• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tunisia

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Seismic vulnerability assessment of a historical building in Tunisia

  • El-Borgi, S.;Choura, S.;Neifar, M.;Smaoui, H.;Majdoub, M.S.;Cherif, D.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.209-220
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    • 2008
  • A methodology for the seismic vulnerability assessment of historical monuments is presented in this paper. The ongoing work has been conducted in Tunisia within the framework of the FP6 European Union project (WIND-CHIME) on the use of appropriate modern seismic protective systems in the conservation of Mediterranean historical buildings in earthquake-prone areas. The case study is the five-century-old Zaouia of Sidi Kassem Djilizi, located downtown Tunis, the capital of Tunisia. Ambient vibration tests were conducted on the case study using a number of force-balance accelerometers placed at selected locations. The Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD) technique was applied to extract the dynamic characteristics of the monument. A 3-D finite element model was developed and updated to obtain reasonable correlation between experimental and numerical modal properties. The set of parameters selected for the updating consists of the modulus of elasticity in each wall element of the finite element model. Seismic vulnerability assessment of the case study was carried out via three-dimensional time-history dynamic analyses of the structure. Dynamic stresses were computed and damage was evaluated according to a masonry specific plane failure criterion. Statistics on the occurrence, location and type of failure provide a general view for the probable damage level and mode. Results indicate a high vulnerability that confirms the need for intervention and retrofit.

Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Incidence in North Tunisia: Negative Trends in Adults but not Adolescents, 1994-2006

  • Wided, Ben Ayoub Hizem;Hamouda, Boussen;Hamadi, Hsairi;Mansour, Ben Abdallah
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2653-2657
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    • 2015
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the second most common neoplasm of head and neck in Tunisia. The distribution is bimodal with a first period occurrence between 15 and 20 years old and a second peak at around 50 years of age. Undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharynx type III (UCNT) is the predominant histological type (93.4%). Data of cancer registry of North Tunisia confirmed that it is an intermediate risk area for NPC with overall ASRs of 3.6 and 1.6/100,000 respectively in males and females. This study aimed to present the evolution of incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma over a period of 12 years (1994-2006). Data of cancer registry of North Tunisia (NTCR), covering half of the Tunisian population, were used to determine evolution of NPC incidence, calculated by 5 year periods. The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was used as an estimate of the trend. To best summarize the behavior or the data trend across years, we used a join-point regression program. Between 1994 and 2006, we observed negative annual average change of standardized incidence in men and women (-3.3%and -2.7%) also for the standardized incidences which showed a rather important decline (26.4% in males and 22.3% in females). The truncated age standardized incidence rate of NPC in adults aged of 30 years old and more (N= 1209) decreased by -0.4% per year from 1994 to 2006 over time in north Tunisia dropping from 6.09 to 4.14 person-years. However, the rate was relatively stable during this period among youths aged 0-29 years (N= 233) in both sexes. NPC demonstrated a favorable evolution from 1994-2006 probably due to a improvement in socioeconomic conditions.

Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot in Tunisia: morphological data and status of knowledge

  • Cherif, Wafa;Ktari, Leila;Bour, Monia El;Boudabous, Abdellatif;Grignon-Dubois, Micheline
    • ALGAE
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 2016
  • The Mediterranean Sea is currently facing dramatic changes and threats, including change in native species and accidental introductions. The introduced green alga Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot influences diversity and community structure in some parts of the world. This paper documents the distribution of this species in Tunisia and provides a morphological description of C. fragile subsp. fragile in Northern Tunisia. Results confirm the identity of Tunisian specimens as the invasive subspecies C. fragile subsp. fragile. This is the first morphological characterization of this subspecies in Tunisia.

Use of copper shape memory alloys in retrofitting historical monuments

  • El-Borgi, S.;Neifar, M.;Jabeur, M. Ben;Cherif, D.;Smaoui, H.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.247-259
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    • 2008
  • The potential use of Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMA) in retrofitting historical monuments is investigated in this paper. This study is part of the ongoing work conducted in Tunisia within the framework of the FP6 European Union project (WIND-CHIME) on the use of appropriate modern seismic protective systems in the conservation of Mediterranean historical buildings in earthquake-prone areas. The present investigation consists of a finite element simulation, as a preliminary to an experimental study where a cantilever masonry wall, representing a part of a historical monument, is subjected to monotonic and quasi-static cyclic loadings around a horizontal axis at the base level. The wall was retrofitted with an array of copper SMA wires with different cross-sectional areas. A new model is proposed for heat-treated copper SMAs and is validated based on published experimental results. A series of nonlinear finite element analyses are then performed on the wall for the purpose of assessing the SMA device retrofitting capabilities. Simulation results show an improvement of the wall response for the case of monotonic and quasi-static cyclic loadings.

Type-Specific Human Papillomavirus Distribution in Invasive Squamous Cervical Carcinomas in Tunisia and Vaccine Impact

  • Ennaifer, Emna;Salhi, Faten;Laassili, Thalja;Fehri, Emna;Alaya, Nissaf Ben;Guizani, Ikram;Boubaker, Samir
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6769-6772
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    • 2015
  • Background: High risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the leading cause of cervical cancer (CC) and Pap smear screening has not been successful in preventing CC in Tunisia. HPV vaccination that targets HPV16 and 18 offers a new efficient prevention tool. Identification of HPV types in CC is thus essential to determine the impact of HPV vaccine implementation. The aim of this study is to provide specific data from Tunisia. Materials and Methods: A total of 89 histological confirmed paraffin embedded samples isolated from patients with CC diagnosed between 2001 and 2011 were collected from five medical centres from Northern and Southern Tunisia. HPV DNA was detected using a nested PCR (MY09/MY11-GP5+/GP6+) and genotyping was assessed using a reverse blot line hybridisation assay that enables the detection of 32 HPV types. Results: HPV DNA was detected in all samples. Twelve high risk types were detected; HPV16 and/or 18 were predominant, accounting together for 92.1% of all the CC cases (HPV16: 83.1%). Single infections accounted for 48.8% of the cases and were mostly linked to HPV 16 (32.6%) and less frequently to HPV 18 (2.4%). The other high risk HPV single infections were linked to HPV 35 (4.6%), 45 (4.6%), 58 (2.3%) and 59 (2.3%). Multiple infections with mixing of 2 to 4 genotypes predominately featrued HPV16 and/or 18 with HPV 35 and 45 (96.6 %) and less frequently with HPV 59, 40, 66, 73 and 58. There was no statistically significant variation in the relative distribution of HPV types with age. Conclusions: These results strongly indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccines can have a major impact in preventing CC in Tunisia.

Modal identification and model updating of a reinforced concrete bridge

  • El-Borgi, S.;Choura, S.;Ventura, C.;Baccouch, M.;Cherif, F.
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.83-101
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    • 2005
  • This paper summarizes the application of a rational methodology for the structural assessment of older reinforced concrete Tunisian bridges. This methodology is based on ambient vibration measurement of the bridge, identification of the structure's modal signature and finite element model updating. The selected case study is the Boujnah bridge of the Tunis-Msaken Highway. This bridge is made of a continuous four-span simply supported reinforced concrete slab without girders resting on elastomeric bearings at each support. Ambient vibration tests were conducted on the bridge using a data acquisition system with nine force-balance accelerometers placed at selected locations of the bridge. The Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition technique was applied to extract the dynamic characteristics of the bridge. The finite element model was updated in order to obtain a reasonable correlation between experimental and numerical modal properties. For the model updating part of the study, the parameters selected for the updating process include the concrete modulus of elasticity, the elastic bearing stiffness and the foundation spring stiffnesses. The primary objective of the paper is to demonstrate the use of the Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition technique combined with model updating to provide data that could be used to assess the structural condition of the selected bridge. The application of the proposed methodology led to a relatively faithful linear elastic model of the bridge in its present condition.

Current Status of Fisheries and Aquaculture in Tunisia

  • Bellakhal, Meher;Shel, Abdel Majid
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.54-60
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    • 2008
  • Compared to other North African countries, Tunisia has reached a significant level of fish consumption. The only relevant historical dimension of aquaculture in Tunisia are traditional lagoon management (80,000 ha of lagoon and coastal lakes) and culture of shellfish. Semi-intensive and intensive cultures are relatively new concepts in Tunisia and only recently also the public sector is involved. The Tunisian fishing industry has expanded over the last 20 years and annual catches at present are more than four times those registered in mid-fifties. Production of the year 2007 reached 105 thousand tons against 111 thousand tons during the same period of 2006 thus recording a fall of 5%. Unfavorable weather conditions mainly during the last quarter year had the effect to reduce the number of days out at sea. Exports reached 24.3 thousand tons for one value 240.5 MD against respectively 22.2 thousand tons and 234.1 thus recording MD at the end of the past year a rise of 9% in volume and from 3% in value. Commercial value such as shellfish - consequence of one regression of the production - with in parallel raises blue fish exports. The imports were stabilized in volume of 39.1 thousand tons and increased from 6% in value with respectively 67.4 MD in 2007 against 63.7 MD at the end of 2006. The importation in larger quantities of intended fish to the fattening of tuna in floating cages explains partly this rise. Nevertheless, the pay of balance import/export of produced fishing remains positive with a surplus of 173.1 MD against 170.4 MD in 2006.

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Novel design of interdigitated electrodes for piezoelectric transducers

  • Jemai, Ahmed;Najar, Fehmi
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.369-382
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    • 2018
  • Novel design of interdigitated electrodes capable of increasing the performance of piezoelectric transducers are proposed. The new electrodes' geometry improve the electromechanical coupling by offering an enhanced adaptation of the electric field to the interdigitated electrode configuration. The proposed analysis is based on finite element modeling and takes into account local polarization effect. It is shown that the proposed electrodes considerably increase the strain generation compared to flat electrode arrangement used for Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) and Active Fiber Composite (AFC) actuators. Also, electric field singularities are reduced allowing better reliability of the transducer against electric failure.

Glioma Epidemiology in the Central Tunisian Population: 1993-2012

  • Trabelsi, Saoussen;Brahim, Dorra H'mida-Ben;Ladib, Mohamed;Mama, Nadia;Harrabi, Imed;Tlili, Kalthoum;Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar;Krifa, Hedi;Hmissa, Sihem;Saad, Ali;Mokni, Moncef
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8753-8757
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    • 2014
  • Background: Glioma is a heterogeneous central nervous system (CNS) tumor group that encompasses different histological subtypes with high variability in prognosis. The lesions account for almost 80% of primary malignant brain tumors. The aim of this study is to extend our understanding of the glioma epidemiology in the central Tunisian region. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 393 gliomas recorded in cancer registry of central Tunisia from 1993 to 2012. Crude incidence rates (CR) and world age-standardized rates (ASR) were estimated using annual population data size and age structure. Statistic correlations were established using Chi-square and Kaplan-Meier test. Results: Tunisian glioma patients were identified with a mean age at diagnosis of 48 years and 1.5 sex ratio (male/female). During the 19 years period of study the highest incidence value was observed in male group between 1998 and 2002 (CR: 0.28, ASR: 0.3). Incidence results underline increasing high grade glioma occurring in the adulthood in the last period (2007-2012). Median survival was 27 months, with 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates of 42%, 30% and 26%, respectively. Survival was greater in patients with younger age, lower tumor grade, infratentrial tumor location and undergoing a palliative treatment. Conclusions: This central Tunisia gliomas registry study provides important information that could improve glioma management and healthcare practice.