• Title, Summary, Keyword: Toxicity identification evaluation

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Ecotoxicity Test of Wastewater by a Battery of Bioassay and Toxicity Identification Evaluation (다양한 시험생물종을 이용한 산업폐수 생태독성 평가 및 원인물질 탐색)

  • Ryu, Tae-Kwon;Cho, Jae-Gu;Kim, Kyung-Tae;Yang, Chang-Yong;Joung, Ki-Eun;Yoon, Jun-Heon;Choi, Kyung-Hee
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 2010
  • Toxicity identification and quantification are important factors to evaluate the effect of industrial effluent on the aquatic environment. In order to measure the potential and real toxicity of mixed chemicals in the effluents, the biological method (i.e., WET test) should be used as well as chemical analysis method. In this study, we conducted WET test for various kinds of industrial effluents using aquatic organisms such as water flea (Daphnia magna), algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), fish (Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio), and microorganism (Vibrio fisheri). In addition, we carried out chemical analysis and TIE (Toxicity Identification Evaluation) for effluents in order to identify the substances causing toxicity. Among the 30 kinds of wastewater, S13 showed the highest eco-toxicity and $Ca^{2+}$ and $Cl^-$ ion were suspected as major compounds causing toxicity for aquatic organisms. In order to confirm these suspected compounds, various confirmation procedures need to be carried out.

Ecotoxicity Assessment of Industrial Effluent in Gyeonggi-do (경기지역 산업시설 방류수 생태독성 영향 평가)

  • Cho, Won-Sil;Kim, Sang-Hoon;Yang, Hyoung-Jae
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.113-123
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: Industrial development in Korea results in a rapid increase in the number of chemicals, some of which may be responsible for toxicity to aquatic ecosystems. In addition, the types of hazardous chemicals included in industrial effluents have gradually increased. Therefore, chemical analysis alone is not enough to assess ecological effects of toxic chemicals in wastewater. Methods: In response to new regulations as whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests for effluent discharge of 15 publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and 25 industrial effluent treatment plants in Gyeonggi-do, which will be effective from 2011, a necessity of studies emerges that investigates toxicity levels. Results: In case of the public treatment plants, none of them had exceeded the criteria for ecotoxicity. As for individual wastewater discharge facilities, on the other hand, two types were found to exceed the criteria: pulp and paper manufacturing facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. For the pulp and paper manufacturing facilities, monitoring results could not help determine the exact toxicant identification. However, Daphnia magna inhibition effect or death was found to leave white plums, suggesting that suspended solids treated and the polymer used in coagulant dose. In case of pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities, the general water quality parameters cannot affect Daphia magna. However, conductivity and salinity can have an effect to be 14,000 ${\mu}s/cm$, 8.1‰ by salts, respectively. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) and Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) procedures results appeared to be effective for identifying toxic compounds in $Cl^{-}$ and $SO_4^{2-}$. Conclusions: It is necessary to develop control measures for water treatment chemicals and salts used for processes such as coagulation in individual wastewater discharge facilities in order to achieve the goal to protect aquatic ecosystems in public waters.

Application of Toxicity Identification Evaluation Procedures for Toxic Effluents from the Aluminum Rolling Industry (알루미늄 가공 공장 배출 방류수의 독성 원인물질 탐색)

  • Ra, Jin-Sung;Lee, Jiho;Kim, Ki-Tae
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.305-313
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The objective of this study is to identify toxicants causing acute toxicity in effluents from the aluminum rolling industry that violate the discharge limits in Korea. Methods: Whole effluent toxicity tests (WET) were conducted on effluent discharged from the aluminum rolling industry following the US EPA WET test methods. We collected effluent samples three times and evaluated acute toxicity by using Daphnia magna. We employed toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures to identify toxicants causing toxicity in the effluent. Results: No specific chemical groups were identified in the seven different manipulations applied to the of wastewater effluent samples showing 1.3 toxic units (TU) according to the TIE phase I procedures. Water quality parameters for water hardness, electric conductivity and heavy metals (Mn) were 4,322 mg/l as $CaCO_3$, 11.39 mS/cm, and $5,551{\mu}g/l$, respectively. Considering water hardness and reference toxicity, high concentrations of Mn can be disqualified from the causative toxicants. Consequently, high ionic concentrations of $Na^+$(1,648 mg/l), $Ca^{2+}$(1,048 mg/l), $Mg^{2+}$(1,428 mg/l) and $SO_4{^{2-}}$(7,472 mg/l) were identified to be causative toxicants. Water hardness and electric conductivity exceed the $EC_{50}$ value obtained by biological toxicity tests using Daphnia magna. Conclusion: According to TIE procedures, high salt concentration is determined to be a major toxicant in the effluent of agro-industrial wastewater treatment plants receiving wastewater from the aluminum rolling industry.

Evaluation of Adverse Drug Properties with Cryopreserved Human Hepatocytes and the Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IdMOCTM) System

  • Li, Albert P.
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.137-149
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    • 2015
  • Human hepatocytes, with complete hepatic metabolizing enzymes, transporters and cofactors, represent the gold standard for in vitro evaluation of drug metabolism, drug-drug interactions, and hepatotoxicity. Successful cryopreservation of human hepatocytes enables this experimental system to be used routinely. The use of human hepatocytes to evaluate two major adverse drug properties: drug-drug interactions and hepatotoxicity, are summarized in this review. The application of human hepatocytes in metabolism-based drug-drug interaction includes metabolite profiling, pathway identification, P450 inhibition, P450 induction, and uptake and efflux transporter inhibition. The application of human hepatocytes in toxicity evaluation includes in vitro hepatotoxicity and metabolism-based drug toxicity determination. A novel system, the Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IdMOC) which allows the evaluation of nonhepatic toxicity in the presence of hepatic metabolism, is described.

Toxicity Monitoring of River Sediments in the Geum River Basin using Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa (Daphnia magna와 Moina macrocopa를 이용한 금강수계 하천퇴적물 생태독성 모니터링)

  • Cho, Hyeyoon;Yoo, Jisu;Han, Youngseok;Han, Taejun;Kim, Sanghun;Jung, Jinho
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.1000-1007
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    • 2010
  • In this study, toxicity monitoring of sediments collected from 25 stations in the Geum river basin was conducted using Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa. According to the results of acute toxicity tests (immobilization and mortality) of organic extracts of semdiments, Miho stream showed much less toxicity than Gap and Nonsan streams. In particular, significant toxicity was observed in both species for St.15 and St.16 sediment samples that passed through Deajeon city as a branch of Gap stream. For Nonsan stream, St.23 sediment showed high toxicity toward M. macrocopa. This site seemed to be affected by upper agricultural industrial complex. Additionally, M. macrocopa showed a higher sensitivity than D. magna for organic extracts of sediments. In the case of toxicity tests using sediment pore water and aqueous extracts, only pore water of St.27 sediment was toxic against D. magna. Toxicity identification evaluation showed that hydrogen sulfide was likely a major toxicant in the pore water.

Evaluation on Toxicity of Habitual dose of Extract of Rheum Palmatum through Single Blinded Pilot Study (단일맹검시험을 통한 대황(大黃) 상용량(常用量)의 독성작용 평가)

  • Kwon, Hyork;Chi, Gyoo-Yong;Eom, Hyun-Sup
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.390-400
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    • 2010
  • This study is aimed to test physiological and hematological actions of Rheum palmatum through clinical pilot study optimized for usual oriental medicine prescription. Thirty-one cases were finally collected and the sample extract 100 $m{\ell}$ of Rheum palmatum (ERP) was administered two times in a day during 3 days and checked with blood CBC test, urinalysis, liver function test, abdominal X-ray as well as general diagnostic process of oriental medicine; pattern identification, assessment of shapes and constitution. The total toxic effective rate of ERP was 9.68% in 3 cases of the whole in case of consistent uneasy state in the subjective symptomatic assessment and aggravation of blood and urine examination. The relevant diagnostic factors were so-eum constitution and essence type subject, carapaces species, lung type in the aspect of Jisan shape theory. On the other hand, the positive effective rate of ERP was 29.03% manifesting improvement of vital signs or present illness and no abnormal changes of blood chemistry and urinalysis and simple abdomen radiology. The relevant diagnostic factors were tae-eum constitution, energy type subject, aves species, heart and liver type in Jisan's shape theory. And the other cases were manifesting no specific change through the administration of ERP. The ratio of the numbers of decrease and increase was 44:5 in the tenderness and hardness of abdominal palpation. But if the pattern identification doesn't comply with the aim of rhubarb application despite of constipation and abdominal pain, the tendeness and biochemical report was shown in abnormal change. The mean number of diarrhea by ERP was $16.77{\pm}6.95$ during 3 days after administration, and the frequent areas of abdominal pain were lower>middle>upper in order, and it meant the target site of ERP too. Besides, the toxic reaction against ERP was expressed highly in case of decrease in blood cell count and hemoglobin, hematocrit having blood deficiency syndrome. Likewise, the toxicity of ERP was influenced by pattern identification manifesting present disease condition and diagnostic factors of four constitutions, Jisan's shape theory collaterally. In conclusion, evaluation of herbal toxicity in order for using as a clinical guideline, various diagnostic pattern information and shape features like the above should be studied together with other pharmacologic toxicology test for the future.

Toxic Effects of Metal Plating Wastewater on Daphnia magna and Euglena agilis (Daphnia magna와 Euglena agilis를 이용한 도금폐수 독성평가)

  • Lee, Junga;Park, Da Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.116-123
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    • 2016
  • The ecotoxicity tests for metal plating wastewater were conducted using Daphnia magna (D. magna) and Euglena agilis (E. agilis). Evaluation for sources of toxicity was performed by 1) Correlation analysis between the concentration of individual metals in the metal plating wastewater and the toxic effects on D. magna, 2) Toxicant identification evaluation methods including graduated pH method, EDTA procedure and sodium thiosulfate procedure, 3) Comparison of toxic effect value ($EC_{50}$ or $LC_{50}$) of individual metal on D. magna and it's concentration in the metal plating wastewater. To evaluate the possibility of E. agilis, a Korean domestic organism, as a test model organism for metal plating waste water, E. agilis toxicity test was also assessed using on-line euglena ecotoxicity system (E-Tox system). Based on toxicant characterization test using D. magna, it was expected that SS, oxidants and heavy metals are responsible for toxicity of metal plating waste water. Especially Cu, Hg, and Ag were the major cationic metals that caused toxicity. E. agilis is less sensitive than D. magna based on the $EC_{50}$ value however it shows prompt response to toxic test substances. E. agilis shows even a significant effect on the cell swimming velocity within 2 min to toxic metal plating wastewater. Our study demonstrates that E. agilis test can be a putative ecotoxicity test for assessing the quality of metal plating waste water.

Adverse Outcome Pathways for Prediction of Chemical Toxicity at Work: Their Applications and Prospects (작업장 화학물질 독성예측을 위한 독성발현경로의 응용과 전망)

  • Rim, Kyung-Taek;Choi, Heung-Koo;Lee, In-Seop
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.141-158
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: An adverse outcome pathway is a biological pathway that disturbs homeostasis and causes toxicity. It is a conceptual framework for organizing existing biological knowledge and consists of the molecular initiating event, key event, and adverse output. The AOP concept provides intuitive risk identification that can be helpful in evaluating the carcinogenicity of chemicals and in the prevention of cancer through the assessment of chemical carcinogenicity predictions. Methods: We reviewed various papers and books related to the application of AOPs for the prevention of occupational cancer. We mainly used the internet to search for the necessary research data and information, such as via Google scholar(http://scholar.google.com), ScienceDirect(www.sciencedirect.com), Scopus(www.scopus. com), NDSL(http: //www.ndsl.kr/index.do) and PubMed(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). The key terms searched were "adverse outcome pathway," "toxicology," "risk assessment," "human exposure," "worker," "nanoparticle," "applications," and "occupational safety and health," among others. Results: Since it focused on the current state of AOP for the prediction of toxicity from chemical exposure at work and prospects for industrial health in the context of the AOP concept, respiratory and nanomaterial hazard assessments. AOP provides an intuitive understanding of the toxicity of chemicals as a conceptual means, and it works toward accurately predicting chemical toxicity. The AOP technique has emerged as a future-oriented alternative to the existing paradigm of chemical hazard and risk assessment. AOP can be applied to the assessment of chemical carcinogenicity along with efforts to understand the effects of chronic toxic chemicals in workplaces. Based on these predictive tools, it could be possible to bring about a breakthrough in the prevention of occupational and environmental cancer. Conclusions: The AOP tool has emerged as a future-oriented alternative to the existing paradigm of chemical hazard and risk assessment and has been widely used in the field of chemical risk assessment and the evaluation of carcinogenicity at work. It will be a useful tool for prediction, and it is possible that it can help bring about a breakthrough in the prevention of occupational and environmental cancer.

Recent Trend and Treatment of Parasitic Infections in Children (소아청소년 기생충 감염의 최신 경향 및 치료)

  • Choi, Min-Ho
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.sup1
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2008
  • Enterobiasis and head lice infestations, contact-borne parasitic diseases, are the most prevalent parasitic infections of children in Korea, and they are transmitted by close contact with infected persons. They are not of major concern in public health, therefore their importance in children's health care are overlooked in Korea. Egg positive rates of Enterobius vermicularis have been reported to be 10~20% among children in kindergartens and primary schools. Enterobiasis is diagnosed by scotch tape anal swab, but repeated examination is necessary for accurate diagnosis. Albendazole or mebendazole are extremely effective for treatment, however, reinfections usually occur if treatment is not repeated at least three times at a 3-week-interval, targeting the whole family members including the patients. Environmental sanitation and health education are also necessary to guarantee the successful treatment of enterobiasis. Head lice infestation is still an indication of public health status. Children of 3 to 12 years old and their families have infestations more frequently, and girls have more than boys. Diagnosis can be made by identification of live lice or nits on the head. Pediculicides are effective treatment of infestations, however they do not kill nits completely, requiring second treatment. Recently wet combing is preferred as an alternative by parents in England because of possible toxicity of drugs and resistance of lice. It is impossible to completely prevent enterobiasis and/or head lice infestations. Therefore, mass screening and prevention are required, and, in local clinics, a thorough evaluation of the symptoms and past history, and appropriate laboratory tests are necessary.

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