• Title/Summary/Keyword: Tongil type

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Morphological Characters of Tongil and Japonica Type of Rice Grains (통일형과 일반형 쌀의 형태적특성연구)

  • Lee, Bong-Yong;Kim, Yong-Bae;Ushio, Matuskura;Shinjiro, Chikubu
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.384-389
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    • 1989
  • Thirteen varieties of Tongil type and ten of Japonica type which were produced in Korea, in 1985, were campa red in namely, width, thickness, length and weight of rice grains. Thousand-grain weight of paddy, brown rice and milled rice were not significantly different between Tongil type and Japonica type, but difference of paddy-brown rice and brown rice-milled rice had significant (p<2,859** and 4.316***, respectively), and the ratio of difference of paddy-brown rice was higher Tongil type than Japonica type. Width, thickness and length of paddy, brown rice and milled rice was significant (width : p<5.189***, 5.289** and 5.466***, thickness: p<3.371** 4.074*** and 5.988***, length: p<3.016**, 4.419*** and 5.492*** in paddy, brown rice and milled rice, respectively) between the Tongil type and Japonica type, and then the width and thickness of Japonica type were thicker than Tongil type, but length of Japonica type was shorter than Tongil type width/thickness ratio of paddy wes significant (p<2.396*) between the Tongil type and Japonica type, but its brown rice and milled rice was not. And length/width and length/ thickness ratio of paddy, brown rice and milled rice were significant (length/width : p<5.525***, 5.495*** and 5.863***, length/thickness: p<4.734***, 6,863*** and 8.425*** in paddy, brown rice and milled rice) between the Tongil type and Japonica type, and then its ratio were higher Tongil type than Japonica type.

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The Cooking Characteristics of High-yielding Japonica and Tongil Type Rice (일반계 및 통일계 다수확 쌀 품종의 취반 특성)

  • Park, Sun-Jin;Park, Kyoung-Whan;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.735-743
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    • 2011
  • This study examined physicochemical properties of rice grains and qualities of cooked white rice of the high yielding, Japonica type, specifically Druryechanbyeo and Boramchanbyeo, and of the Tongil-type, specifically Hanarumbyeo and Andabyeo. The changes of water absorption rate of rice grains, their textural properties and a sensory evaluation of the cooked rice s were analyzed. All varieties were short grain. The length and width of Tongil type rice grains larger than those of Japonica type. The water absorption of white rice grains increased rapidly until 1 hr when soaking and after that increased slightly. The water absorption of Druryechan grain was higher than that of the Boramchan. The sensory evaluation results showed that the Japonica type cooked rices had a higher value for overall quality than the Tongil type cooked rices. With regard to the textural properties of the cooked rices, the hardness of Boramchan and Hanarum varieties showed higher than that of Druyechan and Anda varieties. Adhesiveness, springiness and chewiness were not significantly different between varieties (p<0.05).

Structure and Properties of Starch on Rice Variety (계통이 다른 쌀 전분의 구조적 성질)

  • Kang, Kil-Jin;Kim, Kwan;Kim, Sung-Kon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.684-689
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    • 1995
  • The molecular structure of rice starch was investigated using Korean rice[3 varieties of Japonica type and 3 varieties of Tongi type(Japonica-Indica breeding type)]. The λmax of iodine complex and inherent viscosity of Japonica type were higher than those of Tongil type. $\beta$-Amylolysis limit of the starches was not different between the two rice types. In the distribution of molecular weight of rice starch, the molecular size of amylose and amylopectin for Japonica type were smaller than those for Tongil type. The chain of rice starch distributed F1 of above DP 55, F2 of DP 40~50 and F3 of DP 15~20, and the ratio of F3 against F2 for Japonica type was higher than that of Tongil type. The results suggest that rice of Japonica and Tongil type was different molecular structure of starch.

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Characteristics of Photosynthesis and Dry Matter Accumulation in Japonica and Tongil type Rice (수도자포니카 및 통일형 품종의 광합성 및 물질생산 특성)

  • 허훈;양덕조;류경열
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 1992
  • This studies were conducted to investigate the physiological characteristics of photosynthesis and dry matter accmulation of 2 Tongil type and 2 Japonica type varieties under different temperature and light intensity condition. Photosynthetic activities were lower in Tongil type varieties than Japonica type at low temperature(17$^{\circ}C$), but higher in Tongil type varieties at high temperature in each growth stages. The degradation rate of photosynthesis was higher in Tongil type varieties than Japonica type varieties at low temperature and Tongil type varieties were showed high photosynthetic activities at high temperature ($25^{\circ}C$). Specific Leaf Area in each growth stages were the highest at tillering and increased from panicle formation stage to heading stage. The ratio of respiration to photosynthesis (R /P$\times$200) into upper three leaves were significantly high in third leaf and showed same slope in each varieties. CGR, NAR were higher in Tongil type varieties than Japonica type varieties and yields, havesting index were showed high in Tongil type varieties.

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Gelatinization Characteristics of Glutinous Rice Varieties

  • Kim, Kwang-Ho;Park, Hong-Sook;Kim, Jae-Sung
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.64-69
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    • 1999
  • Gelatinization characteristics of 111 glutinous rice varieties were evaluated by Rapid Visco Analyzer. Gelatinization viscosity of glutinous rice tested varied with ecotypes or varietal groups: indica, japonica, and Tongil type. Indica rice showed the highest average value of initial pasting temperature. The average values for peak, hot, and cool viscosities were highest in Tongil-type rice, and lowest in japonica rice. Japonica showed the lowest breakdown and consistency, but the highest setback value. Indica was lower in alkali digestion value (ADV), and shorter in gel length after gelatinization thanjaponica and Tongil-type. Glutinous rices tested could be divided into six groups by cluster analysis based on their gelatinization characteristics. Group I-A was mostly early maturing japonica varieties while I-B was mostly indica and Tongil-type rices. Groups II-A and II-B were consisted of very early maturingjaponica, and III-A and III-B included medium or medium late maturingjaponica varieties. Group III-A showed the lowest average values of peak, hot, cool, and consistency viscosities, and also in breakdown and setback ratios. Group I-B revealed the highest values in peak, hot, cool, breakdown, and consistency viscosities. ADV was low in groups I-A, I-B, and II-B, and gel consistency was not different among the six varietal groups. Principal component analysis using seven traits related with gelatinization produced four effective components, and the first and second components were highly correlated with all the gelatinization characters evaluated.

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Reaction of Korean Rice Varieties to New Bacterial Blight Race, K3a (우리나라 벼 주요 품종들의 흰잎마름병 변이균 레이스 K3a에 대한 반응)

  • Shin Mun-Sik;Noh Tae-Hwan;Kim Ki-Young;Shin Seo-Ho;Ko Jae-Kweon;Lee Jae-Kil
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.151-155
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to get information for diversifying of resistant genes to bacterial blight (BB) in Japonica cultivar breeding programs. TWo hundred nine rice varieties were tested for qualitive resistance to four races of BB; HB9101 isolate for race K1, HB9102 isolate for race K2, HB9103 isolate for race K3, and HB01001 isolate for race K3a. Two hundred nine rice varieties were divided into five groups according to their race reaction. Fourteen Tongil-type varieties and ninetyseven Japonica varieties showed susceptible reaction to four races; Kl, K2, K3 and K3a. Thirteen Tongil-type varieties and thirty-one Japonica varieties were resistant to only one race; K1. Nine Tongil-type varieties and one Japonica variety were resistant to two races; K1 and K2. One Tongil-type variety and twenty-eight Japonica varieties were resistant to the three races; K1, K2, and K3. Fourteen Tongil-type varieties and one Japonica variety were resistant to four races; K1, K2, K3, and K3a. A number of Tongil-type varieties showed broad spectrum resistance to four races, while a number of Japonica varieties showed broad spectrum resistance to three races; K1, K2, and K3.

Comparison of Breeding and Cultural Contribution to Yield Gains of Korean Rice

  • Song, Moon-Tae;Heu, Mun-Hue;Moon, Huhn-Pal;Kang, Yang-Soon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.316-321
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    • 2003
  • Analysis of breeding gains in grain yield has been intensively conducted in wheat, barley, oat, maize, and soybean. Such information is limited in rice. The objective of this study was to compare the breeding gains and cultural gains contributed to yield gains of Korean rice varieties since early 1900s. Two sets of yield data were used for analysis; the historical yield data of 1908 for old japonica cultivars, and present yield data in the years from 1996 to 1998 for the six cultivars, consisting of previous two old cultivars and four contemporary cultivars. The old cultivars were two native cultivars, Jodongi and Damageum, while contemporary cultivars were two premium quality japonica cultivars, Hwaseongbyeo and Dongjinbyeo, and two Tongil-type cultivars, high yielding cultivars developed from indica/japonica hybridization, Milyang23 and Dasanbyeo. The yield differences of old cultivars between the experiments in 1908 and the experiments from 1996 to 1998 were estimated as cultural gains (1.84 tons $\textrm{ha}^{-1}$) due to the improvement of cultivation technology. Yield differences between the old cultivars and contemporary cultivars were considered total yield gains during the periods. These were 2.51 tons $\textrm{ha}^{-1}$ for japonica cultivars and 3.81 tons $\textrm{ha}^{-1}$ for Tongil-type cultivars. From these data, the genetic gain of 0.67 tons $\textrm{ha}^{-1}$ and 1.97 tons $\textrm{ha}^{-1}$ were estimated for japonica cultivars and Tongil-type cultivars respectively. The ratio between cultural gain and genetic gain appeared to be 2.7:1 for japonica cultivars and 1:1 for Tongil-type cultivars. This analysis clearly showed the higher genetic contribution in Tongil-type cultivars than in japonica cultivars, suggesting a guideline to be used when planning new yield improvement programs. Additional implication has emerged when a better yield response to modem cultivation technology was found in one of the old cultivars, suggesting the combined improvement between breeding and cultural improvement is necessary for attaining the maximum yield capacity of a crop.

Identification of Major Blast Resistance Genes in Korean Rice Varieties(Oryza sativa L.) Using Molecular Markers

  • Cho, Young-Chan;Kwon, Soon-Wook;Choi, Im-Soo;Lee, Sang-Kyu;Jeon, Jong-Seong;Oh, Myung-Kyu;Roh, Jae-Hwan;Hwang, Hung-Goo;Yang, Sae-June;Kim, Yeon-Gyu
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.265-276
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    • 2007
  • The 13 major blast resistance(R) genes against Magnaporthe grisea were screened in a number of Korean rice varieties using molecular markers. Of the 98 rice varieties tested, 28 were found to contain the Pia gene originating from Japanese japonica rice genotypes. The Pib gene from BL1 and BL7 was incorporated into 39 Korean japonica varieties, whereas this same gene from the IRRI-bred indica varieties was detected in all Tongil-type varieties. We also found that 17 of the japonica varieties contained the Pii gene. The Pii gene in Korean rice varieties originates from the Korean japonica variety Nongbaeg, and Japanese japonica varieties Hitomebore, Inabawase, and Todorokiwase. The Pi5 gene, which clusters with Pii on chromosome 9, was identified only in Taebaeg. Thirty-four varieties were found to contain alleles of the resistance gene Pita or Pita-2. The Pita gene in japonica varieties was found to be inherited from the Japanese japonica genotype Shimokita, and the Pita-2 gene was from Fuji280 and Sadominori. Seventeen japonica and one Tongil-type varieties contained the Piz gene, which in the japonica varieties originates from Fukuhikari and 54BC-68. The Piz-t gene contained in three Tongil-type varieties was derived from IRRI-bred indica rice varieties. The Pi9(t) gene locus that is present in Korean japonica and Tongil-type varieties was not inherited from the original Pi9 gene from wild rice Oryza minuta. The Pik-multiple allele genes Pik, Pik-m, and Pik-p were identified in 24 of the varieties tested. In addition, the Pit gene inherited from the indica rice K59 strain was not found in any of the Korean japonica or Tongil-type varieties tested.

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Characteristics of Seed Storage Protein Affecting the Eating Quality of Japonica and Tongil-type Rice (자포니카 및 통일형 벼 품종에서의 식미 관련 저장단백질 특성)

  • Kwak, Jieun;Lee, Jeom-Sig;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Kim, Mi-Jung;Chun, Areum;Lee, Choon-Ki
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.227-234
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we analyzed seed storage proteins in order to investigate the main factors related to the eating quality of japonica and tongil-type rice varieties. Sensory evaluation was performed by a trained panel to assess the appearance (color and glossiness), flavor, taste, stickiness, texture, and overall score of nine japonica and three tongil-type rice cultivars. Moreover, the pattern of variation in rice storage proteins was examined by electrophoresis of protein extracts. The electrophoretic pattern of rice proteins showed 16.4 kDa albumin, 26.4 kDa globulin, 34-39 kDa and 21-22 kDa glutelin, and 14.3 kDa prolamin. In terms of storage protein, the varietal differences between japonica and tongil-type rice were found in albumin, globulin, and the ${\alpha}-1$, and ${\alpha}-2$ sub-units of acidic glutelin. Furthermore, the overall sensory evaluation score was observed to be positively correlated with albumin ($0.495^{**}$) and globulin ($0.567^{**}$), and negatively correlated with ${\alpha}-1$ glutelin ($-0.612^{**}$). Therefore, the results indicated that albumin, globulin, and ${\alpha}-1$ glutelin can affect the eating quality of japonica and tongil-type rice varieties, with the latter having lower eating quality than the former.

Germinability during Overwintering, Field Emergence, and Growth of Shattered Rice Seeds on Paddy Field (논 표면 탈립 벼 종자의 월동중 발아력변화와 월동후 포장 출현 및 생육)

  • 송영주;권영립;오남기;고복래;황창주;박건호
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 1992
  • Germinability, electrophoretic variation of protein of shattered seeds during overwintering and characteristic of main agronomic traits of off-type rice plant occurring in paddy field harvested by combine were investigated. Germinability of shattered seed decreased as time goes in paddy field in both Japonica and Tongil type varieties. Electrophoretic protein bands become more and more light as time goes. Occurrence of off-type rice plant was higher in Japonica varieties than in Tongil type varieties. Off-type rice plant was shorter in plant height, leaf length, tiller number per hill, internode length, panicle length and spike let number per panicle. Germinability of seeds of off-type rice plant as not significantly different compared to the control variety. Yield of off-type plants of Japonica varieties was on average 5.1kg / 10a and that of Tongil type varieties was on average 0.9kg /10a. Mixing ratio to the control variety was about 0.7% in Japonica varieties and that of Tongil type varieties was about 0.1%.

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