• Title, Summary, Keyword: ULN

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Normal antistreptolysin O titers of children by age group in the Gyeonggi-Incheon region (경인지역에서 조사한 소아의 연령별 antistreptolysin O 역가)

  • Lee, Jihun;Kim, Yoo Jung;Bin, Joong Hyun;Hwang, Ja Young;Hahn, Seong Hoon;Kim, So Young;Kim, Hyun Hee;Lee, Wonbae
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.50 no.10
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    • pp.965-969
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : Measurement of antistreptolysin O (ASO) is often necessary to confirm a clinical diagnosis of recent streptococcal infection, especially in patients suspected of rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis. Standard normal ranges for ASO should be established locally for each age group. We analyzed ASO to determine the upper limit of normal (ULN) ASO in children in the Gyeonggi-Incheon area. Methods : ASO in normal individual concentrations were measured quantitatively by nephelometry on sera from 753 children (Male : 381, Female : 372). ULN were determined by separating the upper 20% from the lower 80% of the group (80 percentile). Results : The mean ASO concentration calculated in a total cases was $149.9{\pm}7.2IU/mL$. The ASO concentration in neonates was $83.4{\pm}10.7IU/mL$, and lowest in the 1 year of age group, $26.7{\pm}6.6IU/mL$, and increased to $318.0{\pm}33.2IU/mL$ gradually in the 9 years of age group. Thereafter, ASO concentration decreased. The ULN for neonates was 122 IU/mL, for 0-3 years, 40 IU/mL; for 4-6 years, 113 IU/ mL; for 7-9 years, 489 IU/mL; for 10-19 years, 433 IU/mL; for 20-29 years, 122 IU/mL. Conclusion : The age-specific ULN for children in the Gyeonggi-Incheon area were determined. The distribution of ASO concentration according to age groups was different from previous reports. These results should be of clinical value to physicians to interprete the ASO results of their patients.

Lamivudine Therapy Exacerbates Bilirubinemia in Patients Underlying Severely Advanced Hepatitis

  • Choi, Young Hee;Lee, Chang Ho;Ko, Myong Suk;Han, Hyun Joo;Kim, Sang Geon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.343-350
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    • 2017
  • Lamivudine belongs to the set of antiviral agents effective against hepatitis B virus infection. Given case reports on liver injuries after certain antiviral agent treatments, this study examined the effects of lamivudine on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin (TB) using a medical system database. A total of 1,321 patients taking lamivudine alone or with others were evaluated using laboratory hits in an electronic medical system at Seoul National University Hospital from 2005 through 2011. The patients were grouped according to prior ALT results: G#1, ALT < 40 IU/L; G#2, 40 IU/L ${\leq}$ ALT < 120 IU/L; G#3, 120 IU/L ${\leq}$ ALT < 240 IU/L; and G#4, ALT ${\geq}$ 240 IU/L. In G#1 and G#2 patients, lamivudine or adefovir treatment decreased ALT and TB compared to prior values. In G#3 and G#4 patients with three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) ${\leq}$ ALT < 15 times the ULN, both ALT and TB were decreased after treatment with lamivudine alone, or adefovir following lamivudine therapy, indicating that lamivudine therapy ameliorated liver functions. However, in G#4 patients who experienced severely advanced hepatitis (ALT ${\geq}$ 15 times the ULN, or ${\geq}$ 600 IU/L), lamivudine augmented TBmax ($6.3{\rightarrow}13.3mg/dL$) despite a slight improvement in ALT ($839{\rightarrow}783IU/L$), indicative of exacerbation of bilirubinemia. Patients who used adefovir after lamivudine also showed a high incidence of hyperbilirubinemia when they experienced severely advanced hepatitis. Treatment with adefovir alone did not show the effect. In conclusion, lamivudine may increase the risk of hyperbilirubinemia in patients with severely advanced hepatitis, implying that caution should be exercised when using lamivudine therapy in certain patient populations.

An Optimization Method Wsing Simulated Annealing for Universal Learning Network

  • Murata, Junichi;Tajiri, Akihito;Hirasawa, Kotaro;Ohbayashi, Masanao
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.183-186
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    • 1995
  • A method is presented for optimization of Universal Learning Networks (ULN), where, together with gradient method, Simulated Annealing (SA) is employed to elude local minima. The effectiveness of the method is shown by its application to control of a crane system.

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Prognostic Factors for Overall Survival in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma Treated With Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Targeting Agents

  • Cetin, Bulent;Kaplan, Mehmet Ali;Berk, Veli;Ozturk, Selcuk Cemil;Benekli, Mustafa;Isikdogan, Abdurrahman;Ozkan, Metin;Coskun, Ugur;Buyukberber, Suleyman
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.1059-1063
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    • 2012
  • Objective: Angiogenesis represents a key element in the pathogenesis of malignancy. There are no robust data on prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted therapy. The present study was conducted to establish a prognostic model for patients using an oxaliplatin-based or irinotecan-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer. Methods: Baseline characteristics and outcomes on 170 patients treated with FOLFIRI or XELOX plus anti-VEGF therapy-naive metastatic colorectal cancer were collected from three Turkey cancer centers. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify independent prognostic factors for OS. Results: The median OS for the whole cohort was 19 months (95% CI, 14.3 to 23.6 months). Three of the seven adverse prognostic factors according to the Anatolian Society of Medical Oncology (ASMO) were independent predictors of short survival: serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) greater than the upper limit of normal (ULN; p<0.001); neutrophils greater than the ULN (p<0.0014); and progression free survival (PFS) less than 6 months (p =0.001). Conclusion: Serum LDH and neutrophil levels were the main prognostic factors in predicting survival, followed by PFS. This model validates incorporation of components of the ASMO model into patient care and clinical trials that use VEGF-targeting agents.

Experimental Investigations on the Fatigue Strength of the Submarine Pressure Hull (잠수함 압력선체의 피로강도에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Uln-Yeon;Kim, Kuk-Bin;Jeon, Jae-Hwang
    • Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2010
  • Submarine and deep sea diving structures are generally designed based on their ultimate strength. Fatigue strength at welded joint must be also taken into account because working stress is increased due to the increasing of diving depth and using high yield steel. The pressure hulls of submarine are subjected to fluctuating compressive loading. But in addition to the calculated stresses, high residual tensile stresses at welded part have to be considered. The state of stress level of pressure hull is tensile at surface and compressive at deep diving depth. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the crack initiation and growth at the weld toe of T welded joints of HY-100 steel plate under constant amplitude loading. It is also investigated the phenomenon of the fatigue failure and test methods. Fatigue tests have been using real scaled local structural models of full penetration T-welded joint, which is a part of the cylindrical shell structures reinforced by ring stiffeners. Several load ratios under constant amplitude loading are considered in the tests. Crack initiation and growth characteristics are examined based on the beach marks of the cracked section of the test specimens. A design stress-life curve including the design formula is suggested according to tested data.

The Short Term Efficacy of Entecavir Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis B (만성 B형 간염 환자에서 엔테카비어의 단기 치료 효과)

  • Kim, Hyun;Chae, Hee-Bok;Jeon, Won-Joong;Park, Seon-Mee;Youn, Sei-Jin;Eun, Jong-Ryul;Lee, Heon-Ju
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 2008
  • Background/Aims : Entecavir is a synthetic nucleoside analogue, cyclopentyl guanine nucleoside, which has a potent antiviral effect and the least viral breakthrough in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. Entecavir has been available in Korea since 2007 but there are few reports on its effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the virological response (VR) and biochemical response (BR) to entecavir in HBV patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after treatment with entecavir. Materials and Methods : Thirty-three chronic hepatitis B patients who took entecavir for at least 9 months were enrolled. We investigated VR and BR by retrospectively reviewing medical records. Patients who satisfied the following criteria were chosen: 1) initial alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels = 1.5upper limit of normal (ULN) and 2) initial HBV DNA levels = $5\;log_{10}\;copies/ml$. We measured ALT levels every 3 months until month 9. HBV DNA was measured every 2 or 3 months by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Results : Most patients taking entecavir showed good BR (ALT < 40 IU/L). The BR rates were 61%, 73% and 67% at months 3, 6 and 9, respectively. VR (HBV DNA < $5\;log_{10}\;copies/ml$ or 2 log lower than initial HBV DNA) rates were 82%, 91% and 91% at months 3, 6 and 9, respectively. Undetectable HBV DNA (HBV DNA < 4 log10 copies/ml) rates were 49%, 73% and 85% at months 3, 6 and 9, respectively. Two patients presented with virological breakthrough without adverse effects until month 9. Conclusions : Entecavir showed good BR and VR from month 3 and these effects continued through the 9-month observation period. This suggests that entecavir is also a good choice for the first line treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Further studies are needed to determine the long-term efficacy and drug resistance of entecavir in Korean CHB patients.

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