• Title, Summary, Keyword: Transient global ischemia

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Effect of ischemic preconditioning on left ventricular function after cardiac arrest in isoated rat heart (적출 쥐 심장에서 허혈성 전조건화가 심정지후 좌심실 기능에 미치는 영향)

  • 조대윤
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.563-570
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    • 1994
  • Effect of ischemic preconditioning on left ventricular function after cardiac arrest in isolated rat heart.Ischemic preconditioning reduces infarct size caused by sustained ischemia. However, the effects of preconditioning on post ischemic cardiac function are not well-known. The objective of the present study was to determine whether preconditioning would improve the recovery of left ventricular functions after cardiac arrest in isolated rat heart model.Isolated rat hearts were allowed to equilibrate for 20 minutes and were then subjected to either 5 minutes of global, normothermic transient ischemia [Group 2 and 4] or not [Group 3]. A stabilization period of perfusion lasting 5 minutes after the termination of transient ischemia was followed by a standard global, normothermic 20 minute-ischemia and 35-minute reperfusion challenge [Group 3 and 4]. These following results were odtained.1. The recovery of left ventricular developed pressures showed no significant differences between Group 3 and Group 4 at 50 [P>0.3] and 85 minute [P>0.2].2. Heart rates showed no significant differences throughout all the course of experiment and between groups [P>0.5].3. The recovery of left ventricular maximum dP/dt showed no significant differences between Group 3 and Group 4 at 50 [P>0.1] and 85 minute [P>0.2].4. The recovery of pressure-rate products showed no significant differences between Group3 and Group 4 at 50 [P>0.5] and 85 minute [P>0.1].These results suggest that ischemic preconditioning does not provide significant benefit for the postischemic left ventricular functions in isolated rat hearts.

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Pre-ischemic Treatment with Ampicillin Reduces Neuronal Damage in the Mouse Hippocampus and Neostriatum after Transient Forebrain Ischemia

  • Lee, Kyung-Eon;Kim, Seul-Ki;Cho, Kyung-Ok;Kim, Seong-Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.287-291
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    • 2008
  • Ampicillin, a $\beta$-lactam antibiotic, has been reported to induce astrocytic glutamate transporter-l which plays a crucial role in protecting neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity. We investigated the effect of ampicillin on neuronal damage in the mouse hippocampus and neostriatum following transient global forebrain ischemia. Male C57BL/6 mice were anesthetized with halothane and subjected to bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery for 40 min. Ampicillin was administered post-ischemically (for 3 days) and/or pre-ischemically (for $3{\sim}5$ days until one day before the onset of ischemia). Pre- and post-ischemic treatment with ampicillin (50 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day) prevented ischemic neuronal death in the medial CAI area of the hippocampus as well as the neostriatum in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ischemic neuronal damage was reduced by pre-ischemic treatment with ampicillin (200 mg/kg/day). In summary, our results suggest that ampicillin plays a functional role as a chemical preconditioning agent that protects hippocampal neurons from ischemic insult.

Effects of EA Application to GV20 and LI4 on BAX and NF-kB Expression of the SD-Rat's Hippocampus with Global Ischemia

  • Choi, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Won;Lee, Jae-Gap;Kim, Min-Hee;Kim, Ji-Sung;Choi, Yoo-Rim;Yun, Young-Dae;Kim, Chi-Hyok;Kim, Yong-Seong;Kim, Nyeon-Jun;Lee, Ju-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Bin
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.136-142
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    • 2010
  • This study aims to reveal how EA affects BAX and NF-kB involved in cell deaths from global ischemia, and to do this, observes the changes of BAX and NF-kB caused by EA application after transient global ischemia. The experimental method is to give rise to global ischemia and apply EA to 27 SD rats with the particulars of being six-week-old, male, around-300 gram-weighing, and adapted to laboratory environment for more than a week, and divide them into three groups, that is, GV20 EA group(n=9), L14 EA group(n=9), no-treatment GI group(n=9), and then observe their changes of BAX and NF-kB at the time lapse of 6 hours, 9 hours and 12 hours after ischemia, using western blotting. The numerical decrease of BAX expression at the time lapse of 9 hours after EA application, though not statistically significant, was observed in GV20 EA group and L14 EA group, and the NF-kB expression appeared statistically significant decrease in GV20 EA group and L14 EA group, but the expression was higher in the group with EA application. Therefore, EA application at the early phase of global ischemia is considered to affect BAX and NF-kB and play a positive role in decreasing apoptosis and cell deaths by inflammation.

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Effect of NEES on the Occurrence of c-Fos in the Cerebrum of a Rat With Transient Global Ischemia (일과성 전뇌허혈 유발 쥐의 침전극 저주파자극 후 대뇌의 c-Fos 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jung-Sook;Kim, Sung-Won
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2010
  • Ischemia that causes stroke induces inflammation of brain cells and apoptosis and as a result, it influences much on the functional part of a man. The needle electrode electrical stimulation (NEES) that combines acupuncture of oriental medicine with electric therapy of western medicine relieves inflammation of cells and has effect on regrowth of nerve tissues. This study was conducted to verify the influence of NEES on the occurrence of c-Fos of cerebrum after applying NEES to the meridian point, Zusanli (ST 36) of a rats with induced ischemia. Global ischemia was induced by using ligation method on common carotid artery of male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The ligation was maintained for 5 minutes and then suture was removed for blood reperfusion. After inducing global ischemia, NEES was done to the left and right meridian points of Joksamri of a rat for 30 minutes after 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours. The findings were as follows. 1. In the result of immunohistochemical method, the number of c-Fos immune response cells significantly decreased (P<.05) in NEES group than the control group (GI) that did not get NEES. 2. In the result of western blotting, the occurrence of c-Fos after 24 hours from the inducement of ischemia significantly decreased (P<.05) in NEES group than the control group (GI) that did not get NEES. Therefore, as the effect of NEES was shown highest after 24 hours from the ischemia, it is suspected that NEES would take important role in early treatment after cerebral stroke.

The Effect of NEES on the Occurrence of Caspase-3 in the Cerebellum of Rats with Transient Global Ischemia

  • Lee, Jung Sook;Song, Young Wha;Kim, Sung Won
    • Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.718-722
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    • 2014
  • The cerebellum is known to control balance, equilibrium, and muscle tone. If the cerebellum becomes damaged, the body is unable to retain its balancing functions or involuntary muscle movement. This is why, in stroke patients, there is a high risk of functional disability, as well as a myriad of other disabilities secondary to stroke. Ischemia was induced in SD mice by occluding the common carotid artery for 5 minutes, after which blood was reperfused. Needle electrode electrical stimulation(NEES) was applied to acupuncture points, at 12, 24, and 48 hours post-ischemia on the joksamri. Protein expression was investigated through caspase-3 antibody immuno-reactive cells in the cerebral nerve cells and Western blotting. The results were as follows: The number of caspase-3 reactive cells in the corpus cerebellum 12 and 24 hours post-ischemia was significantly (p<.05) smaller in the NEES group compared to the GI group. caspase-3 expression 12 and 24 hours post-ischemia was significantly(p<.05) smaller in the NEES group compared to the GI group. Based on these results, NEES seems to have a significant effect on Caspase-3 in the cerebellum in an ischemic state at 12 and 24 hours post ischemia, NEES delays the occurrence of early stage apoptosis-inducing Caspase-3, delaying and inhibiting apoptosis. Further systematic studies will have to be conducted in relation to the application of this study's results on stroke patients.

Neuroprotecticve Effect of Sophora Subprostrata on Transient Global Ischemia in Gerbil (광두근(廣豆根)의 Gerbil 전뇌(全腦)허혈에 대한 신경손상방어효능 연구)

  • Min, Hong-Kyu;Kang, Ho-Chang;Lee, Hyun-Sam;Kim, Sun-Yeou;Sohn, Young-Joo;Jung, Hyuk-Sang;Sohn, Nak-Won;Kim, Yoon-Bum
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : This research was performed to investigate protective effect of Sophora Subprostrata against transient global ischemic damage after 5-min two vessel occlusion. Methods : Gerbils were divided into three groups: Normal group, 5-min two vessel occlusion (2VO) group, Sophora Subprostrata administrated group after 2VO. The CCAs were occluded by microclip for 5min. Sophora Subprostrata was administrated orally(12mg/ml) for 7 days after 2VO. The histological and immunohistochemistrical analysis was performed at 72 hours and 7 days after the surgery each. For histological analysis, the brain tissue was stained with 1% cresyl violet solution and Immunohistochemistry for BAX and Bcl-2 was carried out to examine effect of Sophora Subprostrata on ischemic brain tissue. Results : The results showed that (1) Sophora Subprostrata has the protective effect against ischemia in CA1 area of the gerbil hippocampus 7 days after 5-minute occlusion, (2) the treatment of Sophora Subprostrata inhibits the expression of Bax relatively after 2VO-induced ischemia. That protective effect of the Sophora Subprostrata seems to be performed by regulating the proportion of Bax and Bcl-2 protein, (3) in hypoxia/reperfusion model using PC12 cell, the Sophora Subprostrata extract has the protective effect against ischemia in the dose of $2{\mu}/m{\ell}$ and $20{\mu}/m{\ell}$.This study suggests that Sophora Subprostrata has neuroprotective effect against neuronal damage following cerebral ischemia in vivo with a widely used experimental model of cerebral ischemia in Mongolian gerbils and that Sophora Subprostrata regulates the proportion of Bax and Bcl-2 protein following ischemia. And, Sophora Subprostrata extract has protective effects also on a hypoxia/reperfusion cell culture model using PC12 cell. Conclusions : Sophora Subprostrata has protective effects against ischemic brain damage at the early stage of ischemia.

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The Effect of Electroacupuncture on Reactive Gliosis Expressing GFAP in Rat with Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia (흰쥐 일과성 뇌허혈 시 GFAP으로 표지되는 반응성 신경아교세포증에 대한 전침의 효과)

  • Cho, Mi-Suk
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.341-352
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was carried out to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture on reactive gliosis expressing GFAP in rat with transient global cerebral ischemia. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups, a control group and a electroacupuncture group on ST36, LI11 and SP9 with 2 Hz and 1 mA. The rats were sacrificed on 1, 3 and 7 days after transient cerebral ischemia using ligation of left common carotid artery. After making brain slide sections, they were immunostained with GFAP antisera(1:2,500). The results were as follows: The numbers of astrocytes of electroacupuncture group were decreased than those of control group at every 1, 2 and 7 days. Especially, the numbers of astrocytes at 3 days(p<0.01) and 8 days(p<0.05) were different statistically. And astrocytes had resting, hypertrophic and moving types on cerebral cortex. The decrease of numbers of astrocytes expressing GFAP showed that electroacupuncture could localise and minimize the brain damage by transient cerebral ischemia and cause brain cell plasticity.

Neuroprotective Effect of Hwangryunhaedok-tang on the Brain Ischemia Induced by Four-Vessel Occlusion in Rats (황련해독탕(黃連解毒湯)의 4-VO로 유발한 흰쥐뇌허혈에 대한 신경보호효과)

  • 이민정;김영옥;이강진;유영법;김선여;김성수;김호철
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.161-168
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    • 2002
  • Objectives: Hwangryunhaedok-tang (Huang-lian-jie-du-tang, HRHDT, 黃連解毒湯) is a traditional Korean herbal medicine that is formulated with Coptidis Rhizoma, Phellodendri Cortex, Scutellariae Radix and Gardeniae Fructus. HRHDT is cold (寒) and bitter (苦) in nature and has general properties of clearing heat and detoxifying (淸熱解毒), strengthening the stomach and settling the liver (健胃平肝), and reducing inflammation, fever and swelling. This formula can prevent and treat artherosclerosis, hyperplasia of the endothelium, cerebral fluid circulation, cerebral vascular deterioration through aging, impairment of neurotransmitters, or disruption of the functioning of the cerebral cortex following infection or trauma. The purpose of the study reported here was to determine the neuroprotective effect of HRHDT on global ischemia induced by 4-vessel occlusion in Wistar rats. Methods: HRHDT extract was lyophilized after extraction with 85% methanol and 100% water. Rats were induced to 10 minutes of forebrain ischemia by 4-vessel occlusion (4-VO) and reperfused again. HRHDT was administered with a dose of 100 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg of 85% methanol extracts and 100 mg/kg of 100% water extracts, respectively, at 0 min and 90 min after 4-VO. Rats were killed at 7 days after ischemia and the number of CA1 pyramidal neurons was counted in hippocampal sections stained with cresyl violet. Results: Body temperature of animals showed no significant difference between saline-treated groups and HRHDT extracts-treated groups until 5 hours of reperfusion. This result indicated that neuroprotective effects of HRHDT extracts were not due to hypothermic effects. The administration of HRHDT showed a significant neuroprotective effect on hippocampal CA1 neurons at 7 days after ischemia compared to the saline-treated group (P<0.001). HRHDT methanol extracts of 100 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and HRHDT water extracts of 100 mg/kg showed 88.5%, 98.3% and 95.1 % neuroprotection, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that administration of HRHDT is highly effective in reducing neuronal damage in response to transient global cerebral ischemia. HRHDT may involve many mechanisms that might account for its high degree of efficacy. A number of factors including free radicals, glutamate, calcium overload, NO, and various cytokines have been proposed to have an important role in causing neuronal death after short periods of global ischemia. Further studies are needed to know the neuroprotective mechanisms of HRHDT.

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The Effect of Extracellular Glutamate Release on Repetitive Transient Ischemic Injury in Global Ischemia Model

  • Lee, Gi-Ja;Choi, Seok-Keun;Eo, Yun-Hye;Kang, Sung-Wook;Choi, Sam-Jin;Park, Jeong-Hoon;Lim, Ji-Eun;Hong, Kyung-Won;Jin, Hyun-Seok;Oh, Berm-Seok;Park, Hun-Kuk
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.23-26
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    • 2009
  • During operations, neurosurgeons usually perform multiple temporary occlusions of parental artery, possibly resulting in the neuronal damage. It is generally thought that neuronal damage by cerebral ischemia is associated with extracellular concentrations of the excitatory amino acids. In this study, we measured the dynamics of extracellular glutamate release in 11 vessel occlusion(VO) model to compare between single occlusion and repeated transient occlusions within short interval. Changes in cerebral blood flow were monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry simultaneously with cortical glutamate level measured by amperometric biosensor. From real time monitoring of glutamate release in 11 VO model, the change of extracellular glutamate level in repeated transient occlusion group was smaller than that of single occlusion group, and the onset time of glutamate release in the second ischemic episode of repeated occlusion group was delayed compared to the first ischemic episode which was similar to that of single 10 min ischemic episode. These results suggested that repeated transient occlusion induces less glutamate release from neuronal cell than single occlusion, and the delayed onset time of glutamate release is attributed to endogeneous protective mechanism of ischemic tolerance.

Neuroprotective effects of herbal mixture HT070 on global cerebral ischemia in rats

  • Song, Jungbin;Lee, Donghun;Kim, Young-Sik;Lee, Hyun Jeong;Lee, Seunggyeong;Kim, Dong Kuk;Kang, Shin Ho;Shin, Yong Kook;Choi, Ho-Young;Kim, Hocheol
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : HT070 is a mixture of herbal extracts from root of Scutellaria baicalensis and stem bark of Eleutherococcus senticosus , which have long been used for stroke therapy in traditional Korean Medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of HT070 on global cerebral ischemia and its potential mechanisms.Methods : Transient global cerebral ischemia was produced by 10 min of four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) in male Wistar rats. HT070 was administered orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg twice at 0 and 90 min after reperfusion. Hippocampal neuronal damage was measured 7 days after reperfusion. To explore the potential mechanisms, we used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as an in vitro model. PC12 cells were pretreated with HT070 for 1 h and then exposed to 100 μM H2O2 for 6 h in the presence of HT070. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay and the mRNA expression of Bax, Bcl-2, iNOS and COX-2 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR.Results : Oral administration of HT070 at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly reduced neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region by 13.4% as compared to the vehicle-treated group. HT070 increased cell viability, reversed the down-regulated Bcl-2 mRNA level, and suppressed the up-regulated mRNA expressions of Bax, iNOS, and COX-2 in H2O2-treated PC12 cells.Conclusions : HT070 protects against delayed neuronal death after global cerebral ischemia and its neuroprotection properties might be attributed to the inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis and ROS-generating enzymes.