• Title, Summary, Keyword: Uncertainty and volatility

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A Study on the Impact of Oil Price Volatility on Korean Macro Economic Activities : An EGARCH and VECM Approach (국제유가의 변동성이 한국 거시경제에 미치는 영향 분석 : EGARCH 및 VECM 모형의 응용)

  • Kim, Sang-Su
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.11 no.10
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2013
  • Purpose - This study examines the impact of oil price volatility on economic activities in Korea. The new millennium has seen a deregulation in the crude oil market, which invited immense capital inflow into Korea. It has also raised oil price levels and volatility. Drawing on the recent theoretical literature that emphasizes the role of volatility, this paper attends to the asymmetric changes in economic growth in response to the oil price movement. This study further examines several key macroeconomic variables, such as interest rate, production, and inflation. We come to the conclusion that oil price volatility can, in some part, explain the structural changes. Research design, data, and methodology - We use two methodological frameworks in this study. First, in regards to the oil price uncertainty, we use an Exponential-GARCH (Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity: EGARCH) model estimate to elucidate the asymmetric effect of oil price shock on the conditional oil price volatility. Second, along with the estimation of the conditional volatility by the EGARCH model, we use the estimates in a VECM (Vector Error Correction Model). The study thus examines the dynamic impacts of oil price volatility on industrial production, price levels, and monetary policy responses. We also approximate the monetary policy function by the yield of monetary stabilization bond. The data collected for the study ranges from 1990: M1 to 2013: M7. In the VECM analysis section, the time span is split into two sub-periods; one from 1990 to 1999, and another from 2000 to 2013, due to the U.S. CFTC (Commodity Futures Trading Commission) deregulation on the crude oil futures that became effective in 2000. This paper intends to probe the relationship between oil price uncertainty and macroeconomic variables since the structural change in the oil market became effective. Results and Conclusions - The dynamic impulse response functions obtained from the VECM show a prolonged dampening effect of oil price volatility shock on the industrial production across all sub-periods. We also find that inflation measured by CPI rises by one standard deviation shock in response to oil price uncertainty, and lasts for the ensuing period. In addition, the impulse response functions allude that South Korea practices an expansionary monetary policy in response to oil price shocks, which stems from oil price uncertainty. Moreover, a comparison of the results of the dynamic impulse response functions from the two sub-periods suggests that the dynamic relationships have strengthened since 2000. Specifically, the results are most drastic in terms of industrial production; the impact of oil price volatility shocks has more than doubled from the year 2000 onwards. These results again indicate that the relationships between crude oil price uncertainty and Korean macroeconomic activities have been strengthened since the year2000, which resulted in a structural change in the crude oil market due to the deregulation of the crude oil futures.

Effects of Wind Generation Uncertainty and Volatility on Power System Small Signal Stability

  • Shi, Li-Bao;Kang, Li;Yao, Liang-Zhong;Qin, Shi-Yao;Wang, Rui-Ming;Zhang, Jin-Ping
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.60-70
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    • 2014
  • This paper discusses the impacts of large scale grid-connected wind farm equipped with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) on power system small signal stability (SSS) incorporating wind generation uncertainty and volatility. Firstly, a practical simplified PMSG model with rotor-flux-oriented control strategy applied is derived. In modeling PMSG generator side converter, the generator-voltage-oriented control strategy is utilized to implement the decoupled control of active and reactive power output. In modeling PMSG grid side converter, the grid-voltage-oriented control strategy is applied to realize the control of DC link voltage and the reactive power regulation. Based on the Weibull distribution of wind speed, the Monte Carlo simulation technique based is carried out on the IEEE 16-generator-68-bus test system as benchmark to study the impacts of wind generation uncertainty and volatility on small signal stability. Finally, some preliminary conclusions and comments are given.

Dynamic Relationship between Stock Prices and Exchange Rates: Evidence from Nepal

  • Kim, Do-Hyun;Subedi, Shyam;Chung, Sang-Kuck
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.123-144
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    • 2016
  • This paper investigates the linkages between returns both in foreign exchange and stock markets, and uncertainties in two markets using daily data for the period of 16 July 2004 to 30 June 2014 in Nepalese economy. Four hypotheses are tested about how uncertainty influences the stock index and exchange rates. From the empirical results, a bivariate EGARCH-M model is the best to explain the volatility in the two markets. There is a negative relationship from the exchange rates return to stock price return. Empirical results do provide strong empirical confirmation that negative effect of stock index uncertainty and positive effect of exchange rates uncertainty on average stock index. GARCH-in-mean variables in AR modeling are significant and shows that there is positive effect of exchange rates uncertainty and negative effect of stock index uncertainty on average exchange rates. Stock index shocks have longer lived effects on uncertainty in the stock market than exchange rates shock have on uncertainly in the foreign exchange market. The effect of the last period's shock, volatility is more sensitive to its own lagged values.

Analysis of Staple Food Price Behaviour: Multivariate BEKK-GARCH Model

  • Jati, Kumara;Premaratne, Gamini
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.27-37
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    • 2017
  • This study examines the behaviour of staple food price using Multivariate BEKK-GARCH Model. Understanding of staple food price behaviour is important for determining the unpredictability of staple food market and also for policy making. In this paper, we focus on the commodity prices of sugar, rice, soybean and wheat to examine the volatility behaviour of those commodities. The empirical results show that the own-volatility spillover are relatively significant for all food prices. The own-volatility spillover effect for sugar price is relatively large compared with the volatility spillover of other staple food commodities. The findings also highlight that the price volatility of wheat increases during food crisis more than it does when the condition is stable. Also, the own-volatility of rice and wheat in the period of the food crisis is significant and higher compared to the period before food crisis indicates that the past own-volatility effects during food crisis are relatively more difficult to predict because of the uncertainty and high price volatility. Policy recommendations that can be proposed based on the findings are: (1) a better trade agreement in food commodity trade, (2) lower the dependence on wheat importation in Indonesia, and (3) reliable system to minimize food price volatility risks.

Effects of Exchange Rate Risk and Industrial Activity Uncertainty on Import Container Volume in Korea (환위험과 경기 불확실성이 우리나라의 수입물동량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Chang-Beom
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.88-100
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    • 2010
  • This paper investigates the influence of industrial activity volatility and exchange rate volatility on import container volume of the Korea during the 1999:1- 2010:9. Conditional variance from the GARCH(1, 1) model is applied as the volatility. The Johansen multivariate cointegration method and the error correction (general-to-specific) method are applied to study the relationship between import volume and its determinants. The empirical results show that volatility has statistically significant negative effect on import volume.

Impacts of Increasing Volatility of Profitability on Investment Behavior (수익변동성 확대와 설비투자 위축)

  • LIM, Kyung-Mook
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-31
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    • 2008
  • Various opinions have been suggested to explain the slump in equipment investment, such as increased government regulations, shareholder-oriented management by expanded foreign equity investment, response against M&A threats, conservative investment trends seen after a series of bankruptcy of large conglomerates (amidst crumbling myth of "Too Big to Fail"), and financial restructuring. Some also argued that the increased uncertainty in business environment is mainly responsible for conservative management, though there are few domestic studies made regarding the situation. But, in other countries, including the U.S., studies have shown that more volatility is seen now surrounding stock prices, profitability, and sales growth rate reflecting business performance. Also, there are other studies showing such expanded volatility have led to conservative management by businesses. In this regard, this study reviews the volatility conditions of business performance of Korean companies based on profitability, and then attempts to analyze the impact on investment brought on by increased volatility. Each company's profitability volatility used here is from the standard deviation of companies for the past five years. As a profitability indicator, the ROA (= operating profit/total asset) is used. According to the analysis, profitability volatility has remarkably increased from the mid 3% in 1994 to low 5% in 2005. Profitability volatility of the Korean companies has expanded to a great extent since the financial crisis. The crisis might have served to raise the volatility in the macroeconomic conditions. If increased volatility observed during the economic crisis had gradually declined after the crisis, the situation could be interpreted as a temporary phenomenon, not to be too concerned over. But, this was not the case for Korea. The volatility level, after the crisis, has not dropped back to its pre-crisis level. Hence, in the Korea's case, high volatility cannot be explained by the impact of financial crisis. Not only that, the fact that such expansion is seen in every industrial sector indicates that this phenomenon cannot be explained by the composition change of industries alone. An undergoing study shows that with a rapid spread of globalization, industries fiercely competing with China experience more volatility. Such increased volatility tends to contract investment, and since the crisis the impact of volatility on investment has slightly increased. It is noteworthy that this study only includes a part of 'uncertainty' that could be measured statistically. For instance, the profitability volatility indicator used in this study is unable to reflect all the effects that the tacit reduction of protection by the government or regulations might have made. So, the result here also indicates that other 'uncertain' factors not mentioned in this study may have served to contract investment sentiment. It would be impossible for policies to completely remove uncertainties measured by profitability volatility, but at least it is necessary to put effort to reduce the macroeconomic volatility in the future economic management. Stabilized macroeconomic management may not be enough to diminish all volatility that occurs within each company, but it would make a meaningful contribution in encouraging investment.

Asymmetric Impacts of Oil Price Uncertainty on Industrial Stock Market -A Quantile Regression Approach - (분위수회귀분석을 이용한 유가 변동성에 대한 산업별 주식시장의 이질적 반응 분석)

  • Joo, Young-Chan;Park, Sung-Yong
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2019
  • This paper investigates the asymmetric effects of crude oil price uncertainty on industrial stock returns under different market conditions (bearish and bullish stock markets). We consider a quantile regression method using monthly oil volatility index, KOSPI and 22 industrial stock indices from May 2007 to February 2019. Especially, we take care of the positive and negative changes of the oil volatility index to analyze asymmetric effects of the oil price uncertainty for the bearish and bullish stock market conditions. During the bearish markets, the oil volatility index has relatively strong statistically significant negative effects on the industrial stock returns. These effects gradually decrease when the market conditions became more bullish markets. In particular, positive changes in the oil volatility index yields a further significant decrease in 12 industrial stock returns during the extreme bearish markets. Moreover, during the bullish markets, negative changes in the oil volatility index have statistically significant negative effects on the 12 industrial stock returns. From the empirical results, we see that participants of the Korean stock market are sensitive to bad news in a recession.

Elaboration of Real Options Model and the Adequacy of Volatility

  • Sung, Tae-Eung;Park, Hyun-Woo
    • Asian Journal of Innovation and Policy
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.225-244
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    • 2017
  • When evaluating the economic value of technology or business project, we need to consider the period and cost for commercialization. Since the discounted cash flow (DCF) method has limitations in that it can not consider consecutive investment or does not reflect the probabilistic property of commercialization cost, we often take it desirable to apply the concept of real options with key metrics of underlying asset value, commercialization cost, and volatility, while regarding the value of technology and investment as the opportunity value. We at this moment provide more elaborated real options model with the effective region of volatility, which reflects the uncertainty in the option pricing model (OPM).

How Does Economic News Affect S&P 500 Index Futures? (거시경제변수가 S&P 500 선물지수에 어떤 영향을 미치는가?)

  • So, Yung-Il;Ko, Jong-Moon;Choi, Won-Kun
    • The Korean Journal of Financial Management
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.341-357
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    • 1996
  • Some empirical studies have shown that asset prices respond to announcements of economic news, however, others also have found little evidence. This study assesses how market participants of the S&P 500 Index Futures reacted to the U.S. economic news announcements. For this purpose, using a GARCH (Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity) model, we use several U.S. news variables, its each surprise component and interest rates. We find that some economic news variables affected significantly on the S&P 500 Index Futures. In other words, we find that weekend variable, lagged volatility, and surprise component of trade deficit increased level of volatility. However, interest rate, M1, unemployment announcements caused the variance of the S&P 500 Index Futures to reduce, and each of the surprise component of M1 and trade deficit increased it. The result suggests that resolution of uncertainty, through economic news announcement, while, in some cases, causes market participants to reduce their forecast of volatility, a large difference between the market's forecast and the realization of the series causes the volatility to increase.

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Economic Policy Uncertainty in the US: Does It Matter for Korea?

  • Lee, Seojin
    • East Asian Economic Review
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.29-54
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    • 2018
  • Using the indicators of economic policy uncertainty developed by Baker et al. (2016), this paper investigates the effects of the US economic policy uncertainty on the Korea economic uncertainty as well as Korea-US foreign exchange risk. The key findings are that: (i) the degree of spillovers of policy uncertainty from the US to Korea is considerable but not comparatively high; (ii) the US policy uncertainty plays a stronger and more consistent role in Korean currency risk than Korea policy uncertainty and other macro variables. It implies that the economic policy uncertainty in the US is an important contributor to Korea-US exchange rates.