• Title, Summary, Keyword: Thick Composite Laminates

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Finite Element Analysis for the Design of Fiber Reinforced Metal Cylinder (강/복합재 이중구조 실린더 설계를 위한 유한요소 해석)

  • Kim, Tae-Hwan;Kim, Wie-Dae;Jeong, Chul-Gon
    • Composites Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2013
  • This paper describes the design of dual-structured and thick-walled cylinder made of composites and special steel. The structure of special steel and composites reduce the weight of a product maintaining its property which is proper to the characteristics. Hence they are used in the fields, such as various ground weapons, aerospace and sports industries, where high elasticity and low weight are required. Thus in this study, the analysis was conducted to find the most proper composite application method changing its types and angle of laminates for the design. Through the comparison of the results, we suggest the method for composite application which is the most appropriate to the designing purpose of this study.

Pressure loading, end- shortening and through- thickness shearing effects on geometrically nonlinear response of composite laminated plates using higher order finite strip method

  • Sherafat, Mohammad H.;Ghannadpour, Seyyed Amir M.;Ovesy, Hamid R.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.677-691
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    • 2013
  • A semi-analytical finite strip method is developed for analyzing the post-buckling behavior of rectangular composite laminated plates of arbitrary lay-up subjected to progressive end-shortening in their plane and to normal pressure loading. In this method, all the displacements are postulated by the appropriate harmonic shape functions in the longitudinal direction and polynomial interpolation functions in the transverse direction. Thin or thick plates are assumed and correspondingly the Classical Plate Theory (CPT) or Higher Order Plate Theory (HOPT) is applied. The in-plane transverse deflection is allowed at the loaded ends of the plate, whilst the same deflection at the unloaded edges is either allowed to occur or completely restrained. Geometric non-linearity is introduced in the strain-displacement equations in the manner of the von-Karman assumptions. The formulations of the finite strip methods are based on the concept of the principle of the minimum potential energy. The Newton-Raphson method is used to solve the non-linear equilibrium equations. A number of applications involving isotropic plates, symmetric and unsymmetric cross-ply laminates are described to investigate the through-thickness shearing effects as well as the effect of pressure loading, end-shortening and boundary conditions. The study of the results has revealed that the response of the composite laminated plates is particularly influenced by the application of the Higher Order Plate Theory (HOPT) and normal pressure loading. In the relatively thick plates, the HOPT results have more accuracy than CPT.

Investigation on interlaminar shear stresses in laminated composite beam under thermal and mechanical loading

  • Murugesan, Nagaraj;Rajamohan, Vasudevan
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.583-601
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    • 2015
  • In the present study, the combined effects of thermal and mechanical loadings on the interlaminar shear stresses of both moderately thin and thick composite laminated beams are numerically analyzed. The finite element modelling of laminated composite beams and analysis of interlaminar stresses are performed using the commercially available software package MSC NASTRAN/PATRAN. The validity of the finite element analysis (FEA) is demonstrated by comparing the experimental test results obtained due to mechanical loadings under the influence of thermal environment with those derived using the present FEA. Various parametric studies are also performed to investigate the effect of thermal loading on interlaminar stresses generated in symmetric, anti-symmetric, asymmetric, unidirectional, cross-ply, and balanced composite laminated beams of different stacking sequences with identical mechanical loadings and various boundary conditions. It is shown that the elevated thermal environment lead to higher interlaminar shear stresses varying with the stacking sequence, length to thickness ratio, ply orientations under identical mechanical loading and boundary conditions of the composite laminated beams. It is realized that the magnitude of the interlaminar stresses along xz plane is always much higher than those of along yz plane irrespective of the ply-orientation, length to thickness ratios and boundary conditions of the composite laminated beams. It is also observed that the effect of thermal environment on the interlaminar shear stresses in carbon-epoxy fiber reinforced composite laminated beams are increasing in the order of symmetric cross-ply laminate, unidirectional laminate, asymmetric cross-ply laminate and anti-symmetric laminate. The interlaminar shear stresses are higher in thinner composite laminated beams compared to that in thicker composite laminated beams under all environmental temperatures irrespective of the laminate stacking sequence, ply-orientation and boundary conditions.

Critical Buckling Temperatures of Anisotropic Laminated Composite Plates considering a Higher-order Shear Deformation (고차전단변형을 고려한 비등방성 적층복합판의 임계좌굴온도)

  • Han, Seong Cheon;Yoon, Seok Ho;Chang, Suk Yoon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.201-209
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    • 1998
  • The presence of elevated temperature can alter significantly the structural response of fibre-reinforced laminated composites. A thermal environment causes degradation in both strength and constitutive properties, particularly in the case of fibre-reinforced polymeric composites. Furthermore, associated thermal expansion, either alone or in combination with mechanically induced deformation, can result in buckling, large deflections, and excessively high stress levels. Consequently, it is often imperative to consider environmental effects in the analysis and design of laminated systems. Exact analytical solutions of higher-order shear deformation theory is developed to study the thermal buckling of cross-ply and antisymmetric angle-ply rectangular plates. The buckling behavior of moderately thick cross-ply and antisymmetric angle-ply laminates that are simply supported and subject to a uniform temperature rise is analyzed. Numerical results are presented for fiber-reinforced laminates and show the effects of ply orientation, number of layers, plate thickness, and aspects ratio on the critical buckling temperature and compared with those obtained using the classical and first-order shear deformation theory.

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Domain decomposition technique to simulate crack in nonlinear analysis of initially imperfect laminates

  • Ghannadpour, S. Amir M.;Karimi, Mona
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.68 no.5
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    • pp.603-619
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    • 2018
  • In this research, an effective computational technique is carried out for nonlinear and post-buckling analyses of cracked imperfect composite plates. The laminated plates are assumed to be moderately thick so that the analysis can be carried out based on the first-order shear deformation theory. Geometric non-linearity is introduced in the way of von-Karman assumptions for the strain-displacement equations. The Ritz technique is applied using Legendre polynomials for the primary variable approximations. The crack is modeled by partitioning the entire domain of the plates into several sub-plates and therefore the plate decomposition technique is implemented in this research. The penalty technique is used for imposing the interface continuity between the sub-plates. Different out-of-plane essential boundary conditions such as clamp, simply support or free conditions will be assumed in this research by defining the relevant displacement functions. For in-plane boundary conditions, lateral expansions of the unloaded edges are completely free while the loaded edges are assumed to move straight but restricted to move laterally. With the formulation presented here, the plates can be subjected to biaxial compressive loads, therefore a sensitivity analysis is performed with respect to the applied load direction, along the parallel or perpendicular to the crack axis. The integrals of potential energy are numerically computed using Gauss-Lobatto quadrature formulas to get adequate accuracy. Then, the obtained non-linear system of equations is solved by the Newton-Raphson method. Finally, the results are presented to show the influence of crack length, various locations of crack, load direction, boundary conditions and different values of initial imperfection on nonlinear and post-buckling behavior of laminates.

The Effect of the CFRP/GFRP Composite Thickness on AE Characteristics and Mixed Mode Crack Behavior (CFRP/GFRP 적층복합재의 두께가 혼합모드 균열거동과 AE에 미치는 영향)

  • Yun, Yu-Seong;Kim, Da-Jin-Sol;Kwon, Oh-Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2014
  • Recently many efforts and researches have been done to cope with industrial facilities that require a low energy machines due to the gradual depletion of the natural resources. The fiber-reinforced composite materials in general have good properties and have the proper mechanical properties according to the change of the ply sequences and fiber distribution types. However, in the fiber-reinforced composite material, there are several problems, including fiber breaking, peeling, layer lamination, fiber cracking that can not be seen from the metallic material. Particularly, the fracture and delamination are likely to be affected by the thickness of the stacking laminates when the bi-material laminated structure is subjected to a load of the mixed mode. In this study, we investigated the effect of the thickness ratio of the difference in the CFRP/GFRP bi-material laminate composites by measuring the cracking behavior and the AE characteristics in a mixed mode loading, which may be generated in the actual structure. The results show that the thickness of the CFRP becomes more thick, the mode I energy release rate becomes a larger, and also the influence of mode I is greater than that of mode II. In addition, AE amplitude which shows the level of the damage in the structure was obtained the more damage in the CFRP with the thin thickness.

Optimum Design of a Helicopter Tailrotor Driveshaft Using Flexible Matrix Composite (유연복합재를 이용한 헬리콥터 꼬리날개 구동축의 최적 설계)

  • Shin, Eung-Soo;Hong, Eul-Pyo;Lee, Kee-Nyeong;Kim, Ock-Hyun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.1914-1922
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    • 2004
  • This paper provides a comprehensive study of optimum design of a helicopter tailrotor driveshaft made of the flexible matrix composites (FMCs). Since the driveshaft transmits power while subjected to large bending deformation due to aerodynamic loadings, the FMCs can be ideal for enhancing the drivetrain performance by absorbing the lateral deformation without shaft segmentation. However, the increased lateral flexibility and high internal damping of the FMCs may induce whirling instability at supercritical operating conditions. Thus, the purpose of optimization in this paper is to find a set of tailored FMC parameters that compromise between the lateral flexibility and the whirling stability while satisfying several criteria such as torsional buckling safety and the maximum shaft temperature at steadystate conditions. At first, the drivetrain was modeled based on the finite element method and the classical laminate theory with complex modulus approach. Then, an objective function was defined as a combination of an allowable bending deformation and external damping and a genetic algorithm was applied to search for an optimum set with respect to ply angles and stack sequences. Results show that an optimum laminate consists of two groups of layers: (i) one has ply angles well below 45$^{\circ}$ and the other far above 45$^{\circ}$ and (ii) the number of layers with low ply angles is much bigger than that with high ply angles. It is also found that a thick FMC shaft is desirable for both lateral flexibility and whirling stability. The genetic algorithm was effective in converging to several local optimums, whose laminates exhibit similar patterns as mentioned above.