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A Study on Status of Utilization and The Related Factors of Primary Medical Care in a Rural Area (일부 농촌지역의 일차의료이용실태와 그 관련요인에 관한 연구)

  • Wie, Cha-Hyung
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.157-168
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out, through analyzing the annual reports(year of 1973-1993) on health status of Su Dong-Myun, and specific survey data of 332 households(Su Dong-Myun 209, Byul Nae-Myun 123), located in Nam Yang Ju-Si, Kyung Gi-Do, from July 20 to July 31, 1995, to find out more effective means for primary medical care in a rural area. The results were as fellows : 1. Number of population in Su Dong-Myun was 5,419 in 1973, 4,591(the lowest) in 1987 and 5,707 in 1995. In the composition rate of population, "0-14" of age group showed markedly decreasing tendency from 43.1% in 1975, to 19.1% in 1995, however "65 and over" markedly in creasing tendency form 5.3% in 1975 to 9.8% in 1995. 2. Annual utilization rate per 1,000 inhabitants in Su Dong-Myun showed markedly increasing tendency from 1973 to 1977 such as 343 in 1973, 540 in 1975, 900 in 1977. However, since 1979, the rate showed rapidly decreasing tendency, such as 846 in 1979, 519 in 1985, 190 in 1991 and 1993. 3. The morbid household rate per year was 53.6% of respondents and the rate per 15 days was 48.2%. In disease classification rate of morbid household per year, Arthralgia & Neuralgia was the highest rate(33.9%) and gastro-intestinal disorder(19.3%), Cough(11,9%), Hypertension(7.8%), Accident(3.2%) in next order. 4. In the utilizing facilities for Primary Medical Care, Medical facilities was showed the highest rate(58.1% of respondents) and Pharmacy and Drug Shp(33.1%), Tradition Method(4.0%) in next order. In the Medical facilities, General private clinic was showed the highest rate(34.3%) and specific private Clinic(22.3%), Hospital(19.0%), Health (Sub)center(16.3%), Nurse practitioner (3.3%), Oriental hospital and clinic(2.7%) in next order. 5. Experience rate, utilizing health subcenter was 51.8% of the respondents, and it was 55.0% in Su Dong-Myun and 46.3% in Byul Nae-Myun. In utilization times of health subcenter, times-rate showed next orders such as 1-2 times/6months(31.6%), 1-2 times/year (22.1%), 1-2 times/months(19.2%), 1-2 times/3months(15.6%). 6. In objectives, visiting Health Subcenter, Medical Care was the highest rate(59.8% of the respondents) and health control(23.3%) was in next order. In Medical Care, Primary Care by general physician was higher rate(51.1%) almost all. In the Health control, Immunization too was high rate(18.0%) in health control activities. 7. The reasons rate, utilizing health subcenter showed next order, such as distance to Medical facilities(33.0% of the respondents), Medical Cost(28.1%), Simple process of consultation (10.8%), Effectiveness of cure(7.6%), Function of primary medical care(7.0%) and Attitude of physician(6.5%). 8. In the affecting factors to utilization of primary medical facilities, medical needs was showed the highest rate(29.5% of the respondents) and medical cost(15.4%), distance to medical facilities(14.2%), traffic vehicle(14.2%) and farm work(6.9%) in next order. 9. In the priority between 'daily farm work,' and 'primary medical care', only 46.4% of respondents answered that primary health care is more important than the daily farm work The 22.6% of respondents answered 'daily farm work', and the 12.3% answered 'the equal of the both'. 10. In the criterion of medical facilities choice, medical knowledge and technical quality was showed the highest rate(56.3%), distance or time to medical facilities(10.9%), sincerity and kindness of physician(9.4%), medical cost(8.7%) and traffic vehicle(6.5%) in next order 11. In the advise for improvement of health subcenter function, the 36.1% of respondents answered that 'enforcement of medical personnel and equipment' was required, and then 'improved medical technology'(25.5%), 'good attitude of physician'(14.9%), 'improved medical system'(13.3%), 'enforced drug'(6.7%) in next order. 12. The study on affecting factors to utilization of primary medical facilities was very difficult subject to systematize the analyzed results, due to a prejudice of protocol planner, surveyer and respondent, and variety and overlapping of subject matter.

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TRAUMATIC INJURIES TO THE UPPER INCISORS IN PRIMARY AND MIXED DENTITION (유치열과 혼합치열기 어린이의 상악 절치부 외상)

  • Chung, Chu-Hyun;Lee, Jae-Ho;Kim, Seong-Oh;Choi, Byung-Jai
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.290-298
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    • 2004
  • In children, change in lifestyles such as an increase in participation of physical activities has increased the chance of receiving an injury, harming the child and their parents. This study was carried out to give basic information of traumatic injuries to the upper anterior teeth which can be used in prevention of future complications that may arise. From June, 2002 to May, 2003, of the 8,799 children in their primary and mixed dentition visiting Department of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University 955 upper anterior teeth(primary 543, permanent 412) of 487 children(male 316, female 171) with traumatic injures to the upper incisors were studied. The results were as follows: 1. Trauma to the primary teeth prevailed at the age of 1-3 and to the permanent teeth at the age of 7. The male to female ratio was 1.85:1. 2. Trauma to the upper incisors for both the primary and permanent teeth occurred in the afternoon. Primary teeth were injured most frequently in the home(44.1%) and the permanent teeth outdoors, in the street(17.5%). 3. Both the primary and permanent teeth were most injured by fall-down injuries(39.8%, 12.9%), and next were collisions(22.2%, 6.0%). For the primary teeth, high fall, traffic accident, violence and sports are next in order, and for the permanent teeth, violence, sorts, traffic accidents were next. 4. Average number of 1.6 primary teeth and 2.8 permanent teeth were injured with the right central incisor most prevailing. 5. Crown fracture without pulpal exposure and subluxation injures were highest in frequency in both the primary and permanent teeth.

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Analysis of the Risk Factors Influencing the Severity of Injury in Pediatric Multiple Trauma Patients (소아 다발성 외상 환자의 중증도에 영향을 미치는 위험인자에 관한 분석)

  • Lee, Gang-Wook;Kim, Sun-Pyo;Kim, Seong-Jung;Cho, Soo-Hyung;Cho, Nam-Soo
    • Journal of Trauma and Injury
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.68-74
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is, first, to analyze the risk factors that influence the severity of injury in pediatric multiple trauma patients and, second, to present solutions for the problems related to the treatment of such patients. Our living situations are so complicated that the danger of accidents is truly open to children who are not prepared. We need to draw attention to the increased numbers of various accidents involving children. Methods: We studied patients who visited the Emergency Medical Center at Chosun University Hospital from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2008. Using medical records, we evaluated the general characteristics: the mechanism of injury, the vital signs, the revised trauma score (RTS), the injury severity score (ISS), and the hemoglibin value, which was checked at the time of visit, and the presence or the absence of emergent on regular surgery. We divided the level of injury as follows: light level (1-8 points), mid level (9-15 points), and serious level (above 16 points). We analyzed the medical data by using SPSS 17.0 for windows. Results: The average age of the patients examined was 8.6 years. The number of 6- to 11-year-old patients was 96, which was the largest, but the degree of injury severity was the highest among infant (0-2 years), according to ISS 7.95(${\pm}6.85$). The frequency of accidents was highest on sunny days, and most accidents occurred from 16:00 to 20:00. The cause of multiple trauma for children was the greatest in the traffic accident, (95 patients, 49.0%). In addition, the trauma caused by traffic accidents showed the highest ISS value ($9.02{\pm}6.42$) and the most serious degree (P=0.004). The ISS level of injury ($8.40{\pm}6.64$) for patients moved from a secondary hospital was higher than that ($6.49{\pm}5.57$) for patients who visited the medical center directly. The severity of injury was highest for patients who used a 119 ambulance ($8.84{\pm}5.80$). According to the injured parts of body, Injuries to the arms and the feet most frequent (79 patients, 40.7%), but the level of injury was the highest for internal organs and chest, $16.42{\pm}8.56$ and $11.23{\pm}6.97$, respectively. Conclusion: We used Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) in order to examine the characteristics by injured body part for pediatric multiple trauma patients. Because the degree of injury was the highest for internal organs or the chest, we need to more seriously examine and provide for patients who are suspected of having injuries to the internal organs or the chest. We need to quickly determine the need for surgery in patients with serious injuries to the arms and the feet, which is the greatest in frequency. In particular, we need to consider the surgical care of patients who are not very high in the severity of injury to their brains.

Spur-like Lesion on the Lateral Tibial Condyle - A Sign of Chronic ACL tear - (경골 외과의 골극 유사 병변 - 만성 전방 십자 인대 파열의 징후 -)

  • Cho Sung-Do;Ko Sang-Hun;Hwang Su-Yeon;Yang Jung-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Arthroscopy Society
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.201-205
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : Authors experienced cases of chronic ACL tear with spur-like lesion on the tibial condyle which is different from the lateral capsular sign and degenerative change and evaluated the significance of 'spur-like lesion' in relations with chronic ACL injury. Material and Method : We have 5 patients with spur-like lesion on the lateral tibial condyle in simple radiogram. The location, shape and size of the lesion were studied using radiogram and MRI. Cause of injury, associated injury and chronicity of the ACL tear were analyzed. All 5 patients were male, and mean age was 33.8 $(17\~46)$ years. Result : The spur-like lesion was located from 3.8 mm(avg.) below the articular surface of the lateral tibial condyle to the apex of the fibular head and protruded laterally or inferolaterally from just posterior to the Gerdy's tubercle with a round or sharp-end triangular shape. Average length was 6 mm and average width ortho base was 9.2 mm. The cause of injury were sports jnjury 4 cases and traffic accident in one. The chronicity of the ACL tear was average 10.7(8 months$\~$23 years) years and medial meniscus tear was shown in all cases and lateral meniscus tear in three. Conclusion : We suggest that a patient who has a history of trauma with spur-like lesion on the lateral tibial condyle of the knee is expected to have chronic ACL tear.

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The Relationship between Bone Bruise in MRI and Associated Injuries after the Knee Joint Trauma (슬관절 외상 후 자기 공명 영상에서 관찰되는 잠재성 골 병변과 동반 손상과의 관계)

  • Kyung Hee-Soo;Ihn Joo-Chul;Kim Poong-Taek;Oh Chang-Wug;Yeo Jun-Young
    • Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : The purpose is to analyze the relationship between bone bruise in MRI and associated injuries after the knee joint trauma. Materials and Methods : Total 50 cases were reviewed, divided into two groups according to initial trauma energy. High-energy group (group I), such as traffic accident was 13 cases, low-energy group (group II), such as sports trauma was 37 cases. The type of the lesion was used the classification by Costa-Paz. The site of lesion was analyzed according to femoral/tibial, medial/lateral and anterior/middle/posterior site respectively. Associated injuries were confirmed by physical examination, radiograph, MRI and arthroscopy. Results : In group I there was a various distribution of the bone bruise in the knee joint according to mechanism of injury. The bone bruise with ACL injury was 38$\%$ only and the most frequent type was Costa-Paz type I (52.6 $\%$). In group II more frequent locations were the middle portion of the lateral femoral condyle and the posterior portion of the lateral tibial condyle. Bone bruise associated with ACL injury, was upto 56.8 $\%$ and the frequent type were Costa-Paz type II (48 $\%$), in order type I (42 $\%$). As a result, in the high-energy injury the bone bruise had a various location in both condyle and less frequently associated injury, but in the low-energy injury there was particularly frequent location of bone bruise, associated injury and type. Conclusions : We could assess the associated injury by analysis of the location and type of bone bruise, especially in the low-energy injury, e.g. sports injury. But further study will be necessary with more case analysis.

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Causes of Childhood Injuries Observed at the Emergency Rooms of Five Hospitals in Taegu (대구시내 종합병원 응급실에 찾아온 소아사고 환아의 사고원인)

  • Park, Jung-Han;Bae, Yeong-Sook
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.224-237
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    • 1988
  • To determine the causes of and related factors to childhood injuries, the emergency room records and inpatient medical records were reviewed for 4,849 injured children out of 15,790 pediatric patients(<15 years old) who visited the emergency rooms of 3 university hospitals and 2 general hospitals in Taegu from 1 January to 31 December 1987. Out of total injured children, 54.675 were 3-8 years old and the male to female ratio of the total injured children was about 2:1. The leading causes of injury were falls and slips (29.1%) and traffic accident(28.2%). The frequency of injury was higher in May-October than the rest of months and 51.6% of the injuries occurred between 15 and 20 o'clock. Falls and slips took place most frequently at the stairway(25.7%). The most common interpersonal violence was inflicted injuries(85.6%) and there were 11 child rapes. Dog bites accounted for 67.6% of all biting injuries and it occured 2.9 times more in male than in female. CO intoxication was the most common cause of poisoning (45.3%) and scalding accounted for 85.2% of all burns. Common places of drownings were river (32.2%), swimming pool (22.6%) and construction site(19.3%). To prevent childhood injuries, it is recommended to eliminate the hazardous environmental factors, to provide safe playgrounds, to educate the children for safety from kindergarten and the general public through mass communication, to establish a strict safety standard for houses, public buildings and facilities, and playgrounds.

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A Study on Results of Rehabilitation Therapy of Patients with Head Injury (두부손상 환자의 재활치료 결과에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Su-Min;Lim, Hye-Hyeon
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.135-144
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    • 1994
  • The authors studied therapeutic effects and related clinical data retrospectively on a series of 48 consecutive patients with head injury who were referred to physical therapy and occupational therapy, Kosin University Medical Center during 1 year, from March, 1993. through March, 1994. The conclusions were as follows : 1. Average age of the subject patients was 50.6 years, their age remped from 14 to 72 years, and the incidence between male and femele was 1:1.1. 2. In respect to the educational level high school graduates showed the highest incidence 18 (39.1 %) of 46 cases, and in respect to economy level, middle class revealed the highest incidence, 31(64.6 %) in 48 cases. 3. The HBP was the most common cause of spontaneity injury, disclosing 19 cases in 35 patients(54.3%), whereas the main cause of traumatic injury was a traffic accident, 7 cases ( 53.8 %) in 13 patients. 4. As for the region of injury in the cases of spontaneity ICH was 14 persons (40%). In the cases of trauma, hematoma was seen in 6 cases(42.2 %) in 48 total cases ICH was seen in 17 cases (35.4 %) to be the most common region. 5. Among 35 persons, spontaneity CBR was the highest region of injury, 13 cases(37.1 %) ; the side of paralysis in extremities the right side showed higher incidence, 18 cas (1.4 %) as compared to the left, 16 cases(45.7%). In the case of traumatic injury, CBR was the highest region of injury, 4(30.8% )in 13 cases and as for the paralysis side, right side showed higher incidence 7 cases(53.8%) as compared to the left side 5 cases(38.5%). 6. In respect to recurrence, HBP was seen in 5 cases to be the most common cause, and as for the region of injury, CBR was the highest. 7. A period of rehabilitation therapy in the cases of physical therapy the highest term was 1-2 month, 14 persons(29.2%). As for occupational therapy within 2 week-term was the highest, 24 persons(50%). 8. Physical strenth grade M.T in the cases of the upper extrimities before therapy, the low mark(grade 0) was 30 cases(62.5%), compared to the high mark(above grade 3)seen in 1 case(2.1%), And after therapy, the lowest mark(grade 0)was seen in 5 cases(10.4%) where as the high mark(above grade 3)was seen in 29 cases(60.4%). In the case of the lower extremities before therapy, the mark(below grade 1)was 37 cases(77.1 %), while the high mark(above grade 3)was seen n 4 cases(8.4%). And after therapy the low mark(below grade 1)was seen in 5 cases (10.4 %) and the high mark (above grade 3)was seen in 29 cases(60.4 %). 9. Before therapy conigtive function-level evaluation utilized R.L.A.L, the low mark(below level 3)was seen in 9 cases(18.8%), while the high mark(above level 7)was seen in 18 cases(37.5%). And after therapy the low mark (below level 3)was 4 cases(8.3%) and high mark(above level 7)was seen in 38 cases(79%). 10. After rehabilitation therapy, patients who were able to walk independently were 29 persons(60.4%), among which 16 cases(55.2%) depended on cane. The ratio between the cases who were able to walk and unable to walk was 1.5:1.

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Limited Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Tibial Pilon Fractures (제한 절개를 통한 관혈적 정복 및 내고정술을 이용한 경골 Pilon 골절의 치료)

  • Kang, Chung-Nam;Kim, Jong-Oh;Kim, Dong-Wook;Koh, Young-Do;Ko, Sang-Hun;Yoo, Jae-Doo;Hwang, Jun-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.102-111
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    • 1997
  • The tibial Pilon fracture, which is defined as a comminuted intraarticular fracture of the distal tibia, is difficult to manage because high axial compression and rotational forces to the ankle joint result in impaction, severe comminution, metaphyseal disruption and soft tissue damage. There are variable methods of treatment such as manipulation and cast, calcaneal traction and cast, external fixation, pin and plaster, limited open reduction and external fixation, and open reduction and rigid internal fixation. Though most of authors reported better result after a surgical treatment. than that of conservative treatment, many complications such as posttraumatic arthritis and soft tissue problem still remain troublesome. We have reviewed 19 cases of the tibial Pilon fractures in 18 patients which were treated with limited open reduction and internal fixation from September 1993 to May 1996. The results were as follows: 1. The fractures were classified into five types according to the system of Ovadia and Beals, and the most frequent type was type 3 (53%). The most common cause of injury was traffic accident (47%). 2. All of the cases of type 1 and 2, in which the injury of the ankle joint was less severe, revealed good or excellent clinical results. But in type 4 and 5, because the injury is much severe and accurate reduction is difficult, the clinical results were unsatisfaetory. 3. The most frequent complication was posttraumatic osteoarthritis, and which developed in second frequent complication, was developed m the three cases of type 3 in which the radiographic results were less than fair, but there were no correlation with the clinical results. 4. We could markedly reduce the complications related to the soft tissue problem of Pilon fracture by treatment with limited open reduction and internal fixation, and consider that this is a good method of treatment of Pilon fracture when the injury is less severe and accurate reduction is possible.

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A CLINICAL STUDY ON ORAL & MAXILLOFACIAL PATIENTS VISITING CHONNAM UNIV-HOSPITAL EMERGENCY ROOM (전남대학교병원 응급실에 내원한 구강악안면외과 환자에 대한 임상적 연구)

  • Cho, Kyu-Seung;Kim, Ki-Yung;Lee, Sung-Hun;Park, Hong-Ju;So, Kwang-Sub;Cho, Yong-Ki;Oh, Hee-Kyun;Ryu, Sun-Youl
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.435-446
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    • 1997
  • Overall study was carried out for the patients visiting Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery through Emergency Room in Chonnam University Hospital, from Jan. 1, 1992 to Dec. 31, 1996. Result obtained were as follows ; Male predilection was shown, the male to female ratio being 2.5 to 1. The frequently developing age group were the first 3rd and 4th decade and under the age of 9 was followed. The number of patients for emergency was peak in September and October to 11%. About the causes for emergency, traffic accident was the most, and fall down injury and assault were followed. About the injury lists, facial laceration was preceded and the next facial bone fracture and the tooth injury followed. In the facial bone fracture, fracture in the mandible only was the most, and zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture, and mandible-maxilla complex fracture were followed. when the case of the mandible fracture, symphysis, condyle, angle were marked in succession. 57% was predomunatly ranged in the timea of 18 : 00 to 03 : 00 for the emergency. From injury onset to visiting emergency room, the range of 8 hours to 12 hours was predominant. Above results suggest that urgent patients of oral and maxillofacial area were relatively so high that division of oral and maxillofacial surgery should be established immediately.

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A basic research for evaluation of a Home Care Nursing Delivery System (가정간호 서비스 질 평가를 위한 도구개발연구)

  • Kim, Mo-Im;Cho, Won-Jung;Kim, Eui-Sook;Kim, Sung-Kyu;Chang, Soon-Bok;Ryu, Ho-Sihn
    • Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
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    • v.6
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    • pp.33-45
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a basic framework and criteria for evaluation of quality care provided to patients with the attributes of disease in the home care nursing field, and to provide measurement tools for home health care in the future. The study design was a developmental study for evaluation of hospital-based HCN(home care nursing) in Korea. The study process was as follows: a home care nursing study team of College of Nursing. Yonsei University reviewed the nursing records of 47 patients who were enrolled at Yonsei University Medical Center Home Care Center in March, 1995. Twenty-five patients were insured at that time, were selected from 47 patients receiving home care service for study feasibility with six disease groups; Caesarean Section (C/S), simple nephrectomy, Liver cirrhosis(LC), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), Lung cancer or cerebrovascular accident(CVA). In this study, the following items were selected : First step : Preliminary study 1. Criteria and items were selected on the basis of related literature on each disease area. 2. Items were identified by home care nurses. 3. A physician in charge reviewed the criteria and content of selected items. 4. Items were revised through preliminary study offered to both HCN patients and discharged patients from the home care center. Second step : Pretest 1. To verify the content of the items, a pretest was conducted with 18 patients of which there were three patients in each of the six selected disease groups. Third step : Test of reliability and validity of tools 1. Using the collected data from 25 patients with either cis, Simple nephrectomy, LC, COPD, Lung cancer, or CVA. the final items were revised through a panel discussion among experts in medical care who were researchers, doctors, or nurses. 2. Reliability and validity of the completed tool were verified with both inpatients and HCN patients in each of field for researches. The study results are as follows: 1. Standard for discharge with HCN referral The referral standard for home care, which included criteria for discharge with HCN referral and criteria leaving the hospital were established. These were developed through content analysis from the results of an open-ended questionnaire to related doctors concerning characteristic for discharge with HCN referral for each of the disease groups. The final criteria was decided by discussion among the researchers. 2. Instrument for measurement of health statusPatient health status was measured pre and post home care by direct observation and interview with an open-ended questionnaire which consisted of 61 items based on Gorden's nursing diagnosis classification. These included seven items on health knowledge and health management, eight items on nutrition and metabolism, three items on elimination, five items on activity and exercise, seven items on perception and cognition, three items on sleep and rest, three items on self-perception, three items on role and interpersonal relations, five items on sexuality and reproduction, five items on coping and stress, four items on value and religion, three items on family. and three items on facilities and environment. 3. Instrument for measurement of self-care The instrument for self-care measurement was classified with scales according to the attributes of the disease. Each scale measured understanding level and practice level by a Yes or No scale. Understanding level was measured by interview but practice level was measured by both observation and interview. Items for self-care measurement included 14 for patients with a CVA, five for women who had a cis, ten for patients with lung cancer, 12 for patients with COPD, five for patients with a simple nephrectomy, and 11 for patients with LC. 4. Record for follow-up management This included (1) OPD visit sheet, (2) ER visit form, (3) complications problem form, (4) readmission sheet. and (5) visit note for others medical centers which included visit date, reason for visit, patient name, caregivers, sex, age, time and cost required for visit, and traffic expenses, that is, there were open-end items that investigated OPD visits, emergency room visits, the problem and solution of complications, readmissions and visits to other medical institution to measure health problems and expenditures during the follow up period. 5. Instrument to measure patients satisfaction The satisfaction measurement instrument by Reisseer(1975) was referred to for the development of a tool to measure patient home care satisfaction. The instrument was an open-ended questionnaire which consisted of 11 domains; treatment, nursing care, information, time consumption, accessibility, rapidity, treatment skill, service relevance, attitude, satisfaction factors, dissatisfaction factors, overall satisfaction about nursing care, and others. In conclusion, Five evaluation instruments were developed for home care nursing. These were (1)standard for discharge with HCN referral. (2)instrument for measurement of health status, (3)instrument for measurement of self-care. (4)record for follow-up management, and (5)instrument to measure patient satisfaction. Also, the five instruments can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the service to assure quality. Further research is needed to increase the reliability and validity of instrument through a community-based HCN evaluation.

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