• Title, Summary, Keyword: Top cross test

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Experiments on the bearing capacity of tapered concrete filled double skin steel tubular (CFDST) stub columns

  • Ren, Qing-Xin;Hou, Chao;Lam, Dennis;Han, Lin-Hai
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.667-686
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    • 2014
  • Tapered concrete filled double skin steel tubular (CFDST) columns have been used in China for structures such as electricity transmission towers. In practice, the bearing capacity related to the connection details on the top of the column is not fully understood. In this paper, the experimental behaviour of tapered CFDST stub columns subjected to axial partial compression is reported, sixteen specimens with top endplate and ten specimens without top endplate were tested. The test parameters included: (1) tapered angle, (2) top endplate thickness, and (3) partial compression area ratio. Test results show that the tapered CFDST stub columns under axial partial compression behaved in a ductile manner. The axial partial compressive behaviour and the failure modes of the tapered CFDST stub columns were significantly influenced by the parameters investigated. Finally, a simple formula for predicting the cross-sectional capacity of the tapered CFDST sections under axial partial compression is proposed.

Experimental Investigation for Flexural Stiffness of Paperboard-stacked Structure

  • Lee, Myung-Hoon;Park, Jong-Min
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2001
  • Top-to-bottom compression strength of corrugated fiberboard boxes is partly dependent on the load-carrying ability of the central panel areas. The ability of these central areas to resist bending under load will increase the stacking strength of the box. The difference of box compression strengths, among boxes which are made with identical dimensions and fabricated with same components but different flute sizes, is primarily due to difference of the flexural stiffness of the box panels. Top-to-bottom compression strength of a box is accurately predicted by flexural stiffness measurements and the edge crush test of the combined boards. This study was carried out to analyze the flexural stiffness, maximum bending force and maximum deflection for various corrugated fiberboards by experimental investigation. There were significant differences between the machine direction (MD) and the cross-machine direction (CD) of corrugated fiberboards tested. It was about 50% in SW and DW, and $62%{\sim}74%$ in dual-medium corrugated fiberboards(e.g. DM, DMA and DMB), respectively. There were no significant differences of maximum deflection in machine direction among the tested fiberboards but, in cross direction, DM showed the highest value and followed by SW, DMA, DMB and DW in order. For the corrugated fiberboards tested, flexural stiffness in machine direction is about $29%{\sim}48%$ larger than cross direction, and difference of flexural stiffness between the two direction is the lowest in DMA and DMB.

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Experimental Investigation for Flexural Stiffness of Paperboard-stacked Structure (종이성형구조물의 휨강성에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Park, Jong-Min;Lee, Myung-Hoon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 1999
  • Top-to-bottom compression strength of corrugated fiberboard boxes is partly dependent on the load-carrying ability of the central panel areas. The ability of these central areas to resist bending under load will increase the stacking strength of the box. The difference of box compression strengths, among boxes which are made with identical dimensions and fabricated with same components but different flute sizes, is primarily due to difference of the flexural stiffness of the box panels. Top-to-bottom compression strength of a box is accurately predicted by flexural stiffness measurements and the edge crush test of the combined boards. This study was rallied out to analyze the flexural stiffness, maximum bending force and maximum deflection for various corrugated fiber-boards by experimental investigation. There were significant differences between the machine direction (MD) and the cross-machine direction (CD) of corrugated fiberboards tested. It was about 50% in SW and DW, and $62%{\sim}74%$ in dual-medium corrugated fiberboards(e.g. DM, DMA and DMB), respectively. There were no significant differences of maximum deflection in machine direction among the tested fiberboards but, in cross direction, DM showed the highest value and followed by SW, DMA, DMB and DW in order. For the corrugated fiberboards tested, flexural stiffness in machine direction is about $29%{\sim}48%$ larger than cross direction, and difference of flexural stiffness between the two direction is the lowest in DMA and DMB.

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An Experimental Study on Flexural Strength of Composite Beam with Reduced Top Flange of Steel (상부플랜지를 감소시킨 합성보의 휨내력에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Moon, Chan-II;Jeong, Jae-Hun;Kim, Jin-Moo;Joo, Kyong-Jae
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 2000
  • In simply supported composite beams, the neutral axis of the composite cross section usually is located the top flange of the steel I-shape, so that the top flange does not impart much strength to the member. This suggests that omitting the top flange entirely could be a means to lower the cost of the beam without greatly reducing the strength. The purpose of this investigation is to research flexural strength and behavior of the composite beams with reduced top flange of steel. Five specimens with H and inverted T steel section were tested. As the test results, comparison of the experimental to computed full-plastic moment, and variations of flexural strength with reduced top flange were analyzed.

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Characteristics and breeding of a new variety Cordyceps militaris 『Yedang 3』 (신품종 번데기동충하초 『예당 3호』 육성 및 특성)

  • Choi, Young-Sang;Kim, Hong-Kyu;Lee, Byung-Joo;Kim, Yong-Gyun
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.182-186
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    • 2009
  • Single ascospores was isolated in Yesan-gun, Chungnam in 2006 with Cordyceps militaris. This study was carried out to select the superior isolates which produce more fruiting body and contain more cordycepin contents. Five single ascospore isolates were cultured on brown rice pupae medium and they formed fruiting bodies. To select better isolates, each isolates was hybridized and then the characteristics and cordycepin contents were investigated. After biological efficiency and codycepin contents were examined, finally C0601S05 was selected. Top-cross test of isolate C0601S05 was carried with 29 single ascospores. From this test, isolate C0601S05${\times}$C0601S33 and isolate C0601S05${\times}$C0601S43 containing highest cordycepin contents were selected. Codycepin contents of C0601S05 was 246mg% and those of C0601S05${\times}$C0601S33 and C0601S05${\times}$C0601S43 were 325mg% and 280mg%, respectively. C0601S05${\times}$C0601S33 was registered as Yedang 3 at the Korea seed & variety service.

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Development of Short-span Precast Concrete Panels for Railway Bridge (철도교용 단지간 프리캐스트 콘크리트패널의 개발)

  • Seol, Dae-Ho;Lee, Kyoung-Chan;Kim, Ki-Hyun;Youn, Seok-Goo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.545-553
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    • 2016
  • This paper presents experimental static test results of the precast concrete panels developed for short-span concrete bridge deck form. Different from LB-DECK, concrete rib attached to the bottom surface of concrete panel, and Top-bar is not used at the top surface of concrete panel. Number of concrete ribs and cross-section details of concrete rib are determined from the analytical results of parametric study considering the span length and the thickness of concrete bridge decks. Shear rebars are installed at the top surface of concrete panel for composite action between precast concrete panel and cast-in-place concrete. In order to evaluate the safety and the serviceability of the developed short-span concrete panel subjected to design load, static load test is conducted. Three test panels with span length of 1.6m are fabricated, and during the load test displacements, strains and cracks of test panels are measured and final failure modes are investigated. Serviceability of the test panels is evaluated based on the results of displacements, cracking load, and crack width at the design load level. Safety is also evaluated based on the comparison of the ultimate strength and the factored design load of test panels. Based on the test results, it is confirmed the short-span precast concrete panel satisfies the serviceability and safety regulated in design codes. In addition, the range of span length of concrete bridge decks for the short-span concrete panel is discussed.

An Empirical Validation Study for Calibration Verification in TDM Test (검량보정 검증의 실험적 적합성에 대한 연구 -치료적 약물검사를 중심으로-)

  • Chang, Sang-Wu;Kim, Nam-Yong;Choi, Ho-Sung;Park, Yong-Won;Chu, Gyung-Bok;Yun, Keun-Young;Park, Byung-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to verify (i) a consistent calibration verification for the assessment of method linearity and (ii) calibration agreement with calibration settings. We validated calibration verification through method linearity with different lot number of individual calibrators that span the working range for 9 tests except salicylate with control sample in test. We evaluated that it covered broad analyte range to assay from near zero to the top of the measuring range with 5 or 6 points every three times for 10 analytes in TDM test. Target values were plotted on X-axis with assigned or observed values on the Y-axis. Working range were as follows. Calibration verification of the measuring range (maximum to minimum values) has been validated asetaminophen 0.1 to $304.6_{\mu}g/mL$, salicylate 0 to $1005_{\mu}g/mL$, valproic acid 3.2 to $154.19_{\mu}g/mL$, digoxin 0.17 to 5.65 ng/mL, vancomycine 1.3 to $80.51_{\mu}g/mL$, carbarmazepine 0.1 to $22.3_{\mu}g/mL$, phenytonin 0.6 to $40.21_{\mu}g/mL$, theophyline 0.2 to $40.21_{\mu}g/mL$, primidone 0 to $24.07_{\mu}g/mL$, phenobarbital 0.6 to $60.0_{\mu}g/mL$. Drawing a straight line through five or six points of these data showed good linearity. We are sure that it is important to assess the calibration verification of a test method to ascertain the lowest and highest test results that are reliable.

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An Experimental Study on Flexural Strength of Inverted T-shaped Composite Beams encased with concrete (매립형 역T형 합성보의 휨내력에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Jang, Hee-Sung;Jeong, Jae-Hun;Kim, Jin- Moo;Joo, Kyong-Jae
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 2000
  • In simply supported composite beams, the neutral axis of the composite cross section is usually located near the top flange of the steel H-shape, so that the top flange does not impart much strength to the member. This suggests that omitting the top flange entirely could be a means to lower the cost of the beam without greatly reducing the strength. However, It is not easy for inverted T-shaped composite beam to construct and to apply continuous beam which has negative bending moment. As a result, it would get more workability and decrease capability of lateral buckling and local buckling, if the bottom flange of inverted T-shaped steel used as a form. Therefore. the objectives of this study are to investigate strength and behaviors of inverted T-shaped composite beam which web is encased by concrete and to grasp bending capacity and efficiency of composite by comparing and analyzing in test piece.

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Cross-Modal Associations between Colors and Fragrances for Commercial Perfume Design (향수제품 디자인을 위한 색과 향의 교차-양상 연상관계)

  • Kim, Yu-Jin
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.427-439
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    • 2008
  • In order to effectively communicate the fragrances of commercial perfumes to consumers, it is important to apply congruent colors to their bottles and packaging. This research investigated the cross-modal associations between colors and fragrances through two experiments. In the first experiment, bottle colors of more than 200 popular perfumes in the market were analyzed. Distinguishable color design patterns of the bottles were revealed in accordance with their fragrance types. The second experiment expanded the use of color-odor matching task to a test population of Korean participants. Participants selected colors evoked by fragrances of three test perfumes in a blind setting. These three perfumes had characteristic hues and their associated hues were similar with the real colors of their bottles. In addition, there were significant variations in color tone across fragrance notes, viz. the top notes, middle notes, and base notes. The results of the two experiments suggest the existence of robust cross-modal associations between particular colors and fragrances in commercial perfumery.

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Corrosion Resistance of Non-Chrome Magni 565 Coating and Characteristics of Its Coating Film (Non-Chrome Magni 565 코팅 피막의 특성과 내식성)

  • Kim, Sang-Su;Jeong, Byeong-Ho;Mun, Myeong-Jun;Kim, Mu-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Heat Treatment
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 2006
  • In addition to the basic properties of the base and top coating agents, corrosion resistance of non-chrome magni 565 coating and characteristics of coating film when coated to steel substrate were studied. The system had a good wettability at room temperature. Moreover, both the contact angle and surface tension were affected little by the viscosity of coating agent and surface roughness of the steel substrate. And the samples coated with optimal conditions showed a great corrosion resistance in salt spray test with 1500 hours or longer of initial appearance time of rust. The coating film was composed of overlapping layer of zinc and aluminium flakes, and the thickness of base coat increased with an increase of base coat viscosity. Based on the C-F peaks of 1,1-Difluoroethaen homo-polymer, it was thought that the base coat was an inorganic polymer bond layer. Meanwhile, the top coat showed C-F peaks of polytetrafluoroethylene with C-H peaks of phenol in FT-IR analysis. From the lower weight loss of base coat in TG analysis, it was thought that cross linking density of base coat was larger than that of top coat. It was thought that the small exothermic reactions observed in DSC curves were due to the thermosetting resins contained in the coating agents. Compared to the non-coated specimen, the coated sample showed more higher polarization resistance and corrosion potential with lower corrosion current density.