• Title, Summary, Keyword: Turnaround time

Search Result 71, Processing Time 0.058 seconds

The Changes of 18th Century Costume Depicted in the Portraitures of Painter Jacques-Louis David in Light of the Ideological Transition (화가 Jacques-Louis David의 초상화에 묘사된 18세기말 남·여 복식의 변화와 사상적(思想的) 조류(潮流))

  • Bae, Soo-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
    • /
    • v.63 no.2
    • /
    • pp.82-97
    • /
    • 2013
  • The aim of this thesis is to investigate the change of men and women's costumes in late 18th century and early 19th century in view of its ideological streams by examining the portraits of the painter Jacques-Louis David. The method of investigation used was to select 29 pieces of portraits from 1766 to 1825, which showed the clear descriptions about the costumes and to analyze the costume's forms, ornaments and the headdress. The category was divided into 3 stages in terms of the changes in costume. The first stage, from 1766 until 1788, is the one of turnaround from the Rococo costume to the early neoclassical one. The typical Rococo costume was incrementally transformed into a simpler design without ornaments, and then natural silhouette in men and women's costumes started to appear from 1783 until 1788. This might be attributed to the neoclassical trend which was affected by the enlightenment ideology. The second stage, from 1788 until 1795, is the period of change from the costume of the early neoclassic style to the typical neoclassic style and also the time from the 1793 to 1795 was regarded as the peak of neoclassic style when the effect of enlightenment began to decrease while one of neoclassicism exerted its strong influence on the costume. The third stage, from 1795 until 1825, similar to the previous neoclassical style was also notable in its turning into producing the empire dress of Empire style. From 1820 on, it was a period that showed signs of influence from romanticism while the effect of neoclassicism started to become more diminished.

Modeling and Optimization of High Strength Wastewater Treatment Using the Electro Oxidation Process (전기산화공법을 이용한 고농도폐수 처리공정의 모델링 및 최적화)

  • Lee, Hongmin;Lee, Sangsun;Hwang, Sungwon;Jin, Dongbok
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.54 no.3
    • /
    • pp.340-349
    • /
    • 2016
  • Electro oxidation system was designed in this study for the reduction of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) from high-strength wastewater, produced during refinery turnaround period. First, BDD (Boron Doped Diamond) electrode was synthesized and electro oxidation system of actual industrial wastewater was developed by adopting the synthesized BDD electrode. The experiments were carried out under various operating conditions under certain range of current density, pH, electrolyte concentration and reaction time. Secondly, reaction kinetics were identified based on the experimental results, and the kinetics were embedded into a genetic mathematical model of the electro oxidation system. Lastly, design and operating parameters of the process were optimized to maximize the efficiency of the pretreatment system. The coefficient of determination ($R^2$) of the model was found to be 0.982, and it proved high accuracy of the model compared with experimental results.

The Effect of Addition of Egg Yolk and Sucrose on the pH and Specific Gravity for Boated Egg Albumen -Results of Mixed Form from Yolk, Albumen 191g and 222g, and Sucrose 150g- (난백의 가열처리에 있어서 난황과 자당 첨가가 pH 및 비중의 변화에 미치는 영향 -난황, 난백 191g과 222g 및 자당 150g의 혼합시-)

  • 하정기;황보종;양기원;황경규
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.19 no.4
    • /
    • pp.197-204
    • /
    • 1992
  • This study was divided into experiment 1(191 g egg-albumen plus 150g sucrose) and experiment 2(222g egg-albumen plus 150g sucrose)which were subdivided into groups treated with 0, 8.71, 17.43 and 26.149 egg yolk. These experiments were incubated in a shaking water bath($50^{\circ}C$ ) with a speed of 92(turnaround) per minute (or a period of times. The pH and specific gravity were measured after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours incubation. The results obtained were as follows : 1. The pH and specific gravity were steadily increased by shaking time, but decreased by the amount of egg yolk. 2. In the groups treated with egg-albumen, egg yolk, and sucrose of experiments 1 and 2, PH was increased by shaking time and reached highest value at 10 hours shaking time. However, after 12 hours shaking time pH slightly decreased though not significantly. 3. In the experiment 1 and 2, specific gravity had a higher correlation with pH and the regression equation between specific gravity and pH (X) were Y=0.1081x+0.272(r=0.899n) and Y=0.083X+0.476(r=0.825$^{* *}$), respectively.y.

  • PDF

Numerical Research on the Lock-in Compensation Method of a Ring Laser Gyroscope for Reducing INS Alignment Time (관성항법장치 초기정렬시간 단축을 위한 링레이저 자이로 lock-in오차 보상방법의 수치해석적인 분석)

  • Shim, Kyu-Min;Jang, Suk-Won;Paik, Bok-Soo;Chung, Tae-Ho;Moon, Hong-Key
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
    • /
    • v.37 no.3
    • /
    • pp.275-282
    • /
    • 2009
  • Generally, the sinusoidal cavity dither is adopted to ring laser gyroscope for eliminating the lock-in which is non-linear effect at the small rotation input. Despite this method, there are some remained errors which are generated at the dither turnaround, and those errors produce random walk which is a general character of a ring laser gyroscope. As one of the numerous research results for compensating these errors, there is a special lock-in compensation method which is the method of error estimation and compensation by comparing the beat signal periods of before and after the dither turnarounds. In this paper, by ring laser gyroscope modeling and numerical analysis, we verified the theoretical validity and confirmed the effectiveness of this method in expectation of the possible beat signal measurement time resolution. As a result, we confirmed the random walk decreases from a-half to a-third by this lock-in compensation method. So, it is expected to be a remarkable method for reducing the INS alignment time.

Effects of variety, region and season on near infrared reflectance spectroscopic analysis of quality parameters in red wine grapes

  • Esler, Michael B.;Gishen, Mark;Francis, I.Leigh;Dambergs, Robert G.;Kambouris, Ambrosias;Cynkar, Wies U.;Boehm, David R.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.1523-1523
    • /
    • 2001
  • The wine industry requires practical methods for objectively measuring the composition of both red wine grapes on the vine to determine optimal harvest time; and of freshly harvested grapes for efficient allocation to vinery process streams for particular red wine products, and to determine payment of contract grapegrowers. To be practical for industry application these methods must be rapid, inexpensive and accurate. In most cases this restricts the analyses available to measurement of TSS (total soluble solids, predominantly sugars) by refractometry and pH by electropotentiometry. These two parameters, however, do not provide a comprehensive compositional characterization for the purpose of winemaking. The concentration of anthocyanin pigment in red wine grapes is an accepted indicator of potential wine quality and price. However, routine analysis for total anthocyanins is not considered as a practical option by the wider wine industry because of the high cost and slow turnaround time of this multi-step wet chemical laboratory analysis. Recent work by this ${group}^{l,2}$ has established the capability of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to provide rapid, accurate and simultaneous measurement of total anthocyanins, TSS and pH in red wine grapes. The analyses may be carried out equally well using either research grade scanning spectrometers or much simpler reduced spectral range portable diode-array based instrumentation. We have recently expanded on this work by collecting thousands of red wine grape samples in Australia. The sample set spans two vintages (1999 and 2000), five distinct geographical winegrowing regions and three main red wine grape varieties used in Australia (Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz and Merlot). Homogenized grape samples were scanned in diffuse reflectance mode on a FOSE NIR Systems6500 spectrometer and subject to laboratory analysis by the traditional methods for total anthocyanins, TSS and pH. We report here an analysis of the correlations between the NIR spectra and the laboratory data using standard chemometric algorithms within The Unscrambler software package. In particular, various subsets of the total data set are considered in turn to elucidate the effects of vintage, geographical area and grape variety on the measurement of grape composition by NIR spectroscopy. The relative ability of discrete calibrations to predict within and across these differences is considered. The results are then used to propose an optimal calibration strategy for red wine grape analysis.

  • PDF

A Study on the Mathematical Programming Approach to the Subway Routing Problem (지하철 차량운용 문제에 대한 수리적 해법에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kyung-Min;Hong, Soon-Heum
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.1731-1737
    • /
    • 2007
  • This paper considers subway routing problem. Given a schedule of train to be routed by a railway stock, the routing problem determines a sequence of trains while satisfying turnaround time and maintenance restrictions. Generally, the solution of routing problem is generated from set partition formulation solved by column generation method, a typical integer programming approach for train-set. However, we find the characteristics of metropolitan subway which has a simple rail network, a few end stations and 13 departure-arrival patterns. We reflect a turn-around constraint due to spatial limitations has no existence in conventional railroad. Our objective is to minimize the number of daily train-sets. In this paper, we develop two basic techniques that solve the subway routing problem in a reasonable time. In first stage, we formulate the routing problem as a Min-cost-flow problem. Then, in the second stage, we attempt to normalize the distance covered to each routes and reduce the travel distance using our heuristic approach. Applied to the current daily timetable, we could find the subway routings, which is an approximately 14% improvement on the number of train-sets reducing 15% of maximum traveling distance and 8% of the standard deviation.

  • PDF

A File System for User Special Functions using Speed-based Prefetch in Embedded Multimedia Systems (임베디드 멀티미디어 재생기에서 속도기반 미리읽기를 이용한 사용자기능 지원 파일시스템)

  • Choe, Tae-Young;Yoon, Hyeon-Ju
    • Journal of KIISE:Computing Practices and Letters
    • /
    • v.14 no.7
    • /
    • pp.625-635
    • /
    • 2008
  • Portable multimedia players have some different properties compared to general multimedia file server. Some of those properties are single user ownership, relatively low hardware performance, I/O burst by user special functions, and short software development cycles. Though suitable for processing multiple user requests at a time, the general multimedia file systems are not efficient for special user functions such as fast forwards/backwards. Soml' methods has been proposed to improve the performance and functionality, which the application programs give prediction hints to the file system. Unfortunately, they require the modification of all applications and recompilation. In this paper, we present a file system that efficiently supports user special functions in embedded multimedia systems using file block allocation, buffer-cache, and prefetch. A prefetch algorithm, SPRA (SPeed-based PRefetch Algorithm) predicts the next block using I/O patterns instead of hints from applications and it is resident in the file system, so doesn't affect application development process. From the experimental file system implementation and comparison with Linux readahead-based algorithms, the proposed system shows $4.29%{\sim}52.63%$ turnaround time and 1.01 to 3,09 times throughput in average.

Rapid Analytical Method of Volatile- and Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Water and their Monitoring in Water Treatment Plants (물 시료 중 휘발성 및 반휘발성 유기물질들의 빠른 분석법 및 정수처리 단계별 모니터링)

  • Shin, Ho-Sang;Ahn, Hye-Sil
    • Analytical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.17 no.3
    • /
    • pp.240-250
    • /
    • 2004
  • A gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) assay method was developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of volatile- and semivolatile organic compounds in water. Two hundreds mL of water sample was extracted in a 250 mL separatory funnel with 1 ml of pentane at pH 6.5. Fluorobenzene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene-d4 as internal standards were added to water sample and the solution was mechanically shaken for 5 min and analyzed by GC-MS (selected ion monitoring) without more any concentration or purification steps. The peaks had good chromatographic properties and the extraction of these compounds from water also gave relatively high recoveries with small variations. The range of detection limits of the assay was 0.5-10 ng/L. Turnaround time for up to about 40 samples was one day. This method is simple, convenient, and can be learned easily by relatively inexperienced personnel. This method was used to analyze 15 volatile- and semivolatile organic compounds in water of a Lake, and raw and treated water from three Water Treatment Plants in Korea. As the analytical results, benzene, toluene, xylene, isopropylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, naphthalene and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol were detected at concentrations of up to 0.4, 1.9, 1.3, 0.2, 1.8, 13.0, 1.7 and $1.1{\mu}g/L$, respectively. But chlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, ethylbenzene, n-butylbenzene and dibromochloropropane levels during that period were not significant. The removal effect of the compounds in three Water Treatment Plants was calculated. The compounds studied were generally removed during conventional water treatment, especially during the active carbon filtration.

The Effect of Addition of Egg Yolk and Sucrose on the pH and Specific Gravity for Heated Egg Albumen (난백의 가열처리에 있어서 난황과 자당 첨가가 pH 및 비중의 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 황경규;양기원;하정기
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.19 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-12
    • /
    • 1992
  • This study was divided into experiment I(129g egg-albumen plus 150g sucrose) and experiment II(161g egg-albumen plus 150g sucrose) which were subdivided into groups treated with 0, 8.71, 17.43 and 26.149 egg yolk. These experiments were incubated in a shaking water bath(5$0^{\circ}C$) with a speed of 92(turnaround) per minute for a period of times. The pH and specific gravity were measured after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hour incubations. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The pH and specific gravity were steadily increased by shaking time, but variably was influenced by the amount of egg yolk and egg-albumen. 2. In the groups treated with egg-albumen, egg yolk, and sucrose of experiments I and II, pH was increased by the amount of egg-albumen in conjunction with shaking time, but specific gravity was decreased. 3. Ten hours after shaking maximum pH 8.60 was shown in the groups treated with 161g egg-albumen : however, in :he groups treated with 129g egg-albumen the maximum pH 8.39 was shown 12 hours after shaking. The different time exhibited maximum pH resulted from the amount of egg-albumen used. 4. The pH specific gravity were higher in the ,groups treated without egg yolk than in the groups with egg yolk. 5. In the experiment I which was added four levels of egg yolk to 1509 of sucrose and 129g of egg albumen, specific gravity(Table 2) had a high (r=0.9692$^{* *}$) correlation with pH (Table 1) and the regression equation between specific gravity and pH (X) was Y=0.050+0.145x. 6. In the experiment II which was added four levels of egg yolk to 150g of sucrose and 161g of egg albumen, specific gravity(Table 4) had a high (r=0.8963$^{* *}$) correlation with pH (Table 3) and the regression equation between specific gravity and pH (X) was Y=0.294+0.110X.10X.

  • PDF

Recent research activities on hybrid rocket in Japan

  • Harunori, Nagata
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.1-2
    • /
    • 2011
  • Hybrid rockets have lately attracted attention as a strong candidate of small, low cost, safe and reliable launch vehicles. A significant topic is that the first commercially sponsored space ship, SpaceShipOne vehicle chose a hybrid rocket. The main factors for the choice were safety of operation, system cost, quick turnaround, and thrust termination. In Japan, five universities including Hokkaido University and three private companies organized "Hybrid Rocket Research Group" from 1998 to 2002. Their main purpose was to downsize the cost and scale of rocket experiments. In 2002, UNISEC (University Space Engineering Consortium) and HASTIC (Hokkaido Aerospace Science and Technology Incubation Center) took over the educational and R&D rocket activities respectively and the research group dissolved. In 2008, JAXA/ISAS and eleven universities formed "Hybrid Rocket Research Working Group" as a subcommittee of the Steering Committee for Space Engineering in ISAS. Their goal is to demonstrate technical feasibility of lowcost and high frequency launches of nano/micro satellites into sun-synchronous orbits. Hybrid rockets use a combination of solid and liquid propellants. Usually the fuel is in a solid phase. A serious problem of hybrid rockets is the low regression rate of the solid fuel. In single port hybrids the low regression rate below 1 mm/s causes large L/D exceeding a hundred and small fuel loading ratio falling below 0.3. Multi-port hybrids are a typical solution to solve this problem. However, this solution is not the mainstream in Japan. Another approach is to use high regression rate fuels. For example, a fuel regression rate of 4 mm/s decreases L/D to around 10 and increases the loading ratio to around 0.75. Liquefying fuels such as paraffins are strong candidates for high regression fuels and subject of active research in Japan too. Nakagawa et al. in Tokai University employed EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) to modify viscosity of paraffin based fuels and investigated the effect of viscosity on regression rates. Wada et al. in Akita University employed LTP (Low melting ThermoPlastic) as another candidate of liquefying fuels and demonstrated high regression rates comparable to paraffin fuels. Hori et al. in JAXA/ISAS employed glycidylazide-poly(ethylene glycol) (GAP-PEG) copolymers as high regression rate fuels and modified the combustion characteristics by changing the PEG mixing ratio. Regression rate improvement by changing internal ballistics is another stream of research. The author proposed a new fuel configuration named "CAMUI" in 1998. CAMUI comes from an abbreviation of "cascaded multistage impinging-jet" meaning the distinctive flow field. A CAMUI type fuel grain consists of several cylindrical fuel blocks with two ports in axial direction. The port alignment shifts 90 degrees with each other to make jets out of ports impinge on the upstream end face of the downstream fuel block, resulting in intense heat transfer to the fuel. Yuasa et al. in Tokyo Metropolitan University employed swirling injection method and improved regression rates more than three times higher. However, regression rate distribution along the axis is not uniform due to the decay of the swirl strength. Aso et al. in Kyushu University employed multi-swirl injection to solve this problem. Combinations of swirling injection and paraffin based fuel have been tried and some results show very high regression rates exceeding ten times of conventional one. High fuel regression rates by new fuel, new internal ballistics, or combination of them require faster fuel-oxidizer mixing to maintain combustion efficiency. Nakagawa et al. succeeded to improve combustion efficiency of a paraffin-based fuel from 77% to 96% by a baffle plate. Another effective approach some researchers are trying is to use an aft-chamber to increase residence time. Better understanding of the new flow fields is necessary to reveal basic mechanisms of regression enhancement. Yuasa et al. visualized the combustion field in a swirling injection type motor. Nakagawa et al. observed boundary layer combustion of wax-based fuels. To understand detailed flow structures in swirling flow type hybrids, Sawada et al. (Tohoku Univ.), Teramoto et al. (Univ. of Tokyo), Shimada et al. (ISAS), and Tsuboi et al. (Kyushu Inst. Tech.) are trying to simulate the flow field numerically. Main challenges are turbulent reaction, stiffness due to low Mach number flow, fuel regression model, and other non-steady phenomena. Oshima et al. in Hokkaido University simulated CAMUI type flow fields and discussed correspondence relation between regression distribution of a burning surface and the vortex structure over the surface.

  • PDF