• Title, Summary, Keyword: Transient global ischemia

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Neuroprotective effects of Hexane fraction of M61 on Delayed Neuronal Death after Transient global Ischemia in Gerbil Hippocampus

  • Kim, Haw-jung;Kang, Hoon-Je;Mar, Woong-Chon
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.205.1-205
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    • 2003
  • Several lines of recent evidences have shown that several pro-inflammatory genes or mediators, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)are strongly expressed in the ischemic brain. Inflammation is now recognized as a significant contributing mechanism in cerebral ischemia because anti-inflammatory compounds or inhibitors of iNOS have been proven to reduce ischemic brain damage. In iNOS assay, hexane fraction of M61 inhibited NO (iNOS IC50, 0.7${\mu}$g/ml). In vivo study was carried out to evaluate neuroprotective effect of hexane fraction of M61 after transient global ischemia using Mongolian gerbil ischemia model. (omitted)

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Increase of Peroxynitrite Production in the Rat Brain Following Transient Forebrain Ischemia

  • Kim, Hee-Joon;Kim, Seong-Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.205-212
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    • 2001
  • It has been proposed that nitirc oxide is involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Because superoxide production is also enhanced during reperfusion, the cytotoxic oxidant peroxynitrite could be formed, but it is not known if this occurs following global forebrain ischemia-reperfusion. We examined whether peroxynitrite generation is increased in the vulnerable regions after forebrain ischemia-reperfusion. Transient forebrain ischemia was produced in the conscious rat by four-vessel occlusion. Rats were subjected to 10 or 15 min of forebrain ischemia. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect 3-nitrotyrosine, a marker of peroxynitrite production. 3-Nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity was enhanced in the hippocampal CA1 area 3 days after reperfusion. Furthermore, in rats subjected to ischemia for 15 min, this change was also observed in the lateral striatal region and the lateral septal nucleus $2{\sim}3$ days after reperfusion. The cresyl violet staining of adjacent sections showed that neuronal cell death was induced in parallel with the nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 area and the lateral striatal region. Our findings suggest that oxygen free radical accumulation and consequent peroxynitrite production play a role in neuronal death caused by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

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Neuroprotective Effect of Citri Pericarpium On Transient Global Ischemia in Gerbils

  • Kim Jiae;Jung Hyuk-Sang;Won Ran;Park Ji-Ho;Kang Chul hun;Sohn Nak-Won
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.594-601
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    • 2002
  • The current study was carried out to evaluate neuroprotective effects of Citri Pericarpium after transient global ischemia in gerbils. Male Mongolian gerbils weighing 60-80g were anesthetized with 2% isoflurane mixed with 30% oxygen and 70 % nitrogen. Bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded for 5 minute with microaneurysm dips. On 3 or 7 days after ischemic surgery, the gerbils were sacrificed. The brain were removed, embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 8㎛-thickness. Gerbils that received ischemic insult for 5 min showed extensive neuronal damage in the hippocampal CA1 region, and the number of viable neuronal cell was 51.0±2.5/mm, 32.2% of normal group at 7 days after ischemic surgery. In animals that underwent the extract of Citri Pericarpium treatment, the number of viable neuronal cell were significantly better preserved at 110.58±3.58/mm, 72.0% of normal group than those of ischemic group (P<0.01). In the immunohistochemistry of Bax and Bcl-2, the Citri Pericarpium treated group down-regulated the expression of Bax protein at 72hr after transient global ischemia. In contrast, Bcl-2 protein level was not changed. The appearance in TUNEL assay is similar to the pattern of Bax protein. The water extract of Citri Pericarpium significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive CA1 pyramidal neurons at 72hr. The results suggest that Citri Pericarpium has potential neuroprotective effects in the transient global ischemia and the increase in the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax may contribute to the anti-apoptotic effect of Citri Pericarpium.

A Simple Method for Predicting Hippocampal Neurodegeneration in a Mouse Model of Transient Global Forebrain Ischemia

  • Cho, Kyung-Ok;Kim, Seul-Ki;Cho, Young-Jin;Sung, Ki-Wug;Kim, Seong Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.167-172
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    • 2006
  • In the present study, we developed a simple method to predict the neuronal cell death in the mouse hippocampus and striatum following transient global forebrain ischemia by evaluating both cerebral blood flow and the plasticity of the posterior communicating artery (PcomA). Male C57BL/6 mice were anesthetized with halothane and subjected to bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery (BCCAO) for 30 min. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. The plasticity of PcomA was visualized by intravascular perfusion of India ink solution. When animals had the residual cortical microperfusion less than 15% as well as the smaller PcomA whose diameter was less than one third compared with that of basilar artery, neuronal damage in the hippocampal subfields including CA1, CA2, and CA4, and in the striatum was consistently observed. Especially, when mice met these two criteria, marked neuronal damage was observed in CA2 subfield of the hippocampus. In contrast, after transient BCCAO, neuronal damage was consistently produced in the striatum, dependent more on the degree of rCBF reduction than on the plasticity of PcomA. The present study provided simple and highly reproducible criteria to induce the neuronal cell death in the vulnerable mice brain areas including the hippocampus and striatum after transient global forebrain ischemia.

The neuroprotective mechanism of ampicillin in a mouse model of transient forebrain ischemia

  • Lee, Kyung-Eon;Cho, Kyung-Ok;Choi, Yun-Sik;Kim, Seong Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 2016
  • Ampicillin, a ${\beta}$-lactam antibiotic, dose-dependently protects neurons against ischemic brain injury. The present study was performed to investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of ampicillin in a mouse model of transient global forebrain ischemia. Male C57BL/6 mice were anesthetized with halothane and subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 40 min. Before transient forebrain ischemia, ampicillin (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) or penicillin G (6,000 U/kg or 20,000 U/kg, i.p.) was administered daily for 5 days. The pretreatment with ampicillin but not with penicillin G significantly attenuated neuronal damage in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Mechanistically, the increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) following forebrain ischemia was also attenuated by ampicillin treatment. In addition, the ampicillin treatment reversed increased immunoreactivities to glial fibrillary acidic protein and isolectin B4, markers of astrocytes and microglia, respectively. Furthermore, the ampicillin treatment significantly increased the level of glutamate transporter-1, and dihydrokainic acid (DHK, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), reversed the neuroprotective effect of ampicillin. Taken together, these data indicate that ampicillin provides neuroprotection against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury, possibly through inducing the GLT-1 protein and inhibiting the activity of MMP in the mouse hippocampus.

Induction of Neuron-derived Orphan Receptor-1 in the Dentate Gyrus of the Hippocampal Formation Following Transient Global Ischemia in the Rat

  • Kim, Younghwa;Hong, Soontaek;Noh, Mi Ra;Kim, Soo Young;Huh, Pil Woo;Park, Sun-Hwa;Sun, Woong;Kim, Hyun
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.8-12
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    • 2006
  • Neuron-derived orphan receptor (NOR-1) is a member of the thyroid/steroid receptor superfamily that was originally identified in forebrain neuronal cells undergoing apoptosis. In addition to apoptotic stimuli, activation of several signal transduction pathways including direct neuronal depolarization regulates the expression of NOR-1. In this study we tested whether the expression of NOR-1 is changed following transient ischemic injury in the adult rat brain. NOR-1 mRNA increased rapidly in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and piriform cortex 3 h after transient global ischemia and returned to basal level at 6 h. On the other hand, oxygen-glucose deprivation of cultured cerebral cortical neurons did not alter the expression of NOR-1. These results suggest that expression of NOR-1 is differentially regulated in different brain regions in response to globally applied brain ischemia, but that hypoxia is not sufficient to induce its expression.

Effects of Glutamate Receptor Antagonists and Protein Synthesis Inhibitor on Delayed Neuronal Death Induced by Transient Global Ischemia in Rat Brain

  • Ko, Jun-Seog;Bae, Choon-Sang;Kim, Jong-Keun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 1998
  • It has been well documented that transient forebrain global ischemia causes selective neuronal degeneration in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons with a delay of a few days. The mechanism of this delayed hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuronal death (DND) is still controversial. To delineate the mechanisms of the DND, the effects of treatment with MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, kynurenic acid, a NMDA/non-NMDA receptor antagonist, and/or cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, on the DND were investigated in male Wistar rats. To examine the participation of apoptotic neuronal death in the DND, TUNEL staining was performed in ischemic brain section. Global ischemia was induced by 4-vessel occlusion for 20 min. All animals in this study showed the DND 3 and 7 days after the ischemic insult. The DND that occured 3 days and 7 days after the ischemia were not affected by pretreatment with MK-801 (1 mg/kg), but markedly attenuated by the pretreatment with kynurenic acid (500 mg/kg). Treatment with cycloheximide (1 mg/kg) also markedly inhibited the DND. The magnitudes of attenuation by the two drugs were similar. The magnitude of attenuation by co-treatments with kynurenic acid and cycloheximide was not greater than that with any single treatment. TUNEL staining was negative in the sections obtained 1 or 2 days after the ischemic insults, but it was positive at hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in sections collected 3 days after the ischemia. These results suggested that the DND should be mediated by the activation of non-NMDA receptor, not by the activation of NMDA receptor and that the activation of AMPA receptor should induce the apoptotic process in the DND.

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Neuroprotective Effects of the Extracts from the Aerial Parts of Carthamus tinctorius L. on Transient Cerebral Global Ischemia in Rats (홍화 지상부 추출물의 전뇌허혈에 대한 신경보호 효과)

  • Kim, Young Ock;Lee, Sang Won;Yang, Seung Ok;Na, Sae Won;Kim, Su Kang;Chung, Joo Ho
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2014
  • In traditional Korean and Chinese medicine, safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) for the treatment of central nervous system-related symptoms such as tremor, seizure, stroke and epilepsy. We investigated the effects of safflower could influence cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal and cognitive impairments. Administration of safflower for 1 day (200 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) increased the survival of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons after transient global brain ischemia. And neurological functions measured as short term memory. Post-treatment with safflower for 2 times decreased the induction/reduction - induced production of neuronal cell loss from global cerebral ischemia. Safflower markedly decreased neuronal cell death and also caused a decrease in the content of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) ($55.2{\pm}9.4{\mu}mol\;mg^{-1}$) and significant improvement of activities of glutathione (GSH) ($27.2{\pm}5.0{\mu}mol\;mg^{-1}$) in hippocampus. We conclude that treatment with safflower attenuated learning and memory deficits, and neuronal cell loss induced by global cerebral ischemia. These results suggest that safflower may be a potential candidate for the treatment of vascular dementia.

Effects of NEES on PARP Expression in the Corpus Striatum in Rats Induced with Transient Global Ischemia

  • Lee, Jung Sook;Song, Young Wha;Kim, Sung Won
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.429-434
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    • 2012
  • Ischemia, the leading cause of strokes, is known to be deeply related to synaptic plasticity and apoptosis in tissue damage due to ischemic conditions or trauma. The purpose of this study was to research the effects of NEES(needle electrode electrical stimulation) in brain cells of ischemia-induced rat, more specifically the effects of Poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase(PARP) on the corpus striatum. Ischemia was induced in SD mice by occluding the common carotid artery for 5 minutes, after which blood was re-perfused. NEES was applied to acupuncture points, at 12, 24, and 48 hours post-ischemia on the joksamri, and at 24 hours post-ischemia on the hapgok. Protein expression was investigated through PARP antibody immuno-reactive cells in the cerebral nerve cells and western blotting. The number of PARP reactive cells in the corpus striatum 24 hours post-ischemia was significantly(p<.05) smaller in the NEES group compared to the global ischemia(GI) group. PARP expression 24 hours post-ischemia was very significantly smaller in the NEES group compared to the GI group. Results show that ischemia increases PARP expression and stimulates necrosis, making it a leading cause of death of nerve cells. NEES can decrease protein expression related to cell death, protecting neurons and preventing neuronal apoptosis.

Neuroprotective Effects of Scrophulariae Radix on Cerebral Ischemia in Mongolian Gerbils (Mongolian gerbil의 뇌허혈에 대한 현삼의 신경보호효과)

  • Lee, Jun-Hwan;Song, Mi-Yeon;Lee, Jong-Soo;Kim, Sung-Su;Shin, Hyun-Dae;Chung, Seok-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : Cerebral ischemia resulting from transient or permanent occlusion of cerebral arteries leads to neuronal cell death and eventually causes neurological impairments. Scrophulariae radix is the roots of Scrophularia buergeria. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the aqueous extract of Scrophulariae radix on apoptotic cell death in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils. Methods : For this study, step-down avoidance task, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 were performed. Results : The present results showed that apoptotic cell death in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly increased following transient global ischemia in gerbils. Treatment with the aqueous extract of Scrophulariae radix suppressed the ischemia-induced apoptosis in the dentate gyrus and thus facilitated the recovery of short-term memory impairment induced by ischemic cerebral injury. Conclusions : Here in this study, we have shown that Scrophulariae radix has a positive effect on-and possesses protective qualities against ischemia-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death, and it can be used for the treatment of ischemic brain diseases.