Lee, Jin Hwa;Han, Jae Kyung;Kim, Yun Hee
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.31-46
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    • 2014
  • Objectives Forsythiae Fructus treatment has been used for inflammatory and allergic diseases in Korean Medicine. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action and the cellular targets are not understood well. The pathogenesis of allergic diseases are associated with Th2 cytokines such as IL-13, MIP-$1{\alpha}$, IL-13, IL-5, GM-CSF, IL-4, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6, which are secreted by the mast cells. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Forsythiae Fructus extracts (FF) on Th2 cytokines expression and signal transduction in MC/9 mast cells. Methods In the study, MC/9 mast cells were stimulated with DNP-IgE for 24 hours and then treated separately with CsA $10{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ and varying doses of FF for one hour. MC/9 mast cells stimulated with DNP-IgE was the control group, a treatment with CsA was the positive control group and a treatment with varying doses FF was the experimental groups. The mRNA levels of IL-13, IL-5, GM-CSF, IL-4, TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-6 were analyzed with Real-time PCR. The levels of IL-13, MIP-$1{\alpha}$ were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays(ELISA). NFAT, AP-1 and NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 were examined by Western blot analysis. Results 1. FF were observed to suppress the mRNA expression of IL-13, IL-5, GM-CSF, IL-4, TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-6 in comparison to DNP-IgE control group. 2. FF also has inhibited the IL-13, MIP-$1{\alpha}$ production significantly in comparison to DNP-IgE control group. 3. Western blot analysis of transduction factors involving Th2 cytokines expression has revealed a prominent decrease of the mast cell specific transduction factors including NFAT-1, NFAT-2, c-Jun, and NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 but c-Fos. Conclusions In conclusion, the anti-allergenic activities of FF may be strongly related to the regulation of transcription factors NFAT-1, NFAT-2, c-Jun, and NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 causing inhibition of Th2 cytokines in mast cells.

Suppressive effects of Th2 cytokines expression and the signal transduction mechanism in MC/9 mast cells by flavonol derived from Ginkgo biloba leaves (비만세포에서 은행잎 플라보놀에 의한 Th2 Cytokine 발현 및 신호전달 억제 기전 효과)

  • Kwon, Hae-Young;Chung, Kyu-Jin;Cheong, Kwang-Jo
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.503-514
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    • 2015
  • The effects of Flavonol contents from Ginkgo biloba leaf on anti-atopy activity have not rarely been verified. This study is to investigate the effects of flavonol on Th2 cytokine production in MC/9 mast cells. For this, flavonol was analyzed by ELISA and Real-time PCR. Analysis results showed that flavonol significantly suppressed production of Th2 cytokines(IL-13, MIP-1a) in a dose dependent manner. The mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TNF-a were effectively restrained by Flavonol at the concentration 25,50,$100{\mu}g/m{\ell}$. And decrease of expression of NFAT-1, c-jun protein was confirmed by western blot analysis. These results indicate that flavonol has effects of decreasing the Th2 cytokine production in the MC/9 mast cell causing inhibition of transcription factors such as NFAT-1, c-jun. Thus, we would like to brief that flavonol may have the applicability as therapeutic agent for atopic dermatitis.

Effects of Ato-tang on DNCB-induced atopic dermatitis in Mice (아토피피부염 동물 병태 모델에서 아토탕의 개선효과)

  • Kim, Gun-Woo;Kim, Dong-Hee
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : The aim of this study is to investigate anti-atopic dermatitis effect using ato-tang.Methods : Ato-tang was external treatment to NC/Nga mice for 4 weeks, where atopic dermatitis was induced by DNCB at 1% and 0.4% for 3 weeks. Atopic dermatitis index score was measured using eye observation and picture evaluation. The histopathological change of dorsal skin was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Cytokines including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 were measured by Luminex or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and immunoglobulin E (IgE) was measured by ELISA reader.Results : The dorsal skin of Ato-tang group showed decrease in erythema, pruritus, dry skin, edema, excoriation, erosion and lichenification level through naked eye observations. Immunoglobulin cell infiltration and the thickness of epidermis were significantly decreased in the dorsal skin compared to control. Production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) and IgE level in serum were all significantly decreased, in comparison with control. In addition, mRNA expression level of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) in spleen was decreased, in comparison with control.Conclusion : The results indicated that external treatment of ato was improved skin barrier function in the symptoms of atopic dermatitis disease. Also, atopic dermatitis factors where cytokine as well as immunoglobulin E in serum and mRNA expression were decreased, respectively, in comparison with control. Therefore, we suggest that ato could be effectively used as a external therapeutic drug based on atopic dermatitis factors.

Suppressive effects of Morus alba Linne Root Bark (MRAL) on activation of MC/9 mast cells (상백피에 의한 MC/9 비만세포의 활성 억제 조절 연구)

  • Lee, Ki Jeon;Kim, Bok Kyu;Kil, Ki Jung
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.33-42
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    • 2013
  • Objective : Morus alba Linne Root Bark (MRAL) is a medicinal herb in Korean Medicine, known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties. However, its mechanisms of action and the cellular targets have not yet been found and the study was developed to investigate the allergic suppressive effect of MRAL. The purpose of this study is to investigate the allergic suppressive effects of MRAL on activation of MC/9 mast cells. Methods : Cytotoxic activity of MRAL (50, 100, 200, 400 ${\mu}g/mL$) on MC/9 mast cells measured using EZ-Cytox cell viability assay kit (WST reagent). The levels of interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 and IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13 mRNA expression were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time PCR respectively. The expression of transcription factors such as GATA-1, GATA-2, NFAT, AP-1 and NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 DNA binding activity were measured by western blot and electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA). Results : Our results indicated that MRAL (50 ${\mu}g/mL$, 100 ${\mu}g/mL$) significantly inhibited PMA/Ionomycin-induced production of IL-5 and IL-13 and the expression of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-13 mRNA in MC/9 mast cells. Moreover, MRAL (50 ${\mu}g/mL$, 100 ${\mu}g/mL$) inhibited PMA/Ionomycin-induced GATA-1, GATA-2, NFAT-1, NFAT-2, c-Fos protein expression and NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 DNA binding activity in MC/9 mast cells. Conclusions : In conclusion, we suspect the anti-allergenic activities of MRAL, may be related to the regulation of transcription factors GATA-1, GATA-2, NFAT-1, NFAT-2, c-Fos and NF-${\kappa}B$ p65 DNA binding assay causing inhibition of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in mast cells.

Suppressive Effects of Cyanidin-3-glucoside on Th2 Cytokines Production in RBL-2H3 Cells (RBL-2H3 세포에서 Cyanidin-3-glucoside의 Th2 사이토카인 발현 억제 효과)

  • Jeong, Hwa Hyun;Yoon, Soo Jeong;Pyo, Myoung Yun
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.57 no.5
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    • pp.309-315
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    • 2013
  • Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), an anthocyanin, is one of the most widespread dietary flavonoids. We investigated the effects of C3G in PMA/ionomycin (PI)-induced RBL-2H3 cells. C3G inhibited the production of IL-4 and IL-13 and also decreased the level of mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, western blot analysis implied that C3G down-regulated the protein level of c-Jun, NF-ATc1 and NF-${\kappa}B$ but not c-Fos. Taken together, we suggest that C3G may have suppressive effects on Th2 cytokines and will be studied further to develop as functional foods that help alleviate allergy symptoms.

Role of IL-23 and Th17 Cells in Airway Inflammation in Asthma

  • Nakajima, Hiroshi;Hirose, Koichi
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 2010
  • Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation with intense eosinophil and lymphocyte infiltration, mucus hyperproduction, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Accumulating evidence indicates that antigen-specific Th2 cells and their cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 orchestrate these pathognomonic features of asthma. In addition, we and others have recently shown that IL-17-producing $CD4^+$ T cells (Th17 cells) and IL-23, an IL-12-related cytokine that is essential for survival and functional maturation of Th17 cells, are involved in antigen-induced airway inflammation. In this review, our current understanding of the roles of IL-23 and Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation will be summarized.

Preventive Effects of a Probiotic Mixture in an Ovalbumin-Induced Food Allergy Model

  • Shin, Hee-Soon;Eom, Ji-Eun;Shin, Dong-Uk;Yeon, Sung-Hum;Lim, Seong-Il;Lee, So-Young
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.65-76
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    • 2018
  • Although there has been a steady increase in the prevalence of food allergies worldwide in recent decades, no effective therapeutic strategies have been developed. Modulation of the gut microbiota composition and/or function through probiotics has been highlighted as a promising target for protection against food allergies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the allergy-reducing effects of a probiotic mixture (P5: Lactococcus lactis KF140, Pediococcus pentosaceus KF159, Lactobacillus pentosus KF340, Lactobacillus paracasei 698, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 26N) in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy. Administration of P5 significantly suppressed the oral OVA challenge-induced anaphylactic response and rectal temperature decline, and reduced diarrhea symptoms. Moreover, P5 also significantly inhibited the secretion of IgE, Th2 cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13), and Th17 cytokines (IL-17), which were increased in mice with OVA-induced food allergy, and induced generation of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. These results revealed that P5 may have applications as a preventive agent against food allergy.

The Effects of Haepyoijin-tang on the Cytokines in Asthma Model (해표이진탕가감방이 천식 모델 내의 Cytokine에 미치는 영향)

  • 백동진;정희재;이형구;정승기
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.57-67
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    • 2000
  • Currently asthma is considered to be an inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia, and mediated by Th lymphocytes expressing a Th 2 cytokine pattern. In many recent studies, molecular biological methods have been used to investigate the role of cytokines in pathogenesis and new therapeutic targets of asthma. Objectives: We aimed to identify the effect of Haepyoijin-tang on the transcriptional activities of cytokines involved in the asthma model. Materials and Methods: RBL-2H3 cell lines were used. Cells were stimulated with DNP-IgE or Calcium inophore+PMA for maximal gene expression. After 24 hours of Haepyoijin-tang-treatment, total cellular RNAs were collected using the Trizol solution method. Then the transcriptional activities of cytokines(IL-1, 4, 5, 10, 13, $TNF-{\alpha}$) were measured by RT-PCR with electrophoresis. Results: DNP-IgE and Calcium inophore+PMA induced IL-4/IL-5 production separately peaked at 3 hours after the stimulation, but the efficacy was better in the Calcium inophore+PMA group. In the IL-4 study, sample groups of 10%, 1 %, 0.01 % Haepyoijin-tang-treatment showed 83%, 98%, 96% of transcriptional activities compared to the control group. In the IL-5 study, sample groups of 10%, 1%, 0.1 %, 0.01 % Haepyoijin-tang showed 97%, 99%, 99%, 99% of transcriptional activities compared to the control group. In other studies any result was not obtained. Conclusions: This study shows that Haepyoijin-tang has an inhibitory effect on the transcription of IL-4 and IL-5 gene expression in RBL-2H3 cell lines. Advanced studies are required to investigate the mechanisms of inhibition by herbal medicine in the asthma model.

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Effect of Sagunja-tang on Immune Function of Mouse Immune Cells (四君子湯이 免疫機能에 미치는 影響)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Jung, Myung;Lim, Kyu-Sang;Yun, Yong-Gab
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.14-29
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    • 2015
  • Objectives : The extract of Sagunja-tang has been traditionally used for restorative treatment of constitutional weakness, vascular and immune disorder, and nervous disease in Oriental country. This study investigated the regulatory effects of Sagunja-tang on the expression, production, and activity of immune mediators.Methods : In this study, the extract of Sagunja-tang was prepared by extracting with distilled water at 100$^{\circ}C$ for 2.5h. The extract was freeze-dried following filtration through 0.45${{\mu}m}$ filter. The extract was dissolved in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and filtered again through 0.45${{\mu}m}$ filter before use. The level of nitrite, an oxidative product of nitric oxide(NO) was measured in the culture medium by the Griess reaction. The levels of prostaglandin E2(PGE2), Th1 cytokines (IFN-${\gamma}$, IL-2) and Th2 cytokines(IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Also examined the effects of the extract on T-cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells.Results : In this investigation, Production levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by treatment with the extract. I also found that the extract increased T-cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conculsions : These results suggest that the water extract of Sagunja-tang may be useful for a therapeutic drug against a sickly constitution and immune diseases, probably by regulating the production of immune mediators.