Following the rail reform in 2004, rail industry in Korea has separated into two parts: one is the infrastructure manager and the other is train operator. Amongst many aspects, track access charging system is one of the imminent aspects to be studied closely to make the rail reform successful. In this study, track access charging systems of European countries are closely investigated and compared one another and lessons learnt from their experiences are derived. Finally, policy directions regarding the track access charging system to be adopted in Korea are suggested.
This paper analyzes the outcomes of railway reform in the form of vertical separation between the infrastructure and operation since 2004 in Korea. For the analysis, the paper reviewed theoretical issues and case studies of European and Japanese railway reforms efforts. By doing this, we find the implications and a standard model, most useful. Moreover, based on this analysis, the paper reviewed the status of the accomplishment of goals, including solution to current account deficits, improvements in competitiveness and greater efficiency of operations. Finally, the paper highlighted improvement measures to address the problems of railway vertical separation in Korea. This paper suggests specifications pertaining to rail policy and control methods; tower foundation and negotiations and mentions ways to establish legal institutionalization and to secure stable rail system investments in railway in Korea.
The wall shear stress in the vicinity of end-to end anastomoses under steady flow conditions was measured using a flush-mounted hot-film anemometer(FMHFA) probe. The experimental measurements were in good agreement with numerical results except in flow with low Reynolds numbers. The wall shear stress increased proximal to the anastomosis in flow from the Penrose tubing (simulating an artery) to the PTFE: graft. In flow from the PTFE graft to the Penrose tubing, low wall shear stress was observed distal to the anastomosis. Abnormal distributions of wall shear stress in the vicinity of the anastomosis, resulting from the compliance mismatch between the graft and the host artery, might be an important factor of ANFH formation and the graft failure. The present study suggests a correlation between regions of the low wall shear stress and the development of anastomotic neointimal fibrous hyperplasia(ANPH) in end-to-end anastomoses. 30523 T00401030523 ^x Air pressure decay(APD) rate and ultrafiltration rate(UFR) tests were performed on new and saline rinsed dialyzers as well as those roused in patients several times. C-DAK 4000 (Cordis Dow) and CF IS-11 (Baxter Travenol) reused dialyzers obtained from the dialysis clinic were used in the present study. The new dialyzers exhibited a relatively flat APD, whereas saline rinsed and reused dialyzers showed considerable amount of decay. C-DAH dialyzers had a larger APD(11.70