• Title, Summary, Keyword: Time Domain

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Estimation of Fault Location on a Transmission Line via Time-Frequency Domain Reflectometry (시간-주파수 반사파 계측 방법을 이용한 전송선로의 결함 위치 추정)

  • Choe TokSon;Kwak Ki-Seok;Yoon Tae Sung;Park Jin Bae
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers D
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    • v.54 no.9
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    • pp.521-530
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, a new high resolution reflectometry scheme, time-frequency domain reflectometry(TFDR), isproposed to detect and estimate a fault in a transmission line. Traditional reflectometry methodologies have been achieved either in the time domain or in the frequency domain only. However, the TFDR can jump over the performance limits of the traditional reflectometry methodologies because the acquired signal is analyzed in time and frequency domain simultaneously. In the TFDR, the new reference signal and the novel TFDR algorithm are proposed for analyzing the acquired signal in the time-frequency domain. Because the reference signal of Gaussian envelop chirp signal is localized in the time and frequency domain simultaneously, it is suitable to the analysis in the time-frequency domain. In the proposed TFDR algorithm, the time-frequency distribution function and the normalized time-frequency cross correlation function are used to detect and estimate a fault in a transmission line. That algorithm is verified for real-world coaxial cables which are typical transmission line with different types of faults by the TFDR system composed of real instruments. The performance of the TFDR methodology is compared with that o( the commercial time domain reflectomeoy(TDR) experiments, so that concludes the TFDR methodology can detect and estimate the fault with smaller error than TDR methodology.

Linear Time Domain Analysis of Radiation Problems (시간영역법에 의한 강제동요시 동유체력 해석)

  • I.Y.,Gong;K.P.,Rhee
    • Bulletin of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 1987
  • The hydrodynamic radiation forces acting on a ship travelling in waves have been conventionally treated by strip theories or by direct three dimensional approaches, most of which have been formulated in frequency domain. If the forward speed of a ship varies with time, or if its path is not a straight line, conventional frequency domain analysis can no more be used, and for these cases time domain analysis may be used. In this paper, formulations are made in time domain with applications to some problems the results of which are known in frequency domain. And the results of both domains are compared to show the characteristics and validity of time domain solutions. The radiation forces acting on a three dimensional body within the framework of a linear theory. If the linearity of entire system is assumed, radiation forces due to arbitrary ship motions can be expressed by the convolution integral of the arbitrary motion velocity and the so called impulse response function. Numerical calculations are done for some bodies of simple shapes and Series-60[$C_B=0.7$] ship model. For all cases, integral equation techniques with transient Green's function are used, and velocity or acceleration potentials are obtained as the solution of the integral equations. In liner systems, time domain solutions are related with frequency domain solutions by Fourier transform. Therefore time domain solutions are Fourier transformed by suitable relations and the results are compared with various frequency domain solutions, which show good agreements.

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Time-domain analyses of the layered soil by the modified scaled boundary finite element method

  • Lu, Shan;Liu, Jun;Lin, Gao;Wang, Wenyuan
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.1055-1086
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    • 2015
  • The dynamic response of two-dimensional unbounded domain on the rigid bedrock in the time domain is numerically obtained. It is realized by the modified scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) in which the original scaling center is replaced by a scaling line. The formulation bases on expanding dynamic stiffness by using the continued fraction approach. The solution converges rapidly over the whole time range along with the order of the continued fraction increases. In addition, the method is suitable for large scale systems. The numerical method is employed which is a combination of the time domain SBFEM for far field and the finite element method used for near field. By using the continued fraction solution and introducing auxiliary variables, the equation of motion of unbounded domain is built. Applying the spectral shifting technique, the virtual modes of motion equation are eliminated. Standard procedure in structural dynamic is directly applicable for time domain problem. Since the coefficient matrixes of equation are banded and symmetric, the equation can be solved efficiently by using the direct time domain integration method. Numerical examples demonstrate the increased robustness, accuracy and superiority of the proposed method. The suitability of proposed method for time domain simulations of complex systems is also demonstrated.

Time domain earthquake response analysis method for 2-D soil-structure interaction systems

  • Kim, Doo-Kie;Yun, Chung-Bang
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.717-733
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    • 2003
  • A time domain method is presented for soil-structure interaction analysis under seismic excitations. It is based on the finite element formulation incorporating infinite elements for the far field soil region. Equivalent earthquake input forces are calculated based on the free field responses along the interface between the near and far field soil regions utilizing the fixed exterior boundary method in the frequency domain. Then, the input forces are transformed into the time domain by using inverse Fourier transform. The dynamic stiffness matrices of the far field soil region formulated using the analytical frequency-dependent infinite elements in the frequency domain can be easily transformed into the corresponding matrices in the time domain. Hence, the response can be analytically computed in the time domain. A recursive procedure is proposed to compute the interaction forces along the interface and the responses of the soil-structure system in the time domain. Earthquake response analyses have been carried out on a multi-layered half-space and a tunnel embedded in a layered half-space with the assumption of the linearity of the near and far field soil region, and results are compared with those obtained by the conventional method in the frequency domain.

An Effect of Sampling Rate to the Time and Frequency Domain Analysis of Pulse Rate Variability (샘플링율이 맥박변이도 시간 및 주파수 영역 분석에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Yoon La;Shin, Hangsik
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.65 no.7
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    • pp.1247-1251
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    • 2016
  • This study aims to investigate the effect of sampling frequency to the time domain and frequency domain analysis of pulse rate variability (PRV). Typical time domain variables - AVNN, SDNN, SDSD, RMSSD, NN50 count and pNN50 - and frequency domain variables - VLF, LF, HF, LF/HF, Total Power, nLF and nHF - were derived from 7 down-sampled (250 Hz, 100 Hz, 50 Hz, 25 Hz, 20 Hz, 15 Hz, 10 Hz) PRVs and compared with the result of heart rate variability of 10 kHz-sampled electrocardiogram. Result showed that every variable of time domain analysis of PRV was significant at 25 Hz or higher sampling frequency. Also, in frequency domain analysis, every variable of PRV was significant at 15 Hz or higher sampling frequency.

Frequency-Domain Adaptive Noise Canceller and Its Algorithm with Adaptive Compensator (적응보상기를 채용한 주파수영역 적응 잡음제거 시스템 및 알고리즘)

  • 손경식;김수중
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.1456-1467
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    • 1990
  • The time domain adaptive noise canceller (time domain ANC) with the adaptive compensator and its algorithm, so called compensated least mean squares(CLMS) algorithm, had been introduced to improve the performance of ANC[1]. In this paper the time domain ANC with the adaptive compensator is transformed into the frequency domain ANC with the adaptive ocmpensator. An compensated frequency-domain least mean squares(CFLMS) algorithm that can adapt the proposed frequency domain ANC is presented.

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Detection and Estimation of a Faults on Coaxial Cable with TFDR Algorithm (Time Frequency Domain Reflectometry 기법을 이용한 Coaxial Cable에서의 결함 감지 및 추정)

  • Song, Eun-Seok;Shin, Yong-June;Choe, Tok-Son;Yook, Jong-Gwan;Park, Jin-Bae;Powers, Edward J.
    • The Journal of Advanced Navigation Technology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.38-50
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    • 2003
  • In this paper, a new high resolution reflectometry scheme, time-frequency domain reflectometry (TFDR), is proposed to detect and locate fault in wiring. Traditional reflectometry methods have been achieved in either the time domain or frequency domain only. However, time-frequency domain reflectometry utilizes time and frequency information of a transient signal to detect and locate the fault. The time-frequency domain reflectometry approach described in this paper is characterized by time-frequency reference signal design and post-processing of the reference and reflected signals to detect and locate the fault. Design of the reference signal in time-frequency domain reflectometry is based on the determination of the frequency bandwidth of the physical properties of cable under test. The detection and estimation of the fault on the time-frequency domain reflectometry relies on the time-frequency domain reflectometry is compared with commercial time domain reflectomtery (TDR) instrument. In these experiments provided in this paper, TFDR locates the fault with smaller error than TDR. Knowledge of time and frequency localized information for the reference and reflected signal gained via time-frequency analysis, allows one to detect the fault and estimate the location accurately.

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Two-dimensional energy transmitting boundary in the time domain

  • Nakamura, Naohiro
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.97-115
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    • 2012
  • The energy-transmitting boundary, which is used in the well-known finite element method (FEM) program FLUSH, is quite efficient for the earthquake response analysis of buildings considering soil-structure interaction. However, it is applicable only in the frequency domain. The author proposed methods for transforming frequency dependent impedance into the time domain, and studied the time domain transform of the boundary. In this paper, first, the estimation methods for both the halfspace condition under the bottom of the soil model and the pseudo three-dimensional effect were studied with the time domain transmitting boundary. Next, response behavior when using the boundary was studied in detail using a practical soil and building model. The response accuracy was compared with those using viscous boundary, and the boundary that considers the excavation force. Through these studies, the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed time domain transmitting boundary were confirmed.

Simplified design of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to give a time domain specification for high order processes

  • Tchamna, Rodrigue;Lee, Moonyong
    • The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.961-968
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    • 2017
  • An efficient simplified method is proposed for the time domain design of industrial proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers and lead-lag compensators for high order single input single output (SISO) systems. The proposed analytical method requires no trial error steps for a lead-lag compensator design in the time domain by using the root-locus method. A practical PID controller design method was obtained based on the corresponding lead-lag compensator to give a required time-domain specification. Simulation studies were carried out to illustrate the control performance of the controllers by the proposed method. The proposed PID controller and lead-lag compensator directly satisfied time domain control specifications such as damping ratio, maximum overshoot, settling time and steady sate error without trial and error steps. The suggested algorithm can easily be integrated with a toolbox in commercial software such as Matlab.

Selecting and scaling ground motion time histories according to Eurocode 8 and ASCE 7-05

  • Ergun, Mustafa;Ates, Sevket
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.129-142
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    • 2013
  • Linear and nonlinear time history analyses have been becoming more common in seismic analysis and design of structures with advances in computer technology and earthquake engineering. One of the most important issues for such analyses is the selection of appropriate acceleration time histories and matching these histories to a code design acceleration spectrum. In literature, there are three sources of acceleration time histories: artificial records, synthetic records obtained from seismological models and accelerograms recorded in real earthquakes. Because of the increase of the number of strong ground motion database, using and scaling real earthquake records for seismic analysis has been becoming one of the most popular research issues in earthquake engineering. In general, two methods are used for scaling actual earthquake records: scaling in time domain and frequency domain. The objective of this study is twofold: the first is to discuss and summarize basic methodologies and criteria for selecting and scaling ground motion time histories. The second is to analyze scaling results of time domain method according to ASCE 7-05 and Eurocode 8 (1998-1:2004) criteria. Differences between time domain method and frequency domain method are mentioned briefly. The time domain scaling procedure is utilized to scale the available real records obtained from near fault motions and far fault motions to match the proposed elastic design acceleration spectrum given in the Eurocode 8. Why the time domain method is preferred in this study is stated. The best fitted ground motion time histories are selected and these histories are analyzed according to Eurocode 8 (1998-1:2004) and ASCE 7-05 criteria. Also, characteristics of both near fault ground motions and far fault ground motions are presented by the help of figures. Hence, we can compare the effects of near fault ground motions on structures with far fault ground motions' effects.