• Title, Summary, Keyword: Trunk road

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Analysis of Nonpoint Sources Runoff Characteristic by Road Types (도로 유형별 비점오염원 유출특성 분석)

  • Yoon, Young-Sam;Kwon, Hun-Gak;Yi, Youn-Jung;Yu, Jay-Jung;Lee, Chun-Sik;Lee, Jae-Kwan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1375-1384
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    • 2010
  • Growth in population and urbanization has progressively increased the loading of pollutants from nonpoint sources as well as point sources. Especially in case of road regions such as city trunk road, national road and highway are rainfall and pollutants runoff intensive landuses since they are impervious and emit a lot of pollutants from vehicle activity. This research was conducted to investigate the nonpoint sources concentration and quantifying stormwater pollutants which are contained in rainfall runoff water. Three different monitoring sites in Jinju and Changwon city were equipped with an automatic rainfall gauge and flow meter for measuring rainfall and the volume of rainfall runoff. In the case of average EMC value, city trunk road was shown the highest value in target water quality items like as BOD, COD, SS, TN and TP. Or the amount of runoff loads by water quality items showed the highest value in city trunk road. And runoff load in city trunk road was 43.8 times high value compared to highway by value of city trunk road $356.7 mg/m^2$, highway $8.150 mg/m^2$, national road $19.99 mg/m^2$ in the case of BOD.

The Estimating MFFn by SWMM in The Transportation Area (SWMM 모형을 활용한 도로 형태별 초기세척비율 산정)

  • Kwon, Hun-Gak;Lee, Jae-Woon;Yi, Youn-Jeong;Shin, Suk-Ho;Lee, Chun-Sik;Lee, Jae-Kwan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.277-287
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    • 2012
  • The MFFn(Mass First Flush) was analyzed for various rainy events(monitoring data from 2008 to 2009) in Transportation area(Highway, National road, Trunk road). Estimated MFFn using SWMM was evaluated by comparison with observed MFFn. MFFn was estimated by varying n-value from 10% to 90% on the rainy events. The n-value increases, MFFn is closed to '1'. As time passed, the rainfall runoff was getting similar to ratio of pollutants accumulation. The result of a measure of the strength of the linear relationship between observed data and expected data under model was good ($R^2$=0.89). Pollutants runoff loads by volume showed Highway 26.6%, National road 44.8%, Trunk road 35.0% at the MFF20(20% by total runoff). A case of MFF30, pollutants runoff loads by volume showed Highway 40.2%, National road 54.3%, Trunk road 46.8%. According to the results, Initial precipitation basis were Highway MFF30, National road MFF20, Trunk road MFF30 when the Non-Point source control facilities set up.

Characteristics of Non-Point Pollution from Road Surface Runoff

  • Lee, Chun-Sik;Jang, Seong-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.665-670
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    • 2010
  • Pollutants from urban pavement consists various kinds of substances which are originated from dry deposition, a grind out tire, corrosive action of rain to pavement and facilities and raw materials of the road etc.. These are major pollutants of urban NPS (Non-point source) during rainfall period. However there is not enough information to control such pollutants for appropriate management of natural water quality. In this study of transportation areas, three monitoring stations were set up at trunk road, urban highway and national road in Gyeongnam province. Runoff flow rate was measured at every 15minutes by automatic flow meters installed at the end of storm sewer pipe within the road catchment area for water quality analysis. Data was collected every 15 minutes for initial two hours of rainfall. Additional samples were collected 1-4 hours interval till the end of rainfall. The monitoring parameters were $COD_{Mn}$, SS, T-N & T-P and heavy metals. The average EMCs of TSS and $COD_{Mn}$ were 62.0 mg/L and 24.2 mg/L on the city trunk road, which were higher than those of urban highway and national road, indicating higher pollutant loads due to activities in the city downtown area beside the vehicle. On the other hand, the average EMC of T-N and T-P were in the range of 2.67-3.23 mg/L and 0.19-3.21 mg/L for all the sampling sites. Heavy metals from the roads were mainly Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn, showing variable EMCs by the type of road. From the TSS wash-off analysis in terms of FF(first flush) index, first flush phenomenon was clearly observed in the trunk road(FF : 0.89-1.43). However, such mass delivery behavior was not apparently shown in urban highway(FF : 0.90-1.11) and national road(FF : 0.81-1.41).

Effect of Trunk Height and Approaching Air Velocity of Notchback Road Vehicles on the Pressure Distribution of the Car Surface (Notchback자동차의 트렁크 높이와 공기속도가 차체 표면의 압력변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 박종수;최병대;김성준
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.178-186
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    • 2002
  • 3-D numerical studies are performed to investigate the effect of the trunk height and approaching air velocities on the pressure distribution of notchback road vehicle. For this purpose, the models of test vehicle with four different trunk heights are introduced and PHOENICS, a commercial CFD code, is used to simulate the flow phenomena and to estimate the values of pressure coefficients along the surface of vehicle. The standard k-$\xi$ model is adopted for the simulation of turbulence. The numerical results say that the height variation of trunk makes almost no influence on the distribution of the value of pressure coefficient along upper surface but makes very strong effects on the rear surface. That is, the value of pressure coefficient becomes smaller as the height is increased along the rear surface and the bottom surface. Approaching air velocity make no differences on pressure coefficients. Through the analysis of pressure coefficient on the vehicle surfaces one tried to assess aerodynamic drag and lift of vehicle. The pressure distribution on the rear surface affected more on drag and lift than pressure distribution on the front surface of the vehicle does. The increase of trunk height makes positive effects on the lift decrease but negative effects on drag reduction.

The Applicability for Estimating MFFn by SWMM in The Trunk Road (간선도로에서 MFFn 산정 시 SWMM의 적용성 평가)

  • Kwon, Hun-Gak;Lee, Jae-Woon;Yi, Youn-Jeong;Yoon, Young-Sam;Lee, Chun-Sik;Lee, Jae-Kwan
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.605-616
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    • 2011
  • The first flush phenomenon and the Mass First Flush (MFFn) were analyzed for various rainy events in trunk road. Applicability for estimate MFFn using SWMM was evaluated by comparision with observed MFFn. First flush phenomenon was investigated by normalized cumulated (NCL) curve of every pollutant based on ten times of rainfall events monitoring data from 2008 to 2009. As a result, magnitude of first flush phenomenon varied with the pollutants and rainfall events. First flush phenomenon was detected highly in the trunk road. MFFn was estimated by varying n-value from 10 to 90% on the rainfall events. The n-value increases, MFFn is closed to '1'. As time passed, the rainfall runoff was getting similar to ratio of pollutants accumulation. The result of a measure of the strength of the linear relationship between observed data and expected data under model was good ($R^2$=0.956). As the final outcome, we have good reliability, estimation and application of MFFn using model seem statistically possible.

A Study on the Air Pollution Around a Major Trunk Road in Urban Area (1) Measurements of $NO_2$ Concentrations in Homes Along the Major Arterial Roads in Tokyo (도시에 있어서 연도오염에 관한 연구 (1) 동경도 연도가정의 $NO_2$ 농도 측정)

  • 손부순
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 1995
  • To assess the contribution of automobile exhaust to indoor and outdoor levels of $NO_2$ around a major trunk road in Tokyo, $NO_2$ levels of 200 homes were measured at living rooms, kitchens and outdoor at each season, from the summer of 1990 to the spring of 1991, $NO_2$ level was measured for four days using diffusion $NO_2$ dosimeter. Outdoor $NO_2$ levels at each season and indoor $NO_2$ levels at seasons when heaters were not used decreased according to the distance from the roadside. The differences between $NO_2$ levels at zone I(within 20m from the roadside) and zone III(beyond 50m) was about 3 ppb. Automobile exhaust seemed to contribute to this difference. At seasons when heaters were used, indoor $NO_2$ levels of the homes equipped with vented heater, decreased according to the distance from the roadside. However, there was no correlation between indoor levels and the distance from the roadside at homes equipped with unvented heater.

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Development of Evaluation Indicators on Improvement Level of Rural Village Roads in Korea (농촌마을내부도로의 정비수준 진단지표개발)

  • Cho, Eun-Jung;Choi, Soo-Myung;Kim, Young-Taek;Park, Su-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.159-171
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    • 2010
  • Since rapid industrialization of Korean society, out-of-village roads have been greatly improved, while almost all of in-village roads have not been fundamentally improved yet. Unless village roads should be improved in relatively comparison with trunk roads, it has been widely recognized that grass rooted achievement of accessibility revolution not be realized. In this regard, this study tried to develop evaluation indicators system for improvement of village roads. The evaluation indicator system on village road conditions was proposed which is sub-categorized as structural improvement of road itself, its communication serviceability and public securing level of property rights of road site. The system has 6 indicators(2 of each subcategory);good pavement ratio and over 3m wide road length ratio, ratio of household fronting under 2m wide road and connectivity of road network, ratio of registered as 'road' in land category and ratio of publicly owned road sites. In the final conclusion, village roads in rural Korea have been generally in worse condition regardless of whether prior improvement works or not, except some of recent plan-based improvement villages.

Effectiveness Analysis of Exclusive Median Bus Lane that Uses Microsimulation (미시적 시뮬레이션을 이용한 중앙버스전용차로 효과분석)

  • Kim, Myung Soo
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.159-167
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    • 2013
  • PURPOSES : In this study, the effects of when median exclusive bus lanes were applied to Daejeon trunk road (Wolpyeng crossway~Seodaejeon crossway, 6.3km) and (Daeduck Bridge 4~Kyeryong 4, 2.6km) by Microscopic Simulation VISSIM (5.0) was studied. The median exclusive bus lanes are one of the measures of transportation system manage techniques that can especially improve the efficiency of public transportation facilities. METHODS : According to the analysis of VISSIM on the Gyerong mainroad and Daedeok mainroad, when the median exclusive bus lanes were applied unlike when the roadside bus-only lanes were applied, the average travel speed of vehicles decreased but the average delay time and travel time increased. This arised from the changes in the geometric structure of the road which occurred the reduction of vehicle lane in the center of the road. RESULTS : In the case of bus, on the other hand, the average travel speed increased but the average delay time and travel time decreased. This is because the problems such as illegal parking and stopping, secondary road in out vehicle, and conflict of intersection right turn that roadside bus-only lanes occurred was solved. CONCLUSIONS : Although the introduction of median exclusive bus lanes will have a negative effect on general traffic flow due to the aggravation of travel, decrease of passenger car usage will lead to decrease of traffic volume. Therefore, smooth vehicle travel is expected.

The Research about Map Model of 3D Road Network for Low-carbon Freight Transportation (저탄소 화물운송체계 구현을 위한 3차원 도로망도 모델에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Hoon
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 2012
  • The low-carbon freight transportation system was introduced due to increase traffic congestion cost and carbon-dioxide for global climate change according to expanding city logistics demands. It is necessary to create 3D-based road network map for representing realistic road geometry with consideration of fuel consumption and carbon emissions. This study propose that 3D road network model expressed to realistic topography and road structure within trunk road for intercity freight through overlaying 2D-based transport-related thematic map and 1m-resolution DEM. The 3D-based road network map for the experimental road sections(Pyeongtaek harbor-Uiwang IC) was verified by GPS/INS survey and fuel consumption simulation. The results corresponded to effectively reflect realistic road geometry (RMSE=0.87m) except some complex structure such as overpass, and also actual fuel consumption. We expect that Green-based freight route planning and navigation system reflected on 3D geometry of complex road structure will be developed for effectively resolving energy and environmental problems.

Environmental Effects of Traffic Calming Devices on Residential Area using SUMO

  • Sugimachi, Nobuyuki;Yoo, Jaesoo;Hayashida, Yukuo
    • International Journal of Contents
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2020
  • Recently, the number of traffic accidents on trunk roads tends to decrease due to the performance improvement of passenger vehicles. In the commuter rush hour of morning and evening, vehicles via residential road increases without going along trunk roads. Therefore, there are many traffic accidents of pedestrians (or bicycles) and vehicles on residential roads. In order to safeguard residents against traffic accidents, traffic calming devices (TCD), such as chicane, speed hump, and school zone, etc. have been introduced. Investigating these effects repeatedly is not easy since many times and efforts are required, such as observed at the place actually. In this paper, the effects of TCDs in residential areas, such as noise, speed, and emission of a vehicle, using Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) are examined. As a result, it is found that it is possible to reduce the speed of the vehicle by TCD, and the level of noise at the location behind TCD becomes higher than the level of noise at the location of TCD implemented.